• M. O. Otori
  • E. E. Ella
  • M. A. Shaibu
  • V. Ochigbo
  • E. H. Odeke
  • A. S. Abe
  • O. Esew
  • U. O. Edem
  • U. I. Idio
  • J. A. Adudu
  • V. C. Okezie
  • N. Ukwuije
Keywords: Garcinia kola, Phytochemicals, Streptococcus pyogenes, MIC, MBC


Garcinia kola, commonly called bitter kola is known mostly for its antimicrobial potentials. Moreover, Streptococcus pyogenes a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobe, and non-spore forming bacterium that occur in long chains cocci is unique in causing different bacterial infection, hence a need for alternative therapy. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Garcinia kola seed extracts against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes in Zaria, Nigeria. In this study, Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated from throat swabs and sputum of patients with respiratory illnesses attending a selected clinic in Zaria using chocolate agar and further characterized using standard biochemical test. Isolates were stored on agar slants at 40C for further use. Thereafter, aqueous and n-butanol, extraction of dried seeds of Garcinia kola was carried out using Soxhlet extraction method. Phytochemical screening of the extract was determined using standard techniques while antimicrobial activities against the stored bacterium were determined using Kirby Bauer method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were determined using previous standard microbiological technique. Photochemistry of the extract showed the presence of tannin, saponin, alkaloid, phenol, steroids, and flavonoid. Highest (16-28mm) and lowest (6-8mm) antimicrobial activities against the bacteria were observed among n-butanol and aqueous extract respectively while MIC and MBC of n-butanol were 0.31 and 0.63 mg/ml respectively. The antibacterial activities of the extracts observed in this study, justify the use of this plant for the treatment of infections caused by these organism in traditional medicine.


Adegboye, M.F., Akinpelu, D.A. and Okoh, A.I. (2008). The bioactive and Phytochemical properties of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seed extract on some pathogens. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(21):3934-3938.

Adesuyi, A.O., Elumm, I.K., Adaramola, F.B. and Nwokocha, A.G. (2012). Nutritional and Phytochemical Screening of Garcinia kola. Advanced Journal of Food Science and Technology, 4(1):9-14.

Ajebesone, P.E. and Aina, J.O. (2004). Potential African substance for hops in Tropical Beer Brewing. Journal of food Technology in Africa, 9(1):13-16.

Akerele, O.S., Obasuyi, O., Ebomoyi M.I., Oboki, I.E. and Umumarongie, O.H. (2007). Antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract and Fractions of the seeds of Garcinia kola Heckel (Guttiferae). African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(2):169-172.

Akinpelu, D.A and Kolawole, D.O. (2004). Phytochemistry and antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of Piliostigmat honningli (Schum). Science Focus, 7:64-70.

Akoachere, J. F., Ndip, R. N., Chenwi, E. B., Ndip, L. M., Njock, T. E. and Anong, D. N. (2002). Antibacterial effect of Zingiber officinale and Garcinia kola on Respiratory Tract Pathogens. East African Medical Journal, 79(11):588-592.

Aladesanmi, A.J. (2007). Tetrapleura tetraptera: molluscicidal activity and chemical constituents. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 4(1):23-36.

Anegbeh, P.O., Iruka, C. and Nkirika, C. (2006). Enhancing Germination of Bitter kola (Garcinia kola) Heckel: Prospects for Agroforestry Farmers in the Niger Delta. Scientia Africana, 5(1):1-7.

Brooks, G.F., Carrol, K.C., Butel, J.S., Morse, S.A. and Mietziner, T.A. (2013). Jawetz, Melnick and Adelbergs, Medical Microbiology. U.S.A: McGraw Hill Companies Inc. 26th Edition. Pp 209-216.

Cheesbrough, M. (2006). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. United, United Kingdom.

Cole, M.D. (1992). The Significance of Terpenoids in the Labiatae. In R.M. Harley and T. Reynolds (editors). Advance in labiatae Science Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. Pp. 315-324.

Ebana, R. U. B., Maclunagu, B. E., Ekpe, E. D. and Otung, I.W. (1991). Microbiological exploitation of glycosides and alkaloids from Garcinia kola, Borreria ocymoides, Kola nitida and citrus aurantifolia. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 71(5):398-401.

Farombi, E.O., Adepoju, B.F., Ola-Davies, O.E. and Emerole C.O. (2005). Chemoprevention of aflatoxin B1- induced genotoxicity and hepatic oxidative damage in Rats by kola virion a natural biflavonoids of Garcinia kola seeds. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 14 (3):207-214.

Esiegwu, A.C., Okoli, I.C., Emenalom, O.O., Esonu, B.O., and Udedibie, A.B. (2014). The Emerging Nutricitical Benefits of the African Wonder Nut (Garcinia kola Heckel). Journal of Animal Scientific Research, 2(2):1-12.

Esimone, C.O., Adikwu, M.U., Nworu, C.S., Okoye, F. B. and Odimegwu, D. C. (2007). Adaptogenic potentials of Camellia sinensis leaves, Garcinia kola and Kola nitida seeds. Scientific Research and Essays, 2(7): 232-237.

Farombi, E.O. and Owoeye, O. (2011). Antioxidative and Chemopreventive Properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia biflavonoid. International Journal for Environmental Research and Public Health, 8(6):2533–2555.

Ferguson, L.R. (2001). Role of Plant Polyphenols in Genomic Stability. Mutation Research, 475: (1-2)89-111.

Ghamba, P. E., Agbo, E. B., Umar, A. F. and Bukbuk, D. N. (2011). The effects of Diethyl ether and Aqueous Garcinia kola seeds extracts on some bacteria isolates. Academia Arena, 3(2):87-94.

Gill, L.S. (1992). Ethnomedicinal Uses of plants in Nigeria. University of Benin Press, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, Pp. 276.

Gupta, P.C. (2012). Biological and pharmacological properties of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Haritaki). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4(3):62-68

Harborne, J.B. (1998). Phytochemical methods. A guide to modern technique of plant analysis. 3rd Edition. Champman and Hall. London, Pp. 40-107.

Himal, P.C., Nisha, S.Y., Jyoti, S., Anupa, K.C. and Mansoor, S. (2008). Phytochemical and antimicrobial evaluations of some medicinal plants of Nepal. Kathmandu university. Journal of science, engineering and technology, 1:49-54.

Iwu, M.M. (1993). Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. Boca Raton. CTA Press. Pp: 183- 184:437.

Just, M.J., Recio, M.C., Giner, R.M., Cuellar, M.J., Manez, S., Bilia, A.R. and Rios, J.L.(1998). Anti-inflammatory activity of unusual lupine saponins from Bupleurum fruticescens. Plant Medicine, 64: 404-407.

Mahon, C. R., Lehman, D. C., and Manuselis, G. (2015). Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology. Missouri, U.S.A. Saunders Elsevier. 5th Edition. Pp 349-353.

Motar, M.L., Thomas, G. and Barbosa, F.J. (1985). Effects of Anarcardium occidentale stem bark extract on in vivo inflammatory models. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 95(2-3):139-142.

Natural Standard Monograph (2008). Garcinia kola. www. Retrieved on 20th July, 2015.

Olorundare, E.E., Emudianughe, T.S., khasar, G.S., Koteyi, S.A. and Irobi, N. (1992). Antibacterial properties of leave extract of Cassia alata. Biological Research, 4:13-117.

Scalbert, A. (1991). Antimicrobial Properties of Tannins. Photochemistry, 30:3875-3883.

Seanego, C.T. (2012). Phytochemical Analysis and Bioactivity of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds on Selected Bacterial Pathogens. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis. University of Fort Hare, South Africa.

Sofowora, E.A. (1993a). Recent trends in research into African medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 38:209-214.

Sofowora, E.A. (1993b). Medicinal plant and traditional medicine in Africa. (2nd edition). spectrum book, Ibadan, Nigeria. Pp. 261-265.

Sperllerberg, B. and Brandt, C. (2016). Laboratory Diagnosis of Streptococcus pyogene. DOI:, (Retrieved on October 9th, 2018).

Talukdar, A.D., Choudhary, M.D., Chakraborty, M. and Dutta, B.K. (2010). Phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography profiling of plant extracts Cyathea gigantea and Cyathea brunoniana. Journal of Biological and Environmental Sciences, 5(1):70-74

Uhunmwangho, E.J., Okhia, O., Blackies, H.O., Eruotor, O.H. and Uhunmwangho, A. (2014). Antibacterial activities of Garcinia kola on upper respiratory tract isolates from students of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria. International Journal of Herbs and Pharmacological Research, 3(4): 80-83.

Willey, J.M., Sherwood, L.M., Woolverton, C.J. (2014). Presscott, Harley and Kleins Microbiology (9th Edition). McGraw Hill Publishers, New York, Pp. 916-917.

How to Cite
OtoriM. O., EllaE. E., ShaibuM. A., OchigboV., OdekeE. H., AbeA. S., EsewO., EdemU. O., IdioU. I., AduduJ. A., OkezieV. C., & UkwuijeN. (2023). ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA KOLA EXTRACTS AGAINST CLINICAL ISOLATES OF STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES IN ZARIA, NIGERIA. FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, 3(4), 473 - 477. Retrieved from