FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs <p><strong>The <a href="http://www.fudutsinma.edu.ng" target="_blank" rel="noopener">FUDMA</a> Journal of Sciences (FJS) </strong>is a peer-reviewed publication of original research papers, review articles, technical reports and short communications in all aspects in the fields of science and technology such as Chemistry, Earth and atmospheric sciences, Biology in general, Agriculture, Biochemistry, Botany, Microbiology, Environmental Science,&nbsp; Computer Science, Engineering, Physics, Materials Science, Mechanics, Mathematics, Statistics, Nutrition and Food Science, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Polymer and Textile Sciences, Process Modeling and Computational Analysis, Renewable Energy and waste to resource processes.</p> en-US <p>FUDMA Journal of Sciences</p> fjs@fudutsinma.edu.ng (FUDMA Journal of Sciences) editor_fjs@fudutsinma.edu.ng (Dr. Emmanuel Joseph) Tue, 14 Mar 2023 15:16:35 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 MODELING ASSETS PRICING USING PURE JUMP INVERSE-GAUSSIAN PROCESS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1171 <p>In general, stock price changes are rare occurrences, and a Poisson process can be used to describe those price changes. This study focuses on asset price modeling utilizing just jump Inverse-Gaussian processes. The goals are to analyze the price-movement patterns of the stock and gauge its relative volatility using the Inverse-Gaussian jump model. The Inverse-Gaussian jump model was employed to analyze the data. The outcome from Table 2 shows that there are more jumps than zero in the estimation of the inverse Gaussian process. This implies that the stock has been continuously rising. For Nestle Nigeria Limited (628.15), BCC (131.27), NB (110.6), 7UP (79.944), and Guinness (79.944), the average percentage increase in stock price is exceptionally high. The estimated model demonstrates that jump risk can be diversified. It is significantly different for all variables, according to the computed goodness of fit (Chi Square) test. This demonstrates unequivocally that there are daily increases in stock prices. As a result, we draw the conclusion that stock prices have increased recently. The analysis suggests that investors recognize that Nigerian stocks are producing strong returns regardless of stock market trends. To attract more stockholders, more efforts should be made to boost their production.</p> Ianngi Gabriel Ornguga, Saidu Abdulkadir, Emmanuel Torsen, Nelson Pandi Sabo Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1171 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 AN EOQ MODEL FOR ITEMS THAT ARE BOTH AMELIORATING AND DETERIORATING WITH LINEAR INVENTORY LEVEL DEPENDENT DEMAND https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1223 <p>It is normally observed in real life that the volume of stocked items have motivational effect on customers. Stores with large amount of displayed items attract buyers more than stores with scanty items. In this study therefore, we develop an EOQ model for linear inventory level dependent demand for items that undergo both deterioration and amelioration at the same time while at inventory level with no shortage of items. The poultry, fishery, piggery, and so on where the stock increase in weight and/or value within a short time and decrease in volume due to diseases or other factors provide good example. The model determines the best cycle length so as to minimize the overall cost. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the model and a sensitivity analysis carried out to see the effect of changes to some model parameters on the decision variables.</p> Yusuf Ibrahim Gwanda, Umar Muhammad Abubakar, Faisal Adamu Idris Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1223 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 EVALUATION OF THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AND WATER RESISTING CAPACITIES OF LIME STABILIZED SOIL BLOCKS FOR BUILDING CLIMATE RESILIENT STRUCTURES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1172 <p>The compressive strength and water resisting capacities of lime stabilised soil blocks for use in building climate resilient structures were evaluated. Good laterite material, lime of suitable chemical composition and potable water were used for mixing. Six (6) different mix proportions of soil-blocks were produced i.e., 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% lime content in laterite. The dry compressive and wet compressive strengths tests for the blocks produced were measured after the period of 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. Results showed that the 2% lime has an average dry compressive strength ranging between 0.17 to 0.67 N/mm<sup>2</sup> and no wet compressive strength was recorded due to the dissolution of the blocks in water after first day of immersion and 4% lime has an average dry compressive strength ranging from 0.71 to 1.24N/mm<sup>2</sup> and wet compressive strength ranging from 0.76 to 0.49N/mm<sup>2</sup> from day 1 to day 3, while day 7, 14 and 28 dissolved in water. The 6% lime has an average dry compressive strength ranging between 0.58 to 1.96 N/mm<sup>2</sup> and wet compressive strength of 0.67 to 1.47 N/mm<sup>2</sup>. A decrease in average dry and wet compressive strengths was observed for 8%, 10% and 12% lime contents. Therefore, the 6% lime-soil mix ratio gave the highest compressive strength of 1.96 N/mm<sup>2</sup> above the weakest average strength of 1.70 N/mm<sup>2</sup>, specified by the Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, and minimum requirements of 1.75N/mm<sup>2</sup> by the Nigerian National Building Code.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> I. U Mohammed, Mohammed Usman, Farida Ujudud Shariff Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1172 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 CHARACTERIZATION OF BIS-SALICYLALDEHYDE O-PHENYLENEDIAMINE SCHIFF BASE AND ITS DY(III), GD(III), ND(III) AND SM(III) LANTHANOIDS COMPLEXES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1226 <p>Schiff bases have versatile chemical properties and numerous utilities in various industries consequent of their excellent coordination ability with numerous metal ions especially transition metals. To further exploit the chemical versatility of this promising compound, we thoroughly characterize the aged long synthesized Schiff base; Bis-salicylaldehyde o-phenylenediamine (Salphen) and its Lanthanoid (III) complexes of Neodymium, Samarium, Gadolinium and Dysprosium using solubility test, melting and decomposition analysis, FTIR, Uv-visible spectroscopy, conductivity measurement, elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility and NMR. The Salphen ligand was soluble in chloroform and carbon tetra chloride among others while its complexes were not soluble in most common organic solvents tested. The melting point of Salphen was 165<sup>0</sup>C while its Lanthanoid (III) complexes decompose in the range of 210-241<sup>0</sup>C.&nbsp; The FTIR spectral patterns analysis of the ligand and its complexes conforms to fundamental vibration modes within the structure. Salphen and its Lanthanoid (III) complexes had low conductivity and were paramagnetic, non-hygroscopic and formed binuclear bridged structure with Metal: Ligand ratios of 2: 3. Series of characterization undertaken confirmed the formation of the bridged structured complex between Salphen and Lanthanoid (III) ions with high thermal stabilities, insolubility in most common organic solvents and poor electric conductance.</p> SARATU MAHMUD, U. A. Birnin-Yauri, M. G. Liman Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1226 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM IN SOIL AND WATER OF THE WUKARI MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES NATURAL DRAINAGE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1163 <p>Preliminary investigation of Municipal Solid Waste Natural (MSW) drainage for dry season irrigation farming of Amaranths at Angwan Mission Quarters – a densely populated locality known for cultivation of Amaranths due to availability of water and its accessibility to markets was conducted. Amaranths, soil and water samples from three drainage or sampling points was collected (December 2019 - March 2020) to ascertain suitability of drainage soils and water for irrigation of Amaranths. Visual observation and analysis of selected morphological traits (plant colour, plant height (cm), plant girth, leaf area (cm<sup>2</sup>) and number of leaves) for market value was conducted.&nbsp; Physic-chemical analyses of pH, total organic carbon (C), total organic matter (OM), exchangeable bases (K, Na, Ca, Mg), cation exchange capacity (ECEC), moisture content, total nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P),potassium(K) concentrations of the MSW drainage soils and water were&nbsp; determined according to Standard laboratory procedures. Results reveal chlorosis of Amaranths at sampling point 1(Up-Stream) and sampling point 2(Mid-Stream) indicating specific mineral deficiency (such as Iron, magnesium, nitrogen) usually associated with MSW dumpsites. Significant difference (p&lt;0.05) in whole plant height, leaf area, number of leaves and % nitrogen (Up-Stream - 0.11 ± 0.00<sup>a</sup>; Mid-Stream - 0.14 ± 0.01<sup>a</sup> : Low-Stream - 0.16 ± 0.15) reflects abundance water and inadequate nitrogen levels respectively. This study remarked that&nbsp;&nbsp; the drainage points are suitable for dry season vegetable farming and the transition from rural to peri-urban settlement has potentials for continuous utilization of drainage soil and water for large-scale vegetable farming and income generation by the&nbsp;</p> M'ember Catherine Anongo (now Jeyol), C. Gangume, Y. Shehu-Ruga Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1163 Sun, 12 Mar 2023 18:03:26 +0000 REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS BY ADSORBENT PRODUCED FROM KHAYA SENEGALENSIS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1168 <p>Mankind quest for better life has led to advancements in modern technologies which include a number of manufacturing processes and methodologies. Some of these processes and methodologies often release harmful substances into the environment including heavy metals which lead to pollution. These heavy metals are non-biodegradable and therefore need to be removed. Attention has been devoted to emerging technologies which are relatively cheap, for the removal of heavy metal ions from contaminated waters. Adsorption of heavy metal ions using biological materials is one such technologies. As such, the adsorption of Cr(vi), Cd (ii), Zn (ii) and Ni(ii) from synthetic solution by activated carbon from <em>Khaya senegalensis</em> was studied in a batch experiment as a function of pH, metal concentration, adsorbent dose and contact time. Solutions after the batch experiments were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The result revealed dependency of adsorption process on pH. The optimal metal removal occurred at pH 6 for Cd (ii), Zn (ii) and Ni (ii) and 3 for Cr (vi). Maximum adsorption of 82.2 %, 78.9 %, 87.2 % and 83.3 % was attained for Cr (vi), Cd (ii), Zn (ii) and Ni (ii) respectively. Adsorption capacity of the adsorbent improved with initial metal concentration. Ion exchange seemed to be the major mechanism of adsorption in this study. The data collected was were modelled by the Langmuir isotherm over the entire concentration range, suggesting a monolayer coverage. The result showed that, sulphurised <em>Khaya senegalensis</em> is effective in removing heavy metal ions from aqueous solution.</p> Yahaya Alhaji Adamu Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1168 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 MODIFICATION OF AN EXISTING HOLD-ON RICE THRESHER https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1232 <p>Manual paddy threshing using metal drums with attendant low output and high losses is still being widely used in the Kano-Kura rice cluster. An existing stationary Hold-on thresher designed to address these, was modified and evaluated. The thresher was designed taking all peculiar technical considerations. It was then fabricated using available materials. Paddy Faro 44 variety at a mean moisture content of 13 % (w. b.) was used for evaluation in this study.&nbsp; The independent variables consist of three different speeds 500, 600 and 700 rpm and two feed rates of 200 and 300 kg/h were used.&nbsp; Factorial experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. The performance dependent indices used were output capacity, threshing efficiency and cleaning efficiency. The analysis was done using GENSTAT statistical package. It was found out that the effects of variables on the performance indices were highly significant. The mean highest value of the output capacity was 229.09 kg/h at the combination of 700 rpm speed and 300 kg/h feed rate. The mean value obtained for the threshing was 99.99 % and is statistically similar for all the combinations. The cleaning efficiency indicate highest value of 85 % at the combination of 500 rpm speed and 200 kg/h feed rate. T-test for comparison between machine performance and manual threshing showed that the mean value for output capacity, threshing efficiency and cleaning efficiency for the machine are significantly higher than the manual threshing, the, the machine performance has promising prospect.</p> N. D. Dangora, S. K. Shittu, A. I. Muhammad, I. Lawan, A. N. Jibril, U. Muhammad, R. J. Falalu Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1232 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN HADEJIA METROPOLIS, JIGAWA STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1156 <p>Heavy metal content in groundwater sources is of growing concern, as they are known to be persistent in nature and have been found to bio-accumulate in animals and plants. They have been found to cause detrimental health effects to human beings; therefore these necessitate the need to assess level of heavy metals in water sources. This study was carried out to evaluation the quality of groundwater samples from twenty five selected boreholes in Hadejia and Atafi Districts of Hadejia Local Government Area, Jigawa State, Nigeria. Selected heavy metals:- Cadmium, Chromium, Iron, Manganese and Lead were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that concentrations of Cr(0243 – 0.358mg/L), and Fe(0.967 – 1.359mg/L) were found to be above the maximum permissible limit of Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality and World Health Organization, while, Cd, Mn, and Pb concentrations are below or within the permissible limit in majority of the boreholes. The values for physicochemical variables pH, and TDS were found to be below or within the permissible limit set by the World Health Organization and Nigerian standard for Drinking Water Quality. There is a growing concern about the dangerous health implication of hexavalent chromium consumption in drinking water. It can cause skin and eye irritation, asthma, nasal ulcers, convulsions, acute gastroenteritis, and damage to the liver and kidneys. High iron in water content leads to an overload which can cause diabetes, hemochromatosis, stomach problem, and nausea, it can also damage the liver, pancreas, and heart.</p> GARBA AHMED; Zakariyya Idris; Muhammad Yahaya, Amina Ibrahim Muhd Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1156 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 POSTMENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS: CHRYSIN EXHBITS ESTROGEN-LIKE ACTIVITY IN SILICO https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1238 Sanusi Bello Mada, Sadiyat Oyiza Ibrahim, Muawiya Musa Abarshi, Muhammad Auwal Saliu, Babangida Sanusi, Auwalu Garba, Nasir Garba Anka, Muhammad Suraj Umar, Muhammad Suraj Umar, Ahmad Balarabe Hamza, Kabiru Usman, Muttaka Auwalu Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1238 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS FOR A NANO-CRYSTALLINE FILM (ZnS) BY AEROSOL SPRAY PYROLYSIS TECHNIQUE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1177 <p>Nano thin film materials play an indispensable role in modern electronics and other field of material sciences especially in a photovoltaic technology. The scope of this research is to grow Zinc Sulphide (ZnS) thin film and characterize structurally to understand the benefits of the study choosing chemical deposition method (The aerosol spray pyrolysis), the chemical combination analysis and the annealing temperature. Specifically on the film strength and its applications. In the light of this work, Nano crystalline ZnS thin films was grown by carefully dissolving 1.48g of Zinc Acetate (Zn(CH<sub>3</sub>CO<sub>2</sub>)<sub>2</sub>) in 15ml of a distilled water (H<sub>2</sub>O), Followed by the deposition of 50, 5, and 30ml of acetone (CH<sub>3</sub>COCH<sub>3</sub>), acetic acid (CH<sub>3</sub>COOH) and ethanol (C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>6</sub>O) to the solution respectively, all in molar concentration of 0.1 M per ml. The solution was allowed to spray for 10 minutes on a soda lime glass substrate (SLG) at 300<sup>o</sup>C. The process was repeated for the sample annealed at 300<sup>o</sup>C and 400<sup>o</sup>C under Nitrogen gas (N<sub>2</sub>) environment for 60 minutes. The X-ray diffraction pattern of all the films deposited shows a cubic crystal type with mean crystallite size in the range 0.35nm as deposited, 0.4179 nm and 0.44nm at 300<sup>o</sup>C and 400<sup>o</sup>C annealing temperature respectively. Patterns of the sprayed film after performing the phase analysis reveal peaks corresponding to the (111) planes of reflection, which indicate the suitability of the deposition process and chemical combination. Furthermore, it is also concluded that the strength of the material depends on the annealing and substrate temperature.</p> Muhammad Shafiu Shehu, Rasheed Segun Lawal, Nura Ibrahim, Nuhu Yunusa, Olaoye A.O, Siyaku Adinoyi Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1177 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 HEMIN POLYMERIZATION INHIBITORY ACTIVITIES (HPIA) AND in vitro ANTIMALARIAL PROPERTIES OF CRUDE Senna siamea LEAVES EXTRACT ON P. falciparum, 3D7 STRAIN https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1176 Godly Chessed, Abdullahi Daskum, Manu Joseph Maitandu, Tijjani Mustapha Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1176 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 FAMILY PLANNING AWARENESS AND UTILIZATION INTENTIONS AMONG WOMEN USING ANTENATAL CARE SERVICES IN KADUNA METROPOLIS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1240 <p>Awareness on family planning (FP) among women stimulates acceptance and intention to use which gives the opportunity of choice in their reproductive activities. This study examines these relationships in Kaduna metropolis among women attending antenatal care (ANC) services. The study used multi-stage sampling technique to administer research instrument to the 386 respondents. Data were analysed using descriptive and Chi-Square. The results show that about 90% of women in the study were aware of FP and majority know it through health workers in hospitals. About 59% of the respondents reported to have previously used FP while 74% still had the intention to use FP in the future. Pills and implant are the major methods used with 29% and 21% respectively. There is a significant relationship between awareness on FP and intention to use (p= &lt; .01). The study concluded that as awareness of FP increase, more women will continue to use FP services. It is thus recommended that FP awareness campaign should be intensified.</p> Jamilu Sani, R. O. Yusuf, Y. A. Arigbede Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1240 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF LUPEOL FROM Cryptolepis oblongifolia (MEINS) SCHLTR ON PARTIALLY PURIFIED PHOSPHOLIAPASE A2 VENOM OF Naja nigricollis (ELAPIDAE) https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1242 <p>The research is design to provide scientific evidence for the use of <em>Cryptolepis oblongifolia</em> in traditional treatment of inflammation and also to examine whether it have some snake venom phospholipase A<sub>2</sub> inhibition potential. A triterpene was isolated from <em>C. oblongifolia</em> using column chromatography and identified via spectroscopic means. The inhibitory activity of the isolate on phospholipase A<sub>2</sub> (PLA<sub>2</sub>) of <em>Naja nigricollis</em> venom was evaluated. The proton nuclear magnetic resonance (<sup>1</sup>H NMR) of the isolated compound showed the presence of olefinic protons while the carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (<sup>13</sup>C NMR) showed the presence of exomethylene carbon atoms. By comparison with the reported literature the compound was found to be lupeol, the inhibitory activity of the isolate on PLA<sub>2</sub> of <em>Naja nigricollis</em> venom showed that, the isolate inhibits the PLA<sub>2</sub> at dose dependent manner with inhibition binding constant (<em>ki</em>) of 0.015 mg/ml. The activity of the compound isolated supports the local usage of <em>C</em>. <em>oblongifolia</em> in traditional treatment of inflammation.</p> Saifullahi Umar, S. I. Ibrahim, M. M. Namadina, A. Ahmed, B. S. Abdullahi Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1242 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTS OF FEEDING DIET CONTAINING RAW OR PARBOILED RICE OFFAL ON RUMEN METABOLITE OF BUNAJI BULLS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1246 <p>Twenty Bunaji bulls aged 2-3 years with an average weight of 230kg were assigned to five dietary treatments with four bulls per treatment in a 2x2 factorial configuration with common control to determine the effect of feeding diet containing varying inclusion of raw or parboiled rice offal on bull rumen metabolites which lasted for 90 days. Rumen fluid was collected at 0, 2, 4, and 6 hr intervals to assess rumen pH, rumen ammonia nitrogen (RAN), and rumen total volatile fatty acid (TVFA). Digitaria smutsii concentrate and basal diet were provided at 2% bogy weight. Crude Protein content of the experimental diets ranged from 19.69- 20.44%, while Metabolizable Energy content ranged from 10.86-11.16MJ/kg DM. Rice offal type had no effect on rumen parameters (P&gt;0.05). Rumen pH six hours after feeding at 0% (6.63) and 30% (6.76) inclusion levels was similar (P&gt;0.05), but differed considerably (P&lt;0.05) from the 20% (6.93) inclusion level. The highest and lowest TVFA values were found in bulls fed diets with 20% (44.70 mol) and 30% (23.49 mol) inclusion levels. Effects of varying RRO and PRO inclusion levels on rumen pH and TVFA at different sample times were not significant (P&gt;0.05). Bulls fed 30%PRO had the highest value (22.41g/100g), while bulls fed 20% PRO had the lowest value (14.80g/100g). This study indicated that RRO or PRO can be utilized to replace up to 30% of maize offal as a source of energy in the diet of Bunaji bulls with no negative effects on the bulls' rumen metabolite.</p> R. T. Sani, O. S. Lamidi, N. P. Achi, W. Idowu, Y. M. Ishiaku, S. A. Ahmed, H. B. Lawal Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1246 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PHYTOREMEDIATION OF ACENAPHTHENE (ACN), NAPHTHALENE (NAP) AND PHENANTHRENE (PHE) CONTAMINATED SOIL USING Gardenia Jasminoides PLANT https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1248 <p>In this study, greenhouse pots experiment was conducted to determine the phytoremediation potential of the <em>Gardenia jasminoides</em> plant. The plant was transplanted into 4.0 kg soil spiked with three different concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); 1600 mg Acenaphthene (ACN), 2000 mg naphthalene (NAP) and 2400 mg phenanthrene (PHE) respectively. The Plant was allowed to grow under greenhouse conditions in triplicates with sufficient watering for ten weeks in pots containing soil contaminated with the three PAHs and control. At the end of the experiment, the levels of PAHs in the extracts of soil, roots and shoots were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography system from Shimadzu equipped with a UV-VIS detector (SPD-20-AV). The results showed that, bioconcentration factor (BCF) values in control Experiment are 0.74 for ACN, 0.57 and 1.64 for NAP which is greater than one. Translocation factors (TF) values in control experiment are 1.23 for ACN, 1.0 for PHE and 1.20 for NAP. BCF values are greater than one at all the three different spiked experiment, 8.66 for ACN, 2.30 for PHE and 4.31 for NAP. The results also showed that the Plant was able to remove NAP with TF=2.32, ACN with TF=2.94 and PHE with TF=3.62 from contaminated soils. High values of one and above for the BCF and TF indicates high accumulation of the PAHs in the shoots of the plant. The plant may therefore be best described as phytoextractor of naphthalene, acenaphthene and phenanthrene in the soil.</p> YAU MUSA, Y. A. Adamu, S. Nasir, A. A. Olaleye, A. H. Sani Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1248 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 IMPLICATION OF CONVERSION OF MNSR FROM HEU TO LEU ON NEUTRON FLUX SPECTRUM PARAMETERS IN INNER AND OUTER IRRADIATION CHANNELS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1252 M. S. Anas, S. A. Jonah, R. Nasiru, N. N. Garba, T. Muhammad, I. A. Joseph, J. A. Yusuf Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1252 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 DETERMINATION OF GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL IN YANKARI GAME RESERVE, BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1254 <p>The study deals with the determination of geothermal potential of Yankari Game reserve which involves; estimate of the Curie point depth, heat flow and geothermal gradient from spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data covering an area located approximately at longitude 9.7567 <sup>o</sup>N and Latitude 10.5094 <sup>o</sup>E. Radially power spectrum was applied to the aeromagnetic data of the study area divided into 4 square blocks and each block analyzed using the spectral centroid method to obtain depth to the top, centroid and bottom of magnetic sources. The depth values were subsequently used to evaluate the Curie-point depth (CPD), geothermal gradient and near-surface heat flow in the study area. The values of the curie point depths (Z<sub>b</sub>), range from 8.91 km to 10.11 km, with a mean value of 9.71 km, geothermal gradient, range from 57.37 <sup>o</sup>Ckm<sup>-1</sup> to 65.10 <sup>o</sup>Ckm<sup>-1</sup>, with mean value of 60.10 <sup>o</sup>Ckm<sup>-1</sup> and heat flow (q), range from 143.43 mWm<sup>-2</sup> to 162.75 mWm<sup>-2</sup>, with a mean value of 150.24 mWm<sup>-2</sup>. These results entails that the area under study has good geothermal potential for exploration.</p> I. A. Abubakar, Nicodemus Kure, H. I. Daniel, C. G. Afuwai, N. Auwal Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1254 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ISOLATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PHENOTYPE OF Klebsiella pneumonia FROM THE URINE OF SUSPECTED UTI PATIENTS ATTENDING PUBLIC HOSPITALS IN NASARAWA SOUTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1258 <p>The emergence of antibiotic resistant uropathogenic <em>Klebsiella pnuemoniae</em> is causing major public health crisis worldwide. This study is aimed at Determining the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of the urinary <em>Klebsiella pnuemoniae </em>isolated from patients attending public hospitals in Nasarawa South Senatorial District, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. During the duration of study, urine samples of 375 patients was cultured for the presence of <em>K. pneumonia</em>. A loopful of urine collected in a sterile container was streaked on MacConkey Agar, CLED, and blood agar plates and incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. The identification and resistance to selected antimicrobials were processed in accordance with the approved standards. <em>K. pnuemoniae</em> was found in 38 of the 375 urine samples tested, resulting in an overall prevalence of 10.13%. GHO and GHK shows a lower prevalence of 4.00% each, while DASH demonstrated a higher prevalence of 14.29%. Out-patient (13.19) and females (11.88%) shows higher prevalence of K. pneumonia than in-patient (6.74%) and males (6.14%). Patients aged 25-34 had the highest prevalence (13.82%), while the age group of 54-64 had the lowest prevalence (3.57%). The bacterial isolates demonstrated more resistance to ampicillin (94.74%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (73.6%) compared to cefotaxime (13.16%), ceftriazone (18.42%), ceftazidime and cefoxitin (23.60%), and gentamicin (28.94%). Thirty-three (33) distinct phenotypes were found, with the most common (7.98%) being Ampicillin (AMP), Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid (AMT), Ciprofloxacin (CIP), Co-trimoxazole (SXT) and Streptomycin (S). The highest multiple antibiotic resistance score (31.57%) is for resistance to three antibiotics, while the lowest (2.63%) is for resistance to one,</p> D. P. Ashefo, Y. B. Ngwai, D. Ishaleku Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1258 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM AT ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE CONSIDERING VARIABILITY IN THE CONCRETE MIX DESIGN PARAMETERS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1265 <p>Variability in design parameters of Civil Engineering infrastructure is inevitable at implementation in most practical situations, the effect of which can best be determined at design stage using reliability concepts. This study used First Order Reliability Method (FORM) to determine the effect of variation in Nano Engineered Concrete (NEC) mix design parameters on structural safety of Nano Engineered Reinforced Concrete (NERC) beams at ultimate limit state using reliability based sensitivity analysis. The variability in NEC mix design parameters was incorporated into EN1992-1-1(2008) design formulations using predictive models of NEC characteristic compressive strength developed on the basis of experimental data with the aid of DataFit statistical package. FORTRAN based subroutines of the NERC beam performance functions were developed and used for the reliability sensitivity analysis at ultimate limit state. Results indicate that variability in NEC mix design parameters affect structural safety of NERC beams in accordance with how the mix design parameter contributes to characteristic compressive strength development. Moreover, increase in nanosilica dosage beyond optimal value was found to have negative effect on structural safety of NERC beams. The study found that compressive strength contributes to tensile strength of NERC beams through composite action. Furthermore, the study suggested that the effect of variability in concrete mix design parameters be incorporated in design formulations of Civil Engineering Codes of Practice to aid estimation of safety of structural elements to be designed and produced with NEC for improved safety, sustainability and resilience of Civil Engineering infrastructure.</p> Ibrahim Mohammed Adamu, Jibrin Mohammed Kaura, Adamu Lawan, Amana Ocholi Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1265 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ONLINE TEACHING AND LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1266 <p>The global education system was impacted by the coronavirus pandemic. To stop the coronavirus from spreading, all schools, colleges, and universities were closed. Students, instructors, and parents all experienced challenges while schools were closed. So, distance learning was a solution to continue the education system. Unfortunately, in a developing country, it was challenging to adopt distance learning due lack of network infrastructures, computers, epileptic power supply, and good internet access. In order to circumvent some of these challenges different online platforms were employed. However, they came with some limitations, for example, the freemium subscription scheme, which allows users to use basic features of the system but requires a certain amount on a predefined basis to access extra needed features. In addition, to use video conferencing in some of the existing LMS you are required to leave the app for another app, for example, to use video conferencing in google classroom you are required to use google meetings. This study aims to create an online E-Learning System that provides all in one tool for teachers to develop and administer courses online. The LMS comes with various functions such as creating learning plans, implementing learning processes, and assessing or evaluating learning processes. Our LMS presents instruction through content creation and storage, sees student participation, and assesses student performance online. The Online Learning System was designed using JavaScript (Vue), PHP (server-side programming Language), and NoSQL as the database. The developed system was evaluated by potential users and found to meet predefined user requirements.</p> Adeyinka Adedoyin, F. O. Enebe, R. A. Oyekunle, N. A. Balogun Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1266 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTS OF TEXTILE WASTEWATER PRE-TREATMENT ON LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR SOLID-STATE ANAEROBIC DIGESTION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1267 <p>Researchers are looking into sustainable and inexpensive energy sources due to the constant rise in the price of fossil fuels, greenhouse gas emissions, and dependence on non-renewable energy sources. In this study, wastewater from the textile industry is co-digested with lignocellulosic biomass (wheat straw) to produce biogas. During 21 days, five anaerobic digesters were run at room temperature (28 to 30 <sup>0</sup>C). Wheat straw inoculated with cow manure was put into wheat straw operating in five digesters at five different ratios of wastewater to distilled water. It has been discovered that the slurry digested with mere wastewater (not diluted with distilled water) has the lowest production, while the slurry digested with wheat straw and cow dung has the highest production.</p> M. S. Abubakar, A. B. Yazid, A. A. Sabo, A. Ibrahim, A. U. Aliyu, M. Saleh Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1267 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 INFLUENCE OF TEAK (Tectona grandis) LINN ON SOIL NUTRIENTS STATUS IN AKANGA TEAK PLANTATION, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1268 <p>Teak species have been found to have effects on soil properties different from those of indigenous natural forests in terms of organic matter accumulation and soil properties on the forest floor. This research aims at evaluating the physico-chemical properties of soil under Teak plantations in Akanga Teak plantations, Nigeria. Soils were sampled and analyzed based on procedures described by Bouyoucos, Day, and Reeuwijk. Based on the results, soil particle size from the plantation had the highest percent of sand <strong>(</strong>74.5±1.1<strong>)</strong>. There was a fluctuation of soil pH between the age series, 1981 age series had the highest pH <strong>(</strong>6.2±0.0<strong>) </strong>in both seasons. The nitrogen content had a steady declined as the plant age increased, while the organic matter and phosphorus content increased with the age of the plant species in the area. There was a decline in soil nutrients during the wet season, which also coincided with the active growth period of forest trees. Thus, it is evident from this study that monoculture plantation of exotic species may lead to an initial reduction of soil organic content and nutrient elements in the soil; then a gradual buildup of soil organic matter and exchangeable cations with age.</p> G. Dachung, J. I. Amonum, A. D. Kigbu Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1268 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 CONSUMER PREFERENCE ANALYSIS AND DEMAND FOR MEAT IN KANO METROPOLIS: A HEDONIC MODEL APPROACH https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1271 <p>This study examined consumer preference and demand analysis for meat in Kano metropolis. Primary data were collected through a well-structured questionnaire, a total of one hundred and fifty 158 member of household was selected for this study. It was revealed that majority (72.2%) of consumers earns monthly income of N15, 000-N55, 000. Hedonic regression for meat attributes affecting Price shows that meat flavour (Good) was the reference group while meat with bad flavour was entered as dummy variables and the result shows that meat with good flavour was statistically significant at (P&lt; 0.05) with positive coefficient implying that for any unit increase in these variables, buyers would be willing to pay premium because they showed higher significant buyer preference level, results also shows that meat with good taste was statistically significant at (P&lt; 0.05) with positive coefficient this implying that meat with good taste are point of interest for the consumers and they are ready to pay high premium to buy the commodities with this attributes. It was revealed that amount of fat (high ) was found to be statistically significant&nbsp; with a negative coefficient, implying that meat with low fat is more preferable and are selling at higher prices in the study area.&nbsp; Low income of consumer was the highest constraints associated with meat consumption in the study area, with a mean rank of 3.01, followed by high selling price with the mean rank of 3.63 and food safety with 4.20.&nbsp;</p> A. T. Lawal, S. A. Dambazau, S. A Musa, A. B. Mohammed, J. Umar, A. A. Adomi, A. Y. Gaya, K. Hamisu Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1271 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECT OF COMPOST PRODUCED WITH COW DUNG ON THE EARLY GROWTH OF Adansonia Digitata L. https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1273 <p>This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of different levels of compost produced with Cow dung on the early growth performance of <em>Adansonia digitata</em>. <em>A. digitata </em>seeds were planted in a seed box and transplanted into poly pots after germination with the application of compost produced with Cow dung at a rate of 1kg, 2kg and 3kg per treatment and a control experiment. This experiment was carried out in a Completely Randomized Block Design. Data on plant height, number of leaves, leave area, leave width and collar diameter were recorded. The data were collected weekly for eleven weeks starting from the second week after planting. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA. Result of the experiment revealed the highest mean height (137.63±19.46) was obtained in the control experiment, highest number of leaves (17.67±2.52) was recorded at treatment 4 (3kg), The widest leaf area was recorded at treatment 3 (2kg) (77.98±2.45) and the highest mean collar diameter was recorded is obtained in the control experiment (7.25±2.05). It is deduced that, the compost from cow-dung indicates no significant improvement in the early growth performance of <em>A. digitata; </em>also, different rates of application have different influence on the growth of the plant. In order to obtain optimum growth and yield of <em>A. digitata</em>, proper soil management techniques (such as application of organic manure) should be adopted and to maintain stable soil fertility; application of compost is advisable.</p> G. Dachung, J. I. Amonum, J. Isaac Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1273 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 METRICS AND METRIC SPACES OF SOFT MULTISETS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1275 <p>The theory of Soft set found applications in so many fields including multiset theory to obtain soft multisets. These theories together with some of their properties were presented. Moreover, considering the various applications of metric spaces in various fields; Metrics and metric spaces of soft multisets with some of their attributes were introduced. However, it was discovered that only pseudo-metric spaces could favorably be formulated. Moreover, soft multiset ordering was also presented.</p> Ahmed Isah Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1275 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 APPLICATION OF MULTITEMPORAL LANDSAT DATA IN MAPPING OF SALINE SOIL IN KANO RIVER IRRIGATION SCHEME (KRIS) https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1280 <p>Soil salinization is becoming a more serious issue threatening agricultural production and the sustainable use of land resources. Crop roots are unable to absorb water from the soil when exposed to saline conditions. This study explored the potential of Landsat imagery in detecting and mapping saline soil in the Kano River Irrigation Scheme (KRIS). &nbsp;Samples of soil were collected from thirty-nine (39) sectors of the KRIS for ground truthing on 20<sup>th</sup> – 25<sup>th</sup> April, 2020. Electrical Conductivity (EC) of field samples were correlated with band values of satellite images and salinity indices in order to determine their relationship and assess their effectiveness in predicting soil salinity. Using a geospatial approach, the data was analyzed and maps of salt-affected areas were generated. ArcGIS 10.6 was used as the primary package for modeling and running functions. The result has shown that the EC values over the entire study area are greater than 1.3 dS/m. However, the mean value of EC is approximately 1.91 dS/m. The implication is that, most of the vegetables such as Onion, Carrot, and Beans grown in the KRIS will experience yield reduction without appropriate management practice as their threshold value has been exceeded.</p> Dahiru Mohammed, M. M. Maina, I. Audu, I. Y. Tudunwada, N. K. Nasiru, N. M. Nasidi, S. E. Umar Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1280 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF SOYBEAN PRODUCTION IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1286 <p>The efficiency with which farmers use resources and technologies available to them are imperative in boosting production. However, activities of armed bandits, conflict between farmers and pastoralists, rising prices amid decreasing consumer purchasing power and diminishing household incomes are some factors that impede agricultural production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the technical efficiency of soybean production among small holder farmers in Niger State. A three stage sampling technique was used to select 150 respondents for the study. Primary data collected with the aid of structured questionnaires were analyzed using stochastic frontier Cobb-Douglas production function model. Results showed that the mean technical efficiency level of the respondents was 0.89 which implies that a typical soybean farmer in the study area could increase output by 11% using the same input bundle. Also, the efficiency model shows that coefficients of farm size, seed quantity and labour were positively significant which indicates that that increase in these variables will lead to increase in technical efficiency. The inefficiency model reveals that coefficients of credit and extension visit were positively significant while those of age and farming experience were negatively significant. This means that as credit and extension visit increases, technical efficiency decreases; while increase in age and farming experience will increase technical efficiency. The study recommended that extension services should be streamlined so that farmers do not receive conflicting information as this could hinder efficiency in production. Also, credit given to farmers should be monitored to ensure effective utilization.</p> A. Mairabo, S. Jibrin, H. Audu, M. Y. Salihu, Y. Elisha Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1286 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PRE-SOWING TREATMENTS ON BREAKING SEED DORMANCY IN BAOBAB (Adansonia digitata L.) PLANT https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1289 <p>Seed germination of baobab has necessitated with quiescence and hard seed coat impermeable to water and gases. It faces a high risk of extinction due to lack of regeneration. An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of pre-sowing treatment techniques on seed germination of Baobab. Pot trials were conducted during 2021 dry season at Biological garden, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Science, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State using completely randomized design (CRD). Seeds were subjected to four different concentrations of sulphuric acid, hot water, cold water, physical treatment and untreated seed as control and were analyzed independently to obtain the best treatment periods. Total of nine hundred and sixty (960) viable seeds were surface sterilized in 1.0% Sodium-hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 1 minute and rinsed three (3) times in sterile distilled water. 20 viable seeds were sown for each polypot. Physical pre-sowing treatment with full-sided scarification and treatment with hot water for 10 minutes produces the highest germination percentage (95.00%) and early seedling emergence (7<sup>th</sup> day after sowing). Seeds soaked in cold water for 8.00 hours gave the least mean days of seedling emergence (6<sup>th</sup> day after sowing) when compared to other treatments. These results suggested that full side scarification, soaking seed in hot water for 10 minutes and&nbsp; cold water for 8.00 hours were optimum in breaking seed dormancy in Baobab and the techniques could be apply prior to planting to improve germination performance.</p> KABIRU DALHA ABUBAKAR, D. D. Musa, N. H. Garba, I. A. Mubarak Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1289 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ASSESSMENT OF EXCESS LIFETIME CANCER RISK FROM GAMMA RADIATION LEVELS AROUND SOKOTO CEMENT INDUSTRIAL AREA, NORTHWESTERN NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1291 Lawal Abba, L. A. Sani Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1291 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS ACCUMULATION IN TILAPIA FISH (Oreochromisniloticus) TISSUES HARVESTED FROM AJIWA DAM, BATAGARAWA, KATSINA STATE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1292 <p>Aquatic animal species living in the wild like fishes came in contact with residences of heavy metals. Over time deposits of heavy metals are detected in tissues such as skin, muscles, gills, fin and bore. Concentration of heavy metals namely Au, Pb, Cd, Ag, As and Ca were detected in Tilapia <em>Oreochromisniloticus</em> tissues of Skin muscles, gills, fin and bone in this study. The fish samples were collected randomly from three fish landing sites at intervals of four weeks namely; Gajeren Giwa, Kwatami and Masabo sites A, B and C for analysis. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) model A-6200, Agilent crop, Kyoto, Japan) was used for analysis. Results obtained revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals from Tilapia <em>Oreochromisniloticus</em> indicated Au, Pb, Cd, Ag, As and Ca levels (13.06ppm) to (7.73ppm) from skin and bone. 0.19) to 0.12 (ppm) (2519.87ppm) to (162.16ppm) (10.47ppm) to (0.31ppm), (0.75ppm), (0.75ppm), (0.28ppm) to (0.0ppm) from skin, muscles, gills, fin and bone (Ca&gt;AU&gt;Ag&gt;As&gt;PB&gt;Cd). It showed significant difference in concentrations of metals with respect to the fish parts. Also the presence of reasonable concentrations Ag Cd, Pb, As and Ca reflects residues from fertilizer and herbicides application at farming sites proximity to the dam. The finding recommends Periodical studies of concentration of heavy metals should be mounted especially guided by seasonal variations unregulated use of fertilizers on farms neighboring the dam should be discouraged.</p> Aliyu Abubakar Ahmad, Isma’il Abdulkarim, Hassan Usman Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1292 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL QUALITY OF SURFACE WATER RESOURCES IN SOME GOLD MINING COMMUNITIES OF OSUN STATE, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1293 Lydia Oluwatosin Odewade, Adedeji Idowu Aduwo, Joseph Oluwaseun Odewade Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1293 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 INTEGRATED PETROLEUM RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION. THE CASE OF ZHAO57 BLOCK (Es4 + EK1) https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1294 <p>This paper put forward the result of a case studied from a reservoir characterization carried out on Es4+Ek1 reservoir of the Zhao57 block, Zhaozhouqiao oil field, Hebei Province, China. The objective of the study was to accurately create a reservoir model of the oil field and use it to forecast oil and gas production. To achieve this, we characterized the formation by applying integrated geologic and engineering data for the purpose of providing insight understanding of controls on oil and gas production. The formation was first divided into seven groups and fifty four small layers, followed by stratigraphic correlations and quantification of sand thickness. The fifth group was found to be the main oil bearing formation, its top mainly comprise of siltstone while the middle and the bottom comprise mainly of thick layer of massive sand. Sandstone density presents decreasing trend from northwest to south east. Structure model on the fifth group depicts a series of faulting which is believed to be a contributing factor on oil and gas distribution in the group. Average porosity on the fifth group is found to be 7.54%, average permeability is as low as 2.6mD and reserve estimation recorded a value of 82.5364x104t with the V-12 and V-13 layers showing the highest reserve. Result derived from this study will no doubt be useful in respect of further development of the field especially during secondary and tatiary recoveries.</p> Mukhtar Habib, Conjiao Xie, Guang Zheng Liang Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1294 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF Cu (II), and Ni (II) COMPLEXES DERIVED FROM 2-HYDROXYBENZALDEHYDE AND 2 AMINOPYRIDINE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1299 <p>Schiff base ligand derived from condensation of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 2-aminopyridine have been prepared and used to synthesized Cu (II) and Ni (II) complexes, characterized by spectroscopic method (IR spectra). Conductivity, solubility test were determined. On the basis of the infrared studies, appearing of new band around 721 -762 cm<sup>-1 </sup>and 553- 443&nbsp;&nbsp; indicate formation of v ( M- N ) and v (M –O ) confirming a coordination of&nbsp; ligand to the metal ion through oxygen and nitrogen&nbsp; atoms. The antimicrobial activities of the complexes was studied against the Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albican. The cupper complex showed higher activity than the Nickel complex and the ligand.</p> Ibrahim Sani, Sunusi Y. Hussaini, Ibrahim U. Kutama Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1299 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A DIABETES PREDICTION CLASSIFIER MODEL USING NAIVE BAYES ALGORITHM https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1301 <p>One serious health condition which has made people to suffer from uncontrollable high blood sugar is diabetes. The problems of existing detection approaches are data imbalance, feature selection, and lack of generic framework for diabetes classification. In this research, developed an ontology-based diabetes classification model using naïve Bayes classifier was developed. The model is divided into five modules: data collection, feature selection, ontology construction, classification, and document query. The data collection module adapted PIMA Indian Diabetes Database to predict diabetes. The feature selection module employed multi-step approach for selecting the most important features from dataset. For automatically constructing ontology rules based on the chosen features, the ontology generation module used a decision tree classifier. Based on the user's question, the classification module employed a Nave Bayes classifier to automatically classify the built ontology as having diabetes. Based on the ontology-based nave Bayes classification, the document query module searches and returns the anticipated documents requested by users. The proposed model using a 10-fold cross validation performed better in diabetes in precision, accuracy, recall and F1-score of 96.5%, 93.55%, 79.2% and 87.0%, respectively. Benchmarking tools included K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Decision Tree (DT), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Logistic Regression (LR), Hidden Markov Model (HMM), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naive Bayes (NB), Random Forest (RF), and Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN). With an area of 0.9578 in compared to other relevant methods, the created model suggested a more accurate test. They demonstrated that the model's cost-effectiveness for predicting diabetes outweighs its value.</p> Folasade Mercy Okikiola, Olumide Sunday Adewale, Olumide Olayinka Obe Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1301 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF UVARIA CHAMAE OIL AND QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF BIODIESEL PRODUCED FROM Uvaria chamae https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1305 <p>This research studied the potential of the seed oil of Uvaria chamae for biodiesel production.<br>The oil was extracted using a soxhlet extractor and n-hexane as a solvent before being transesterified into biodiesel. The results obtained showed a low yield of 12.5 % for the extracted oil. The oil showed a high acid value of 14.02± 0.09 mgKOH/g, which indicated high free fatty acid content and the percentage yield of the biodiesel produced was 88.35± 0.5%. The profile of methyl esters showed that unsaturated linoleic methyl ester was dominant. The results suggested that Uvaria chamae seed oil possesses some properties that were suitable for biodiesel production.</p> A. Sani, S. Uba, K. I. Omoniyi, A. H. Mikail Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1305 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PREVALENCE OF Echinococcucus granulosus IN STRAY AND HOME OWNED DOGS IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1307 <p>Echinococcosis is a zoonotic larval infection affecting both domestic animals and human with serious health and economic impacts. A study to determine the prevalence of E.<em> granulosus</em> was carried out on dogs from six Local Government Areas (LGA) of Adamawa State. Faecal samples from 384 dogs were collected and screened for the presence of E. granulosus cyst microspically. A structured questionnaire was used and obtained native and exotic data from dog owners. Out of the 384 dog faecal samples, 171 had E. granulosus cyst with overall prevalence of 44.5% where Guyuk LGA had highest prevalence of 53.1% and Michika LGA had a lowest prevalence of 39.1%). With regards to gender, male and female dogs had a prevalence of 30.5% and 32.4% respectively. In terms of season, highest prevalence of 42.7% and lowest prevalence of 33.3% was recorded during rainy and dried season respectively with a significant association (P&lt; 0.05). Un-restricted dogs recorded a prevalence of 66.1% and 38.1% was recorded in restricted dogs with significant relationship (P&lt; 0.05).&nbsp; Dogs living in suburban areas and kept for security purposes, hunting or guarding have higher chances of infection. Therefore, right and regular treatment of dogs with praziquantel is highly recommended to reduce risk of E. granulosus transmission to humans.</p> A. Mathias, S. M. Pukuma, N. Enock Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1307 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OPTIMIZATION OF ADSORPTION OF CONGO RED DYE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION WITH ACTIVATED CARBON FROM CASTOR SEED SHELL USING CENTRAL COMPOSITE DESIGN https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1308 <p>The present research highlighted the efficacy of activated carbon from castor seed (ACCS) for the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution through batch study. Central–Composite Design (CCD) by response surface methodology was used to optimize the adsorption process. Based on CCD design, the quadratic models were developed co-relating the adsorption variables to the removal efficiency. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was incorporated to judge the adequacy of the model. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis was carried out on ACCS to reveal the functional groups which aided the adsorption of Congo red dye. The model predicted the optimized conditions as follows: initial concentration (100.0 mg/L), adsorption dose (1.2 g), contact time (45.0 mins) and pH (4.0) which resulted to a 99.97% removal efficiency of Congo red dye. Therefore, the present results demonstrate that ACCS is a low-cost alternative for the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution.</p> Hussaina Ize Ohikere, Z. I. Yashim, N. C. Nwokem Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1308 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND PHYLOGENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF POTASSIUM-SOLUBILIZING RHIZOBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE ROOTS OF Mimosa indica WEED https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1309 <p>Most microorganisms residing within plant rhizosphere are of great importance to soil fertility.&nbsp; The either release plant nutrient into soil solution and make it available for plant absorption directly or indirectly, excrete enzymes or organic acids that facilitate the solubilization of insoluble minerals, such as potassium (K). A laboratory analysis was carried out at the Soil Science Laboratory in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, to isolate potassium-solubilizing rhizobacteria from <em>Mimosa indica</em> a weed that have invaded most agricultural land in the southeastern Nigeria. It was observed that the roots of <em>Mimosaindica</em> had nodules, which is peculiar to legume plants. Two cultivable isolates possessed the ability to solubilize K.&nbsp; DNA extraction was done and the two bacteria were identified as: <em>Ochrobactrum anthropi</em> and <em>Comamonas testosteroni</em>.&nbsp; Biochemical tests and Phylogenetic characterization were carried out. <em>Comamonas testosterone </em>gave the highest solubilization efficiency of 650 compared to <em>Ochrobactrum anthropi </em>(325).</p> U. J. Nwokeh, I. G. Okoro, C. U. Orodeji Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1309 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ON STUDENTS’ STUDY HABIT DURING COVID-19 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1170 <p class="s7">The study investigated perception of students on Learning Management System and how it affects and benefits their study habit during COVID-19, as well as its effects on their study performance. The study adopted quantitative research approach and survey design where data was gathered using a questionnaire that was created to acquire pertinent information from respondents. The study participants are the 200 and 300 level students of Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin, while a total of 358 students administered the questionnaire only 303 responses are used for the study.&nbsp; The results demonstrated that students' study habits are significantly impacted by the use of Learning Management Systems (LMS) as majority of the respondents attest that the use of LMS improved their study habit which in turn affected their study result positively. These could also assist lecturers and university administration to know how well students are able to relate with Learning Management System, how it affects their academic performance and their preparedness to fully adopt the system.</p> Naeem Atanda Balogun, Mary Isimikalu I, Adeyinka Adedoyin Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1170 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 VALIDATION OF EXTENDED ELASTIC IMPEDANCE BASED ON MINIMUM ENERGY ANGLE. A CASE STUDY APPLICATION FOR OPTIMIZED PETROLEUM RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1310 <p>This work intends to showcase a validation of the applicability of Extended Elastic Impedance (EEI) inversion method in reservoir characterization and modeling. In order to achieve that, deterministic seismic inversion and extended elastic impedance (EEI) analysis were applied to obtain quantitative estimates of reservoir properties over the Pu field of the West African Congo basin. Optimum EEI angles corresponding to the reservoir properties were then analyzed using well logs data, together with a lithology indicator.&nbsp; Pre-stack seismic data were simultaneously inverted into density, acoustic and gradient impedances cubes, through model based inversion algorithm. The last two broadband inverted volumes were then projected to corresponding Chi angles proportionate to petrophysical indicators, thus resulting to two broadband EEI volumes. At well locations, the EEI versus petrophysical parameters linear trends were then applied to convert EEI volumes into&nbsp; porosity and shale volumes based on specified lithology. In order to generate reservoir facies distribution, minimum angle was applied based on background EEI, thus allowing for mapping of reservoir facies. In order to validate the EEI approach, a Geo-statistical model was further developed for the same field. Hence, from&nbsp; porosity, shale content and background EEI cubes, a comparison was made between the properties generated from the EEI and that generated based on geo-statistical method, which shows that EEI is a robust way of reservoir characterization that&nbsp; pinpointing favorable reservoir potentials which shall guide future drilling locations.</p> Mukhtar Habib, Bashir Aliyu Abba, Aminu Uba Alhassan, Jibia Firdausi Umar Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1310 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION OF WATER AND FISH- A REVIEW https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1255 <p>Water is a vital resource for all kinds of lives. Heavy metals (HM) generally enter the aquatic environment through natural (atmospheric deposition, erosion of geological matrix) or anthropogenic activities caused by industrial effluent, domestic sewage, mining and agricultural wastes. Tanning generally requires using a heavy chemical that contains chromium, cadmium etc. It was observed that these industrial wastes are discharged, without proper treatment, into small waterways, which subsequently adjoin the rivers and dams. Using agricultural chemicals and fertilizers also contributes to the chemical contamination of the aquatic environment. Discharging untreated sewage into the waterways introduce pathogenic microorganism into the marine environment, among other reasons, which has drawn the attention of researchers to the possibility of having the aquatic organism edible by humans (mostly fish) be contaminated by heavy metals and microorganisms, which have been confirmed to cause short- and long-term health hazards. Fish, one of the primary aquatic organisms in the food chain, may often accumulate large amounts of metals, which can later intoxicate humans after consumption. Humans can also be intoxicated by directly consuming untreated water contaminated with heavy metals. This review focused on the aquatic contamination of different heavy metals in water and fish and also suggested some recommendations to minimize the marine environment's toxicity.</p> Muzzammil Abdullahi Yunusa, Earnest Chukwusoro Igwe, Alalade Olajoke Mofoluke Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1255 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 NIGERIAN PALM OIL: QUALITY DISPARITY, CONTAMINATION AND PROCESSING WASTES HANDLING https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1263 <p>The review article intended to provide an overview of quality variation and various contaminants in locally processed palm oil (PO). The paper also deliberates on the pros and cons of wastes generated during PO processing. There is a serious concern about the quality and safety of crude PO in Nigeria resulting from poor quality raw materials, inadequate processing know-how, inappropriate packaging and storage facilities, poor handling and transportation system and more importantly adulteration by producers and marketers. Wide disparities in the chemical and physical composition were reported in the literature. This may result from the variations in the chemical composition of the palm fruit, environmental factors, variation in processing operations which is determined by the location and abuse during handling and transportation. Microbial contamination is the foremost safety challenge in Nigerian crude PO processing. Higher microbial counts and the presence of toxic microorganisms including aflatoxins-producing fungi were reported by many researchers. Oil palm production in contaminated soil account for PO heavy metals contamination, though, heavy metals contamination below permissible limits was reported in most cases. Wastes generated from PO processing can be detrimental to the environment. Alternately, various benefits can be derived from the proper handling and utilisation of PO processing wastes. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a good substrate for the production of organic manure, biomolecules and amendment of oil-contaminated soil. Recommendations on how to tackle various challenges along the PO supply chain were presented at the end of the paper.</p> N. Abdullahi, N. B. Umar, A. U. Tsoho, A. Sani, Z. M. Yazeed, M. A. Tsangaya, Y. A. Yahaya, K. Yusuf, S. A. Haruna, U. A. Abdullahi, A. Ali, U. M. Dahiru, U. A. Suleiman, A. A. Umar Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1263 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A REVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF LOW ELEVATION ANGLES ON THE PROPAGATION FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATION LINK https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1270 <p>The propagation phenomenon for satellite communication links is affected by the elevation angle of the satellite. Low elevation angles can cause signal attenuation due to increased atmospheric absorption, increased multipath fading, and rain attenuation. These effects can lead to decreased signal-to-noise ratio, reduced link availability, and degraded performance. This paper examines the effects of low elevation angle on the propagation phenomenon for satellite communication links. The paper begins by discussing the basics of satellite communication links, including the components of a link, the types of signals used, and the various propagation phenomena that can affect signal transmission. It then focuses on the effects of low elevation angle on signal propagation, including multipath fading, scintillation, and rain attenuation. The paper discusses how these effects can be mitigated through various techniques such as antenna design and signal processing. The results suggest that increasing the antenna gain and using higher frequency bands can help reduce the impact of low elevation angles on satellite communication links. &nbsp;Finally, it provides an overview of current research in this area and suggests potential future research directions.</p> Nura Idris Muhammad, Muhammad Yahaya Abdullahi, Yusuf Sani Abu Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1270 Tue, 28 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000