FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs <p><strong>The <a href="http://www.fudutsinma.edu.ng" target="_blank" rel="noopener">FUDMA</a> Journal of Sciences (FJS) </strong>is a peer-reviewed publication of original research papers, review articles, technical reports and short communications in all aspects in the fields of science and technology such as Chemistry, Earth and atmospheric sciences, Biology in general, Agriculture, Biochemistry, Botany, Microbiology, Environmental Science,&nbsp; Computer Science, Engineering, Physics, Materials Science, Mechanics, Mathematics, Statistics, Nutrition and Food Science, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Polymer and Textile Sciences, Process Modeling and Computational Analysis, Renewable Energy and waste to resource processes.</p> en-US <p>FUDMA Journal of Sciences</p> fjs@fudutsinma.edu.ng (FUDMA Journal of Sciences) editor_fjs@fudutsinma.edu.ng (Dr. Emmanuel Joseph) Tue, 08 Jun 2021 09:26:33 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 EFFECT OF CRUSHED DOUM PALM SHELL AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF COARSE AGGREGATE IN CONCRETE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/456 <p>The use of alternative materials in place of natural aggregate in concrete production has been getting attention all around the globe; this makes concrete a sustainable and environmentally friendly construction material. In this study the use of crushed doum palm shell (CDPS) as partial replacement for coarse aggregate in concrete production was investigated. The concrete grade 30 was used for the research with a water /cement ratio of 0.45. The control sample contained normal concrete ingredient cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. The CDPS replacement by weight was varied at 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% respectively for the test sample. The 28-day compressive strength of the concrete using Doum palm shell aggregate was found to be 28.0 and 20.2 MPa at 5 and 10% replacement under full water curing and it satisfies the requirement for structural lightweight concrete which was more than 17MPa. The study recommended replacement of coarse aggregate up to a maximum of 10 % crushed doum palm shell for structural light weight concrete and it encourage the use of agricultural wastes in construction as an environmental protection and cost reduction measure. However, results from laboratory investigations indicated that crushed doum palm shell (CDPS) has good potential as a coarse aggregate for production of structural lightweight concrete, especially for low-cost housing and also for use in earthquake prone areas.</p> A. Z. Liman, T. Adagba, H. A. Umar Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/456 Tue, 08 Jun 2021 09:19:37 +0000 BIOFILM ERADICATION ACTIVITY OF PARTIALLY PURIFIED FRACTION OF ETHYLACETATE EXTRACT OF ACALYPHA WILKESIANA LEAVES ON CANDIDA ALBICANS I, II AND PARAPSILOSIS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/457 <p><em>Candida spp</em> produce highly structured biofilms composed of multiple cells encased in an extracellular matrix. Sessile cells are known to decrease drug diffusion toward biological targets. This research is aimed at evaluating the biofilm eradication activity of partially purified fraction of ethylacetate extract of <em>Acalypha wilkesiana</em> leaves on sessile cells of <em>C. albicans </em>I, II and <em>C. parapsilosis</em>. Column Chromatography-TLC was used to fractionate and partially purify the extract using a bioassay guided fractionation. Preparative TLC was used to purify the most potent fraction. Antifungal effects of the extract and percentage biofilm eradication was determined by microdilution method. Antibiofilm activity of the purified fraction on the morphology of the sessile cells of <em>Candida spp</em> was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The purified fraction had MIC of 1.25mg/ml on C<em>. albicans </em>I, II and <em>C. parapsilosis, </em>respectively.&nbsp; MFC of 2.5mg/ml on <em>C. albicans I </em>and<em> II </em>but there was no total death observed on<em> C. parapsilosis</em>. The fraction had IC<sub>50</sub> significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different from that of the reference drugs. There was significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the biofilm eradicated by corilagin, amp B., voriconazole, caspafungin, compared to the purified fraction on <em>C. albicans </em>I, II and <em>C. parapsilosis</em>. There was decrease in biomass of sessile cells on the morphology of <em>C. albicans </em>I, II and C. <em>parapsilosis</em> in all treated plates compared to the control. Therefore, the purified fraction of ethylacetate extract of <em>A. wilkesiana</em> leaves has a potential to eradicate the biofilms formed by <em>Candida spp</em>.</p> Maimuna Zubairu, Aliyu Salihu, Ismaila A. Umar, Karima Mohammed Rabiu, Elijah Ella Copyright (c) 2020 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/457 Tue, 08 Jun 2021 09:43:28 +0000 ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION EXPOSURE LEVEL IN BLACKSMITHING WORKSHOP IN GOMBE, GOMBE STATE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/270 <p>Measurement of terrestrial background ionizing radiation of blacksmith workshops of Gombe State, Nigeria was carried out using well-calibrated Geiger-Muller counter meters and a meter tape. The measured average exposure rate of two line-sections are 0.018±0.002 and 0.017±0.002 mRh<sup>-1</sup>. Estimated equivalent dose rates for the two line-sections are 1.50 and 1.45 mSvy<sup>-1</sup>. The average absorbed dose rates estimated in line-section one and line-section two are 154.94 and 149.97 nGyh<sup>-1</sup> respectively. Annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) of 0.48 mSvy<sup>-1</sup> was obtained for outdoor exposure in line-section one while in line-section two, AEDE was 0.23 mSvy<sup>-1</sup>. The calculated mean excess lifetime cancer risk values for the blacksmith workshop sections are 0.83x 10<sup>-3</sup> and 0.80 x 10<sup>-3</sup>. The obtained values for background ionizing radiation in the line-sections of blacksmith workshop were above the recommended standard limit by ICRP while the absorbed doses (D) were above the recommended value and AEDE calculated in two line-sections of blacksmithing workshops were within the safe values this implies that blacksmithing activities in these areas may not influence the doses received by public. The excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) estimated were higher than their world permissible values of 0.29 x 10<sup>-3</sup> respectively. The calculated dose to organs showed that the testes have the highest organ dose of 0.153 mSvy<sup>-1</sup>while liver has the lowest organ dose of 0.086 mSvy<sup>-1</sup>. This result shows that exposure to&nbsp;</p> Abiodun Olanrewaju, Nurudeen Mohammed AbdulKareem , Isiaka O. Raheem Copyright (c) 2020 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/270 Fri, 11 Jun 2021 19:23:10 +0000 RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF MALARIA PREVALENCE IN SELECTED HOSPITALS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/462 <p>A retrospective study of laboratory records in selected hospitals in Zaria was carried out to determine the trend of malaria prevalence between 2001 and 2005. Data was obtained from the following selected hospitals: St Luke’s Anglican Hospital, Wusasa, Salama Infirmary, Saidu Dange railway Hospital and Sick Bay, Ahmadu Bello University, Main campus, Samaru. The selection of the hospitals was based on their geographical location and sizes. The prevalence was consistently high over the years; 2001–44.1%, 2002–59.45%, 2003–59.35%, 2004–58.30% and 2005–64.25%. There was no significant difference (P&gt;0.05) between malaria infection in males and females. Infection rates were significantly higher in children than adults (P&lt;0.05) in all hospitals sampled except Salama Infirmary. Sick Bay in the main campus, Samaru had the least prevalence consistently over the five years period – 2001-27.0%, 2002-26.3%, 2003-21.8%, 2004-25.9% and 2005-33.2%. No clear seasonal variation over the years was observed. The study clearly showed consistent high prevalence over the five years period. Record keeping was useful as it provided data bur devoid of specific ages of attendees. Specific ages of hospital attendees rather than “children” or “adults” should be recorded and other demographic variables such as occupation and other socio-economic proxies should be included in laboratory record books</p> Abdulhamid B. Ibrahim, E. Kogi Copyright (c) 2020 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/462 Fri, 11 Jun 2021 19:47:12 +0000 PREDICTION OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE USING DEEP NEURAL NETWORK https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/309 <p>eural Network (DNN) is now applied in disease prediction to detect various ailments such as heart disease and diabetes. Another disease that is causing a threat to our health is kidney disease. This disease is becoming prevalent due to substances and elements we intake. Ignoring the kidney malfunction can cause chronic kidney disease leading to death. Frequently, Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and its symptoms are mild and gradual, often go unnoticed for years only to be realized of late. We conducted our research on CKD in Bade, a Local Government Area of Yobe State in Nigeria. The area has been a center of attention by medical practitioners due to the prevalence of CKD. Unfortunately, a technical approach in culminating the disease is yet to be attained. We obtained a record of 1200 patients with 10 attributes as our dataset from Bade General Hospital and used the DNN model to predict CKD's absence or presence in the patients. The model produced an accuracy of 98%. Furthermore, we identified and highlighted the Features importance to rank the features used in predicting the CKD. The outcome revealed that two attributes: Creatinine and Bicarbonate, have the highest influence on the CKD prediction.</p> Iliyas Ibrahim Iliyas, Saidu Isah Rambo, Ali Baba Dauda, Suleiman Tasiu Copyright (c) 2020 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/309 Fri, 11 Jun 2021 20:11:01 +0000 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF A. CHEVALIERI HAMS (FABACEAE) STEM https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/464 <p><em>Albizia chevalieri </em>Hams (Mimosaceae/Fabaceae), mostly found in the Northern Sahel Savannah region of Nigeria as well as in Nigér and Senegal is a tree of the acacia type with a long list of folklore therapeutic claims that include its use as purgative, taenicidal, cough remedy, dysentery, cancer, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis and snake bite remedy. However, many bacterial species have been reported to develop resistance to antibiotics commonly prescribed for dental infections. Therefore, the need to search for natural products for remedy to this problem cannot be overemphasized. The stem was collected, dried and powdered. The powder was thereafter extracted with distilled water and subsequently with methanol. Phytochemical screening was carried out using standard methods. Agar well diffusion, agar dilution and spread plate methods were employed to determine the zone of inhibition, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and rate of killing respectively. Phytochemical screening of methanol and aqueous extracts of <em>Albizia chevalieri </em>stem revealed the presence of phenol, alkaloid, saponins, tannins, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids and carbohydrate as secondary metabolites. The two extracts showed broad spectrum of activity but the aqueous extract had larger zones of inhibition of 32 mm against <em>S. mutans</em> while methanol extract had higher zone of inhibition on <em>S. aureus </em>(24 mm). Low MIC and MBC values ranging from 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml respectively. The results obtained also provided scientific evidence for the use of <em>A. chevalieri </em>in folklore medicine in the treatment of tooth infections.</p> Murtala M. Namadina, A. M. Idris, U. Sunusi, M. H. Abdulrazak, F. M. Musa, O. N. Olaogun, S. Balarabe, N. Yakubu, M. H. Sani, Z. A. Ali, Y. Nuhu, T. Y. Makin, A. M. Gwarzo Copyright (c) 2020 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/464 Fri, 11 Jun 2021 21:04:04 +0000 DETERMINATION OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF GULLY EROSION IN KURMIN-GWARI SETTLEMENT https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/465 <p>Sustainable development is the positive socio-economic change that does not undermine the ecological and social systems upon which communities and social systems are dependent. Land provides services to humans and other life forms as well as providing raw materials in production process. Land provides waste assimilation services as well as other ecosystem functions. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of gully erosion on the residents of Kurmin Gwari settlement, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study intends to identify the percentage of the residents according to localities that have suffered socially and economically from gully incidents. It also intends to determine the relationship between adverse social and economic effects suffered by the affected people in the various localities of the study area. The Primary sources of data are direct observation from fieldwork and the use of questionnaire, while the secondary sources are topographic map and library materials. Descriptive statistical tools were applied to deal with the techniques of summarizing and describing data collected. Percentages, proportion and mean were applied to get expected frequencies. The result revealed that at Layin Pumpo 65% of respondents are affected by destruction of ancestral homeland by gully erosion. 100% are affected by loss of source of water supply. 72.5% find the gully site frightful. 92.5% experience trauma as a result of gully erosion in the area and 57.5% lost relatives. The study recommended that due to gully erosion and other natural environmental disasters, the need for an integrated environmental planning is paramount.</p> Aliyu H. Ibrahim, H. A. Ibrahim, I. B. Bashir, S. Z. Abdullahi Copyright (c) 2020 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/465 Sat, 12 Jun 2021 14:42:19 +0000 ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE CHANGE AND PATTERNS OF FARMERS’/PASTORALISTS’ CONFLICTS IN ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/436 <p>Struggle over land and scarce resources have resulted in perennial and growing violent conflicts amongst arable crop farmers and cattle herdsmen in various parts of Nigeria. This study analyses the relationship between climate change and patterns of herders-crop farmers’ conflict in Zamfara state, Nigeria. Data for this study were acquired via semi structured questionnaire and Key Informant Interview. Purposeful sampling method was used to select six communities, while 260 farmers and 67 pastoralists were chosen as sample size for the survey based on Krejcie and Morgan’s formula. Descriptive statistics such as percentages, arithmetic mean and Likert rating scale were adopted to analyze the data for the study. Results from the findings indicated that farmers and herders in Zamfara state were within active years of economic and productive age (24 to 44 years). Nearly,75% of both farmers and pastoralists in the study communities professed there is high variability in rainfall pattern&nbsp; and increase in temperature. Three-quarter of the respondents confirmed that the nature of the conflicts was assault involving the use of arms; whereas two-fifth of the respondents affirmed that the conflict occurs during harvest and the planting seasons. &nbsp;The study concluded that climate change is the bane of incessant resource use conflicts in the study area. Thus a clearly formulated government policies and implementation framework that would boost climate change information forecasting and dissemination, adaptive capacity and ranch management will salvage the conflictual relationship subsisting between farmers and herders in the study area</p> Olasunkanmi Gabriel Jeje, B. A. Sawa, Y. A. Arigbede Copyright (c) 2020 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/436 Sat, 12 Jun 2021 15:05:38 +0000