FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs <p><strong>The <a href="http://www.fudutsinma.edu.ng" target="_blank" rel="noopener">FUDMA</a> Journal of Sciences (FJS) </strong>is a peer-reviewed publication of original research papers, review articles, technical reports and short communications in all aspects in the fields of science and technology such as Chemistry, Earth and atmospheric sciences, Biology in general, Agriculture, Biochemistry, Botany, Microbiology, Environmental Science,&nbsp; Computer Science, Engineering, Physics, Materials Science, Mechanics, Mathematics, Statistics, Nutrition and Food Science, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Polymer and Textile Sciences, Process Modeling and Computational Analysis, Renewable Energy and waste to resource processes.</p> en-US <p>FUDMA Journal of Sciences</p> fjs@fudutsinma.edu.ng (FUDMA Journal of Sciences) editor_fjs@fudutsinma.edu.ng (Dr. Emmanuel Joseph) Mon, 11 Mar 2024 00:00:17 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 A SURVEY OF ENDO-PARASITE AND BLOOD PARASITE OF SYNODONTIS SCHALL (BLOCH & SCHNEIDER, 1801) FROM OTUOGORI RIVER IN OGBIA, BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2244 <p>Fishes are a source of protein to human and also provide a means of occupation for the people. Fish parasites are of public health importance, reducing fish population and thereby, resulting in loss of protein source and jobs. This study aimed to reveal the presence of various endo-parasites and blood parasites in fish samples collected from Otuogori River using standard techniques. A total of 40 live fish, purchased weekly from a fisherwoman during early morning hours, from December 2022 to January 2023, contingent on availability, were transported immediately to the laboratory for parasitological examination with the sex noted and the standard length measured. Aliquot from teased internal organs and blood sample collected from caudal circulation of each fish were respectively smeared on clean slides and viewed under the microscope. The parasites detected were identified using an identification key. The study revealed that out of 40 <em>Synodontis schall</em> examined, 4 were infected with an overall prevalence of 10%. Females 3(14.29%) were more infected than males 1(5.26%) (p&gt;0.05). Parasites recorded include <em>Trypanosoma</em> <em>spp,</em> <em>Camallanus spp</em> and <em>Anisakid</em> <em>spp;</em> with <em>Trypanosoma</em> <em>spp. </em>(50%) being the most prevalent.&nbsp; The study result also showed that those with body length range of 9.2cm-14.2cm were infected the most (25%) (p&gt;0.05). Fish samples weighing 55g-105g and those with body length range of 9.2cm-14.2cm had the highest mean intensity. Weight did not significantly affect the prevalence of infestation of the fishes (p&gt;0.05). Fish samples collected from Otuogori River should be properly cooked before eaten to avoid zoonotic infections.</p> Chinonye Ezenwaka, Umor Living-Jamala Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2244 Wed, 28 Feb 2024 09:37:28 +0000 IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGAL SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE SPOILAGE OF FRUIT IN DUTSIN-MA METROPOLIS, KATSINA STATE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2245 <p>The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the fungi species associated with spoilage of orange (<em>Citrus sinensis</em>); Banana (<em>Musa acuminate</em>); and Mango (<em>Mangifera indica</em>) fruit. A total of 30 fruit samples were collected from market in Dutsin-ma metropolis, the study was carried out between June to August, 2023. The samples were surfaced sterilized with ethanol and the homogenates were cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar and incubated aerobically at room temperature for 5days at 30°C. The pure cultures obtained were identified morphologically and microscopically using a standard mircrobial Atlas for verification. The fungal species identified from the isolates are <em>Aspergillusspp</em>, <em>Candidaspp</em>, <em>Alternariaspp</em>, <em>Fusariumspp</em>, <em>Mucorspp</em>, <em>Rhizopusspp</em>, <em>Collectoricumspp</em>, and <em>Peniciliumspp</em>. <em>Aspergillusspp</em> was the most predominant fungal specie isolated from orange <em>(citrus sinensis) </em>having a frequency of 60% followed by <em>Candidaspp</em>and <em>Alternaira</em> with 20% prevalence. <em>Fusariumspp</em> was the most predominant fungal specie isolated from banana <em>(Musaacuminata)</em>, having a frequency of (44%), followed by <em>Mucorspp</em> (33%) and <em>Rhizopusspp</em> (22%). <em>Aspergillusspp</em> was the most predominant fungal specie isolated from mango <em>(Mangifera indica)</em> having a frequency of (70%) followed by <em>Collectoricumspp</em>(20%) and <em>Peniciliumspp</em>(10%). <em>Aspergillusniger</em> was the most predominant isolates from all the fruits under study. These findings are indicative that fungal species are associated with the spoilage of orange, <em>(Citrus sinensis),</em> banana<em> (Musa acuminata), </em>and mango <em>(Mangifera indica) </em>fruit leading to economic loss and possible human health hazard as a result of consumption of spoilt fruits.</p> J. D. Buah, N. C. Eberemu, O. Okeseni Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2245 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 06:06:05 +0000 DETERMINISTIC AND STOCHASTIC MODEL FOR THE TRANSMISSION OF LASSA FEVER https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2246 <p>Many models on the transmission dynamics of Lasser fever were based on purely deterministic approach. This approach does not put into cognizance randomness which is inherent in disease transmission resulting from differences in immunity levels, contact patterns, hygienic practices and mutation rates among so many other possibilities.&nbsp; In this work, we attempt to demonstrate the impact of uncertainties in the mode of transmission of Lassa fever by subjecting the dynamics to some white noise modeled by the Brownian motion as a Wiener process. An existing deterministic model involving the Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Recovered (SEIR) individuals was transformed into a stochastic differential equation model by applying the procedure proposed by Allen et al (2008). The resulting system of Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) was solved numerically using the Milstein scheme for SDEs. An algorithm for the method was developed and implemented in Python programming language. Numerical simulations of the model was done using four sets of parameters; &nbsp;, representing the natural birth rate, the natural death rate , the recovering rate from infected to recovered, transmission rate from exposed to infected ,transmission rate from susceptible to exposed&nbsp; are carried out to investigate the transmission dynamic of Lassa fever. The results of the simulations indicate that randomness does affect transmission of Lassa fever. We therefore recommend that factors such as social behavior, hygienic practices, contact patters, mutation rate should be considered while formulating mathematics models of disease transmission.</p> Otache Innocent Ogwuche, T. A. Emonyi Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2246 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 07:13:45 +0000 EVALUATION OF BAKING QUALITY OF BREAD FROM COMPOSITE MIXTURE OF WHEAT FLOUR AND P-GLABRA SEED FLOUR https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2149 <p><em>Pachira glabra </em>is one of the abundant underutilized plants in the tropics. The seeds were processed into flour. A sample of the flour were evaluated for physicochemical composition, functional properties, baking test and the bread produced were subjected to sensory analysis. The results of proximate analysis showed that P. glabra flour had significantly higher total fat content, Crude fiber and total ash content (P&gt;0.05), but with lower values of other components when compared with the white wheat flour. The anti – nutrient properties of P. glabra flour such as; Tannins, Phytates, Oxalates and Alkaloids were obtained to be; 3.29, 6.99, 3.74 and 1.98 mg/100g respectively. The functional properties of <em>P. glabra</em> flour had significantly higher in WAC, and swelling capacity (P&gt;0.05), but with lower values of forming capacity and OAC, both the two samples had the same value of bulk density. P. glabra flour may find its use in food industry. The volume of the bread obtained after baking test showed a decrease of bread volume with an increase in P. glabra flour substitution. The results of Sensory evaluation gotten from the panelist were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and there was significant difference in colour, aroma and overall acceptability but no significant difference in taste, and texture.</p> Mustapha Yusuf Dauda, Dorcas Isaac, Sani Abubakar Jumare, Sharfaddeen Shehu, Aliyu Abdullahi Maru, Alabi O. Akintoyese Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2149 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 10:07:25 +0000 SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM LANNEA ACIDA VIA AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2163 <p>The reducing ability of plant extract cost-effectiveness is the major factor to consider in the green synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The present study investigates two different extraction methods for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) via aqueous and methanolic Lannea acida leaf extract for the first time. The effect of silver nitrate concentration, and quantity of the silver nitrate (volume) on that of plant extract and studied by UV–Vis spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The methanolic extract silver nanoparticles show a remarkable difference compared to silver nanoparticles synthesized from the aqueous extract, this is ascertained that methanol has the potential applications than the silver nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous extract.</p> Kamal Danazumi, Ahmad Muhammad Sani, Alhassan Kabir Usman, Abdullahi Usman Umar Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2163 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 18:46:33 +0000 MORPHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF BOSSO, CHANCHAGA AND TAGWAI DAMS IN NIGER STATE OF NIGERIA FOR HYDROPOWER ELECTRIC APPLICATIONS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2247 <p>The morphological and morphometric assessment of Bosso, Chanchaga and Tagwai dams was carried out between 16<sup>th</sup> of November 2023 and 31<sup>st</sup> December 2023, to determine their suitability for hydropower electric generation. The morphological and morphometric primary data were collected from the dam sites through direct observations of the morphological characteristics of the dams and morphometric measurements of the width of the dams using tape rule in order to calculate their volumes and storage capacities, since they are relatively small dams with pre-existing structures that facilitated the measurements. The result shows that Bosso dam is a storage, lake, upstream and valley dam with height of 17 m, length of 132 m, width of 110 m, volume of 246,800.0 m<sup>3</sup> and storage capacity of 41,466.7 m<sup>3 </sup>with the dam capable of supplying water to drive extremely minimum flow turbine of 0. 27 m<sup>3</sup>/s for 157,577.77 seconds, 2.559.63 minutes, 42.66 hours and 1.78 days assuming there is no further inflow of water into the dam and no water is lost from the dam. Tagwai dam is storage, plain and lake dam with height of 25 m, length of 1,770 m, width of 98.5 m, volume of 4,458,625.0 m<sup>3</sup> and capacity of 726,437.5 m<sup>3</sup>. Chanchaga dam is a storage, downstream, lake and valley dam with height of 33.0 m, length of 2,400 m, width of 65 m, volume of 5,148,000.0 m<sup>3</sup> and capacity of 858,000.0 m<sup>3</sup>. The assessment of the dam proves that they are suitable for hydroelectric power applications.</p> A. Yusuf, M. Momoh, Davidson Odafe Akpootu, A. S. Bature Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2247 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EROSION RESISTANCE BETWEEN TERMITE MOUNDS AND SURROUNDING SOILS IN NIGERIAN DEFENCE ACADEMY, AFAKA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2249 <p>A combination of chemical elements, organic matter and rainfall weaken surface rocks and render them liable to water erosion, but insignificantly affect termite mounds. The study is embarked upon to identify the concentration of Ca, Fe, Na, C, and organic matter content in termite mounds and adjacent soils to deduce the influence of resistance of termite mount to erosion. Data on the chemical elements and organic matter contents were generated through laboratory tests using heat, and an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer to read the values. The percentage of the chemical elements was calculated as: Instrument Reading multiplied by Extraction Volume 50ml divided by the weight of samples. The percentage of organic matter contents were determined using weight loss on ignition by an oven-dried soil sample. The set of data was analyzed by comparing the difference in magnitude of the chemical concentration and organic matter content in both the samples. The values differ insignificantly by 0.02%, 0.001%, 0.21%, 0.01%, and 0.24% for Ca, C, Fe, Na, and organic matter respectively. From the result, the resistance of termite mound to erosion is not influenced by the chemical concentration and organic matter content, but due to the maintenance of the mound by the termites, tapering end toward the atmosphere, fairly straight with steep slopes, and have dome shape that reduces effects of forceful fall of the raindrop. Further study should be conducted to determine the influence of chemical elements and organic matter on surface erosion for sustainable development of soils.</p> Edwin N. Gandapa, Isah Shuaibu, J. I. Matapa Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2249 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 21:58:47 +0000 GEOCHEMICAL, MINERALOGICAL, AND PETROGRAPHICAL STUDIES OF IRONSTONES AROUND MOUNT PATTI, SOUTHERN BIDA BASIN, NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR QUALITY ASSESSMENT, PROVENANCE AND ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2251 <p>The mineralogical composition, geochemistry, and depositional environment of the ironstone exposed on Mount Patti in the southern Bida Basin of Nigeria were assessed using integrated geochemical, mineralogical, and petrographic techniques. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and transmitted light microscopy were used in geochemical, and petrographical investigations of fourteen representative ironstone samples. Average chemical analysis results showed that the concentrations of SiO<sub>2</sub> (5.93 wt%), TiO<sub>2</sub> (0.09 wt%), Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (10.76 wt%), and Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (77.47 wt%) were as follows. The ironstone may be found in a shallow marine environment or non-marine environment if the concentrations of CaO, Na<sub>2</sub>O, K<sub>2</sub>O, MnO, and CuO are less than 0.40. This assertion is supported by the absence of sulfur oxide (SO<sub>3</sub>) in the examined samples and the bivariate plot of SiO<sub>2</sub> versus Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and triangular plot of Fe-Mn-(Cu+Zn). Low levels of CaO and the absence of CO<sub>3</sub> indicate that the environment is oxidizing. The iron's grade was calculated and found to be approximately 54.180%, which has been classified as low grade. The study also revealed that the ironstone contains a high amount of gangue materials (Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>), its silica (SiO<sub>2</sub>) content is within permissible limits, and it is devoid of harmful materials like sulfur. Based on petrographic studies, the floating contact displayed by the framework grains indicates that the iron cements were eodiagenetic in origin. Although it can be used more effectively as cast iron, sufficient beneficiation (to remove excess silica) can make it useful for iron and steel production.</p> R. Ayuba, Y. Baba, L. M. Adamu, G. D. Ochu, A. Ebe, A. U. Emmanuel Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2251 Fri, 01 Mar 2024 08:41:13 +0000 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A PLASTIC BOTTLE-BASED SUBSURFACE IRRIGATION SYSTEM https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2135 <p>Several attempts have been made by researchers for an efficient and cost-effective means of applying irrigation water, since traditional Surface irrigation system is becoming unsustainable due to water shortage. Adoption of most of these systems have failed because sophistication in design and complexity in setup. The use of recycled plastic bottles (PB) is another attempt at achieving a less complex system, yet promoting reuse of spent PB. Experimental Plot was set up in Samaru-Zaria, for a Subsurface irrigation system using recycled PB perforated at the base and connected to network of pipes. Evaluation of the system was carried out to determine the orifice size, orifice depth and the type of fertilizer application with the best agronomic yield parameters in RCBD design with sixteen (16) treatments replicated three (3) times. The results show the treatment with 3mm orifice size buried to 10mm depth with inorganic fertilizer performs best. The use of PB is therefore recommended for use in subsurface system to promote low-cost, less complex yet very effective water saving irrigation system.</p> Habeeb Adekunle Adigun, Mohammed Khalid Othman, Henry Evonameh Igbadun Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2135 Fri, 01 Mar 2024 13:39:02 +0000 CROP YIELD PREDICTION USING SELECTED MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2220 <p>Agriculture is paramount to global food security, and predicting crop yields is crucial for policy and planning. However, predicting these yields is challenging due to the myriad of influencing factors, from soil quality to climate conditions. While traditional methods relied on historical data and farmer experience, recent advancements have witnessed a shift towards machine learning (ML) for improved accuracy. This study explored the application of machine learning (ML) techniques in predicting crop yields using data from Nigeria. Previous efforts lacked transferability across crops and localities; this research aimed to devise modular and reusable workflows. Using data from the Agricultural Performance Survey of Nigeria, this study evaluated the performance of different machine learning algorithms, including Linear Regression, Support Vector Regressor, K-Nearest neighbor, and Decision Tree Regressor. Results revealed the Decision Tree Regressor as the superior model for crop yield prediction, achieving a prediction accuracy of 72%. The findings underscore the potential of integrating ML in agricultural planning in Nigeria where agriculture significantly impacts the economy. Further research is encouraged to refine these models for broader application across varying agroecological zones.</p> Nazifi Shuaibu, G. N. Obunadike, Bashir Ahmad Jamilu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2220 Fri, 01 Mar 2024 14:38:14 +0000 SUITABILITY OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY FOR DRINKING USING WATER QUALITY INDEX IN KANO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2217 <p>Groundwater is an important source of drinking water in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria. This study aims to assess the suitability of groundwater for drinking using the water quality index (WQI). 960 water samples were collected from 160 sites in the Kano Metropolis and analyzed 9 physicochemical parameters, 9 heavy metals and two groups of microbial parameters using American Public Health Association standard procedures in a laboratory. The values obtained for the various parameters were then compared to the World Health Organization’s (WHO) and Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ). The overall WQI for each LGA was calculated using Weighted Arithmetic Index guidelines. The results showed that overall WQI is generally unsuitable for drinking with ranged values of borehole water from 47.07 - 149.51 in Dala and Nasarawa respectively while the well water ranged from 94.17 - 251.44 at Tarauni and Kumbotso and spatially represented in map of Kano metropolis. Marginally suitable for drinking were recorded at Dala and some individual wells in well-planned and clean areas (Bompai Quarters, GRAs). The T-Test statistical analysis between borehole and well in Dala, KMC and Nasarawa LGAs showed significant variations at <em>P </em>= &lt; .05 while Fagge, Gwale, Kumbotso, Tarauni and Ungogo LGAs showed no significant differences. The study recommends the need for improved water management strategies, such as desalination and water treatment, to increase access to safe drinking water.</p> Simon Stephen Mshelia, Arhyel Yusuf Mbaya Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2217 Fri, 01 Mar 2024 20:11:38 +0000 SAFETY EVALUATION OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF Solanum nigrum LEAF IN ANASTROZOLE-INDUCED POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME IN WISTAR RATS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2253 <p>Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder prevalent among women of reproductive age.&nbsp;<em>Solanum nigrum leaf </em>is used traditionally in the treatment of various gynecological disorders. The toxicological effects of aqueous extract of <em>Solanum nigrum</em> leaves (AESNL) at 200 mg/kg body weight on anastrozole-induced in polycystic ovarian syndrome was investigated in female Wistar rats. Sixteen female Wistar rats (190.56 ± 5.35g) were assigned into 4 groups (A - D) of four animals each: animals in group A received 0.5 ml of distilled water orally on daily basis for 14 days while the anastrozole-induced rats in groups B, C, and D also received orally 0.5 ml of distilled water, 7.14mg/kg of metformin (reference drug) and same volume of the extract corresponding to 200 mg/kg body weight of AESNL respectively. Parameters assayed for were liver function tests, kidney function tests and enzyme assays. The result obtained revealed that AESNL mitigated anastrozole-treatment related increases in albumin, uric acid, total protein parameters, total bilirubin, liver and serum aspartate aminotransferase, kidney alkaline phosphatase, liver gamma-glutamyl transferase activities, and aggravated the increases in urea, direct bilirubin, creatinine, liver and serum alkaline phosphatase, and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activities. Therefore, the aqueous extract of <em>Solanum nigrum </em>leaves at the 200 mg/kg body weight might not be completely safe when used in the treatment of PCOS due to alterations in toxicological parameters evaluated in this study.</p> Fehintoluwa Joy Femi-Olabisi, Precious Adeola Adesoji, Anthonia Oluyemi Agboola, Odunayo Olowolehin Oladoye Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2253 Fri, 01 Mar 2024 20:51:23 +0000 CHARACTERIZATION OF PERIWINKLE SHELL ASH REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITE FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2158 <p>The Periwinkle shell (<em>Tympanotonus fuscatus</em>) is one of the most abundant wastes in the Calabar coastal region of&nbsp; Nigeria and needs to be put into proper use. The great need to shift attention towards waste materials with good mechanical properties to replace some materials used in the Automobile industries for Automobile products is paramount. This research focused on the Mechanical characterization of several composites developed from Periwinkle Shell Powder (PSP) as filler and four selected polymeric materials as the matrix.&nbsp; Recycled high-density polyethylene (rHDPE), Recycled linear low-density polyethylene (rLLDPE), Recycled polystyrene (rPP) and recycled polystyrene (rPS) from waste dumps were selected as the Matrix for the composites. The crushed periwinkle shell&nbsp; (CPSP) was subjected to a calcination (ashing) process. Ashed Periwinkle Shell Powder (APSP) was used to reinforce the rHDPE, rLLDPE, rPP and rPS at 0 to 40% filler loading. Mechanical tests carried out resulted in the 30%PSP and 70%PP composite having better tensile and flexural strengths, good flexural modulus, hardness, impact and moisture absorption results. Results obtained from the mechanical tests were comparable with values obtained from a tested existing vehicle bumper. The APSP-filled recycled polymer composites can serve as a suitable green alternative to existing vehicle bumpers.</p> Patrick Ushie Adah, A. A. Nuhu, A. A. Salawu, A. B. Hassan, P. A. Ubi Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2158 Fri, 01 Mar 2024 21:44:14 +0000 COMPOSITIONAL AND WEATHERABILITY INDICES OF GETSO KAOLIN DEPOSITS FOR POZZOLANA PRODUCTION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2254 <p>Kaolin is an aluminio-silicate mineral naturally distributed within the earth’s crust formed from the weathering of rich feldspartic rocks. The compositional requirements of Getso kaolin deposits for pozzolana production have been carried out. The kaolin deposits were hosted by the rhyolitic rocks of the basement complex of North-Western Nigeria. Three samples from each five locations at different depths were collected and analysed using Free Swelling Ratio (FSR), Free Swelling Index (FSI), X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy/Electron Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The FSI and FSR ranged between 0-6-0.9 and 16-36 revealing non-swelling and non-expansive Kaolinitic material. The XRF results showed the average concentration of SiO<sub>2</sub>+ Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>+Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>: point 1 (78.99 wt.%); point 2 (78.62 wt.%); point 3 (79.14 wt.%); point 4 (80.10 wt.%) and point 5 (80.0 wt.%) suggested to be classified as N pozzolana (ASTMC 618). The Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>/MgO versus SiO<sub>3</sub> indicated the samples were products of the calc-alkaline series which is an indication of light colour kaolin deposits. The computed Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA: 91.34), Chemical Index of Weatheribility (CIW: 98.13), Index of compositional variability (CIV: 0.29), Silica Modulus Ratio (SM: 1.77), Lime Silica Ratio (LSR: 0.14) and Aluminum Iron Ratio (AIR: 30.0) indicated very strong weathering intensity high matured, high silica moderate aluminum and less ferrite. The studied kaolin could be utilized for the production of pozzolana after its being beneficiated to remove the TiO<sub>2</sub>.</p> Hassan Aliyu, A. K. Mohammed, S. A. KofarBai, K. R. Muhammad Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2254 Sat, 02 Mar 2024 11:58:48 +0000 MODELING NOVEL COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN NIGERIA USING COUNT DATA REGRESSION MODELS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2211 <p>This study aimed to model COVID-19 daily cases in Nigeria, focusing on confirmed, active, critical, recovered, and death cases using count data regression models. Three count data regression models-Poisson regression, Negative Binomial regression, and Generalized Poisson regression were applied to predict COVID-19 related deaths based on the mentioned variables. Secondary data from the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) between February 29, 2020, and October 19, 2020, were used. The study found that Poisson Regression could not handle over-dispersion inherent in the data. Consequently, Negative Binomial Regression and Generalized Poisson Regression were considered, with Generalized Poisson Regression identified as the best model through performance criteria such as -2 log likelihood (-2logL), Akaike information criterion (AIC), and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The study revealed positive and significant impacts of confirmed, active, and critical cases on COVID-19 related deaths, while recovered cases had a negative effect. Recommendations included increased attention to confirmed, active, and critical cases by relevant authorities to mitigate COVID-19-related deaths in Nigeria.</p> David Adugh Kuhe, Enobong Francis Udoumoh, Ukamaka Lawrensia Ibeajaa Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2211 Sat, 02 Mar 2024 12:39:17 +0000 ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY AND DETECTION OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM B-LACTAMASE GENES IN GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2207 <p>Antibiotic-resistant (AR) bacteria especially from commonly shared surfaces in the environment, pose a serious threat to global public health. The increasing demand for electronic banking and the associated risk of the spread of pathogenic bacteria makes it crucial to assess the antibiotic susceptibility and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes in bacteria isolated from automated teller machines (ATMs). Following standard procedures, a total of 22 samples were collected randomly from different ATMs using sterile cotton swabs soaked in physiologic saline and cultured on selective media. Isolates were characterized biochemically. Antibiotics susceptibility test was carried out on isolates using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. All Gram-negative isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to evaluate the common extended-spectrum beta-lactamase –encoding (ESBL) genes. Bacterial isolates were characterized as <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (33.33%)<em>, Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (19.61%)<em>, Escherichia coli</em> (15.69%)<em>, Staphylococcus aureus</em> (9.80%)<em>, Acinetobacter </em>spp. (7.84%)<em>, Enterobacter </em>spp. and <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> (5.88%)<em>, </em>and <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> (1.96%). The highest antibiotic resistance pattern was displayed against ceftazidime (45.1%), followed by tetracycline (43.1%), cefixime (41.2%), ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol (29.4%) and meropenem (9.8%). The <em>TEM</em> gene (54.8%) was recovered most, followed by <em>CTX-M</em> (28.6%) and <em>SHV</em> (19.0%). This study reveals that ATMs could harbour pathogenic bacteria with antibiotic resistance (AR) genes especially ESBL genes (<em>bla</em>TEM) which could be responsible for the widespread resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, adequate personal hygiene by users, proper cleaning regimen to sanitize these facilities regularly and public enlightenment are recommended to reduce the accompanying risks of spreading AR genes within the environment</p> Gbolabo Odewale, Motunrayo Yemisi Jibola-Shittu, Hannatu Eleojo Mary Bala, Rose Akogwu, Latifat Oyinlola Raimi Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2207 Mon, 04 Mar 2024 06:33:27 +0000 VOLATILITY ANALYSIS OF CRUDE OIL PRICES IN NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2212 <p>This study investigates the symmetric and asymmetric characteristics as well as the persistence of shocks in the Nigerian crude oil returns, utilizing monthly and daily crude oil prices spanning from January 2006 to September 2022 and November 3, 2009, to November 4, 2022, respectively. Descriptive statistics, normality measures, time plots, and the Dickey-Fuller Generalized Least Squares unit root test were employed to analyze the series properties. Symmetric ARMA (1,1)-GARCH (2,1) and asymmetric ARMA (1,1)-TARCH (2,1) models for monthly and daily returns, with varying innovation densities, were utilized, alongside symmetric GARCH (1,1) and asymmetric TARCH (1,1) models. Model selection criteria including AIC, SIC, HQC, and log likelihood guided the order and error distribution selection. Results revealed non-normal distributions for both monthly and daily prices and returns, non-stationarity in prices, and weak stationarity in log returns with ARCH effects detected in both returns. Symmetric models exhibited volatility clustering, high shocks persistence, mean-reverting behaviour, and predictability in both returns. Asymmetric models identified asymmetry with leverage effects in both returns, indicating that negative shocks induce greater volatility than positive shocks of the same magnitude. Mean reversion and volatility half-life findings suggested that crude oil prices tend to revert to their long-run averages. The study recommended promoting market information flow and aggressive trading to enhance market depth and mitigate the volatile nature of the Nigerian crude oil market.</p> David Adugh Kuhe, Enobong Francis Udoumoh, Damian Oche Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2212 Mon, 04 Mar 2024 16:36:01 +0000 STUDY OF THE HISTOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECT OF INSTANT NOODLES ON THE KIDNEY AND LIVER ON RATS MODEL https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2257 <p>Instant noodle is produced from flour, and sold in dried form in packets. The noodles are easy and quick in preparation to eat, it can also eat as snacks or as main food. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of noodle with and without seasoning on the histology as well as biochemical parameters of liver and kidney on rats’ model. Three groups of 5 Wistar rats were used, they were fed with noodle with and without seasoning for the period of 28 days. After 28 days the blood of rats was collected for biochemical analysis, the rats were also sacrificed, liver and kidney were removed for histological analysis. Histological results show only a little change in the architecture of the liver and kidney, but only small amount of fat droplet in liver section. The Liver and Kidney tests didn’t show any changes in their parameters, only little increase in urea level of the kidney. Conclusively from this research, it was revealed no much effect of consuming instant noodle in rat model.</p> Mohammed Ibrahim, Rilwan Isah Tsamiya, Promise Oladipo, Bala Gaius Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2257 Mon, 04 Mar 2024 20:08:20 +0000 A MONTE CARLO STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF EMPIRICAL THRESHOLD AUTOREGRESSIVE MODELS UNDER VIOLATION OF STATIONARITY ASSUMPTIONS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2258 <p>One of the major importance of modeling in time series is to forecast the future values of that series. And this requires the use of appropriate method to fit the time series data which are dependent on the nature of the data. We are aware that most financial and economic data are mostly non-stationary. . The study is an extension of the work of Romsen et al (2020) which dealt with forecasting of nonlinear data that are stationary with only two threshold regimes. The study recommendations that In further research, the above models can be extended to other regimes (such as the 3 – regimes Threshold models) as well as comparing them with other regimes to understand the behaviors of the other regimes in selecting a suitable model for a data. STAR (2,1) and SETAR (2,2) are recommended to fit and forecast nonlinear data of trigonometric, exponential and polynomial forms respectively that are non-stationary.</p> Lateef Yusuf, Ahmad Abdulkadir, Bello Abdulrasheed, Ahmed Abdulazeez Abdullahi Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2258 Mon, 04 Mar 2024 21:07:06 +0000 NEW MODELS FOR ESTIMATION OF DIFFUSE SOLAR RADIATION USING METEOROLOGICAL PARAMETERS FOR BENIN, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2259 <p>In this comprehensive study, an extensive 22-year dataset (2001-2022) for Benin (Latitude 6.32 <sup>o</sup>N, Longitude 5.10 <sup>o</sup>E and 77.80 m above sea level) were obtained from the National Aeronautic Space Administration (NASA) website. The datasets comprises of the monthly average daily global solar radiation, diffuse solar radiation, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, and mean temperature, was utilized to develop 19 new models for estimating diffuse solar radiation. These models were categorized into five distinct groups: modified Page, Liu and Jordan models; clearness index and one-variable models; two-variable models; three-variable models, and a four-variable model. These models were statistically evaluated using a set of five validation indices—Mean Bias Error (MBE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Percentage Error (MPE), t-test, and the coefficient of determination (R²). The study identified the most effective models in each category. Equation 28b from the modified Page, Liu and Jordan category, Equation 28f from the clearness index and one-variable models, Equation 28j from the two-variable models, and Equation 28o from the three-variable models category were found to be the best-performing models. A comparative assessment of these performed models revealed that the quadratic regression model (Equation 28b) stood out as the most suitable for accurately estimating diffuse solar radiation in Benin. This implies that the developed model equation 28b can be used to estimate the diffuse solar radiation for Benin and locations with similar climatic conditions</p> Simeon I. Salifu, B. S. Hamza, D. O. Akpootu, T. A. Kola, A. Yusuf Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2259 Tue, 05 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 PETROGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF OKOBO COAL, NORTHERN ANAMBRA BASIN, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2260 <p>Petrographic studies have been carried out on coal samples from Okobo coal deposit in the northern Anambra Basin of Nigeria. The studies were carried out primarily to determine the petrographic characteristics of the coal based on its composition and vitrinite reflectance. Maceral characterization reveals the presence of the three maceral groups; vitrinite, liptinite and inertinite in all the samples. Generally, the proportion of the vitrinites and inertinites are higher than the liptinites in the samples. On mineral matter-free basis, the coal, on average, contains 65.10 % vitrinite, 11.30 % liptinite and 23.60 % inertinite. With mineral matter counted, on average, it consists of 57.10 % vitrinite, 10.20 % liptinite, 21.50 % inertinite and 11.20 % mineral matter. The coal, on average, also contains 67.30 % reactives (vitrinite + liptinite) and 32.70 % inerts (inertinite + mineral matter). It has mean vitrinite reflectance measurement of 0.54 % R<sub>omax</sub> on average. These petrographic characteristics suggest that the coal does not possess coking qualities suitable for coke making blends for metallurgical processes such as iron and steel manufacture thereby placing it on low quality and non-coking. However, it is good for electricity generation. The coal is appropriate in heating boilers and ovens in industrial heating process. The cement, glass, ceramics, paper and brick industries can use it for this purpose.</p> Felix Bamidele Fatoye, Yomi Barnabas Gideon, Joseph Itah Omada Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2260 Tue, 05 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2261 <p>Emotional intelligence is the relationships that directly impact how people relate to themselves and to others within a socio-cultural environment. A person who possesses emotional intelligence is able to communicate effectively while controlling and understanding other individual’s emotional inclinations. Individuals desire to express their state of mind, worries, traumas, and obstacles in life as well as get answers and help for their problems. However, they desire security and protection for the feelings, anxieties, trauma, and life obstacles they express. Therefore, individuals require a support structure where they can discuss their problems and seek potential answers while knowing that their identities would be kept private. A “Decision Support System” (DSS) for emotional intelligence is a electronic program that supports decisions, judgments, courses of action, and the proficiency of deploying artificial intelligence (AI) to regulate both your own and those around you emotionally. In this study we use AI to help in decision making to create confidential space between user and app. The technology uses are JavaScript, HTML, openAI, Replicate, PINECONE, CSS, PHP and MySQL. This research shows how technology has the ability to improve emotional intelligence using decision support system in individual’s daily lives.</p> I. Tracy Okonigene, A. Anthony Imianvan Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2261 Tue, 05 Mar 2024 09:20:32 +0000 ASSESSING ANNUAL EXPOSURES DOSE AND OTHER RADIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS FROM COSMIC RADIATION AMONG FLIGHT CREWS IN NIGERIA LOCAL AIRLINE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2203 <p>Cosmic radiation is high-energy radiation generated in outer space that increases with altitudes. This study uses aircrew cosmic radiation exposure to measure radiation dose received by monitoring individual crew members (a total of 179 members for all the crews in the three routes for 2011 to 2022) using computer model calculator (CARI – 6M) on Nigeria’s local airlines crews and evaluated other radiological parameters. The finding shows that annual effective dose (AED) received by the air crew members between 2011 and 2022 across the three routes (Lagos – Kano, Lagos – Abuja and Lagos – Port Harcourt) ranges between 0.230 and 1.90 µSv y<sup>-1</sup> and there is a direct relationship between the time of flight and the effective dose received by the crew members. This result is lower than the recommended value of 20 µSv y<sup>-1</sup> by International bodies. The result also revealed that Annual Gonadal Dose Equivalent (AGDE) across the three routes ranges from 7.20 – 380 µSv y<sup>-1 </sup>with only Lagos – Kano route in year 2017 (380 µSv y<sup>-1</sup>) were above the maximum permissible value of 300 µSv y<sup>-1</sup>. &nbsp;The findings indicated low AED however; the significant excess lifetime cancer risk that increases with cumulative doses and dependent of the flight route constitute a risk. This implies that, there are possibilities of the crew members developing cancer during their lifetime.&nbsp; It’s therefore recommended that Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority should introduce regulations and training program to reduce potential sources of radiation exposure of Nigerian flight crews.</p> Sakiru Abiodun Okedeyi, Yusuf Olanrewaju Kayode, Abimbola Joshua, Adesanya Oluwafemi Atilade, Femi Emmanuel Ikuemonisan, Anthony Segara Ajose , Farouk Ajeigbe Kasika, Bilikisu Opeyemi Odubote, Balqis Ayoka Ejire-Adedolapo Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2203 Tue, 05 Mar 2024 10:15:49 +0000 MOLECULAR DETECTION OF WATER PROTOZOAN PARASITES FROM SELECTED RIVERS IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2262 <p>Drinking water or potable water also known as improved drinking water is said to be any water that is free from physical, chemical, biological or radiological form of contamination. Water samples were collected from 5 rivers in Omuchi Aluu, Choba, Chokocho, Oyigbo, and Aleto communities, in Rivers State, Nigeria, used for activities such as washing, bathing, fishing, and dredging by community indigenes. Water samples were collected from various sampling stations and, transported to the laboratory, African Biosciences, Ibadan for analysis to characterize and identify the protozoan parasites using molecular techniques. This study aimed at characterizing the genotype of protozoan parasites of water from selected rivers in River State, Nigeria, using molecular methods to check for portability and purity of water. DNA Primers of five protozoan parasites, <em>Giardia </em>species, <em>Entamoeba </em>species, <em>Cryptosporidium </em>species, <em>Cyclospora </em>species, and <em>Toxoplasma </em>species were used to analyze and detect the presence of the genes of these protozoans. The study showed the presence of <em>Giardia duodenalis</em> and <em>Cryptosporidium parvuum</em>, and the absence of <em>Entamoeba histolytica</em>, <em>Cyclospora cayetanensis</em>, and <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> from the water samples collected from Omuchi Aluu, Choba, Chokocho, Oyigbo, and Aleto rivers. It was concluded that water samples collected from rivers contaminated with parasites, is unsuitable for drinking, hence community locals should be sensitized to embark on good water sanitary and hygiene (WASH) practices, for a healthy life and sustainable environment.</p> Sandra G. Okere, Florence O. Nduka, Kome Otokunefor Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2262 Tue, 05 Mar 2024 12:08:50 +0000 PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF DIABETES MELLITUS AMONG WOMEN USING THE MULTINOMIAL LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2263 <p>Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prolonged disease with debilitating effect on man. This includes many health problems because the disease is a risk factor for a number of complications. This study employs a multinomial logistic regression model to explore the prevalence of diabetes and identify contributing factors.&nbsp; Analyzing a diverse range of variables, the study aims to provide in-depth insights into the complex relationships influencing diabetes occurrence. The findings indicated that poor health status contributed more, among other factors, in terms of influencing diabetes. This could be as a result of having other health challenges. Also, women with stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and heart disease were at greater risk of having diabetes compared to those not having. Women who were active had lower risk of having diabetes compared to those who were inactive as physical activities help control bodyweight through increased fat metabolism. Increasing age is often accompanied by a progressive decline in most physiological functions, resulting in increased susceptibility to disease. It was observed in this research that DM was more prevalent in elderly women than women of younger age.</p> Teniola O. Olayeye, Oluwatoyin K. Bodunwa, Ayoade I. Adewole Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2263 Tue, 05 Mar 2024 16:46:45 +0000 EFFECTS OF LATERITE ON STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF REINFORCED CONCRETE AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF FINE AGGREGATE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2210 <p>Throughout the world, concrete is widely utilized in buildings, and due to a rise in construction activity, there is a growing requirement for fine aggregate. This study aims to examine how laterite, which replaces some fine aggregate in reinforced concrete, affects the material’s strength and durability. The physical properties of materials were investigated. The compressive strength and flexural strength of laterized concrete were determined for each replacement level of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% at a mix ratio of 1:2:4 and a water-cement ratio of 0.65, while for the water absorption, the percentages replacement of laterite to fine aggregates was 0, 10, and 20 % with the same mix ratio and water cement ratio. A 100 X 100 X 100 mm cube and 100 X 100 X 350 mm beams were tested for compressive and flexural strength at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of curing respectively. Water absorption was determined at 28, 56 and 90 days of curing age. The findings show that as the percentage of laterite substitution increases, the laterized concrete’s workability declines. However, the strength properties of the concrete partially replaced with laterite increase with curing age and decrease as the laterite content increases. Moreover, the water absorption of laterized concrete is increased by the inclusion of laterite. It was concluded that the use of laterite in the production of concrete should not be more than 10 %.</p> Isah Garba, Jibrin Mohammed Kaura, Tasiu Ashiru Sulaiman, Ibrahim Aliyu, Musa Abdullahi Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2210 Tue, 05 Mar 2024 17:32:55 +0000 CHLORITE AUTHIGENESIS AND ITS EFFECTS ON RESERVOIR POROSITY IN THE EARLY CRETACEOUS BIMA SANDSTONE, YOLA SUB-BASIN, NORTHERN BENUE TROUGH, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2229 <p>The effects of chlorite on sandstone reservoirs have received more attention recently. Deeply buried sandstone reservoirs are prone to diagenetic alterations due to the presence of clays thereby affecting their reservoir quality (porosity).&nbsp; The effects of chlorite authigenesis on reservoir porosity are yet to be fully understood, and these create uncertainties in reservoir exploration of the fluvial reservoir in the basin. The Early Cretaceous Bima Sandstone which is divided into the Lower and Upper Members was deposited in a braided river to alluvial fan settings. An integrated approach, including thin-section petrography, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses was employed in the study with the aim of determining the effects of different chlorite occurrences on reservoir quality (porosity). Sandstone reservoir quality depends on both depositional parameters like grain size, sorting and matrix content as well as diagenetic alterations. Chlorite formation involves the availability of precursor clays like smectite, kaolinite and berthierine as the material base and dissolution of detrital grains to provide Fe and Mg ions. Two types of authigenic chlorite occurrences were observed in this research; the grain-coating chlorite and the pore-filling chlorite. The study shows that chlorite sourced from smectite-dominant clays occurs as grain-coating thereby inhibiting quartz overgrowth, whereas chlorite formed from kaolinite are found as pore-fillings which leads to deterioration of reservoir porosity.</p> Nuru Abdullahi Nabage, A. S. Maigari, A. I. Haruna, B. A. Umar, T. P. Bata, A. H. Aliyu, S. U. Umar, Y. Abdulmumin, S. Abdulkarim Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2229 Tue, 05 Mar 2024 21:43:42 +0000 EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROCESSING METHODS ON THE PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL, AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF DOMESTICATED GRASSCUTTER (Thryonomys swinderianus) https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1394 <p>Wildlife plays a crucial role in supplying energy, protein, and various components essential for human diets in tropical regions. In urban areas, there is still substantial consumption of bush meat, such as grasscutter, which serves as a significant source of nutrition. The study examined the proximate composition, mineral content, and sensory properties of processed grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) meat using three distinct preparation methods. The grasscutter samples were acquired from the Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management at the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The meat underwent smoking, boiling, and oven drying after slaughtering and washing. A portion of each processed grasscutter meat was collected, placed in sterile containers, and transported to the laboratory for proximate and mineral analysis. A questionnaire was employed for organoleptic evaluation and twelve taste panelists comprising randomly selected students, non-academic staff members, and lecturers from the department participated in the assessment. The proximate analysis followed the standard procedure outlined in the AOAC method (2005). Results indicated that the crude protein content was 20.06% for smoked and 16.40% for oven-dried grasscutter meat. The oven-dried meat exhibited lower fat content. Sensory evaluation suggested that oven-dried meat was perceived as the most favorable, with the highest mean values for aroma (8.42±0.26), taste (7.67±0.36), flavor (8.42±0.99), texture (7.67±0.36), acceptability (7.67±0.36), and the lowest for odor (2.08±0.31) compared to boiled and smoked samples. Moreover, oven-dried grasscutter meat demonstrated elevated levels of magnesium (7.45%) and potassium (27.43%). It is therefore recommended that the oven drying method of meat processing should be...</p> Taiwo K. Adebowale, B. B. Ibiyomi, O. A. Akintunde, O. O. Oduntan, T. B. Ajibade Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1394 Tue, 05 Mar 2024 23:03:22 +0000 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND EVALUATION OF ANTISCHIZOPHRENIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF Hymenocardia acida Tul. (Phyllantaceae) https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2265 <p>Schizophrenia is a severe brain disorder marked by distortions in cognition, emotion, language, perception, and thought, affects an estimated 20 million individuals globally. In Nigeria, where a significant population relies on herbal medicines, including those derived from <em>Hymenocardia acida</em>, to address mental health needs, there have been traditional claims regarding the plant's efficacy in treating schizophrenia. This study aims to screen phytochemical constituents and establish the anti-schizophrenic potential of the methanol leaf extract of <em>H</em>. <em>acida</em>. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, and steroids in the methanol leaf extract. The Lorke method determined the intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD<sub>50</sub>) of the extract to be above 5000 mg/kg in mice. The anti-schizophrenic activity was assessed through various tests, including apomorphine-induced stereotypic behavior, swim-induced grooming, and haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Results indicated that the methanol leaf extract, at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, did not significantly reduce apomorphine-induced stereotypic behavior. However, it exhibited a significant and dose-dependent reduction in the average number of grooming episodes and the duration of swim-induced grooming behavior across all tested doses. Notably, the highest dose (1000 mg/kg) significantly reduced cataleptic effects at 60 minutes post haloperidol administration compared to the negative control. These findings suggest the potential anti-schizophrenic activity of the methanol leaf extract of <em>H</em>. <em>acida</em>, supporting its traditional use in addressing psychiatric disorders.</p> Suleiman Danladi, Nafisah Bisallah Lawal, Aisha Muhammad Alhassan Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2265 Tue, 05 Mar 2024 23:34:27 +0000 ASSESSING PREFERENCE AND PERCEPTION OF BUSHMEAT CONSUMERS AMONG HOUSEHOLDS IN IBADAN, OYO STATE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2266 Taiwo Adebowale, B. B. Ibiyomi, O. A. Akintunde, O. A. Ijose, M. B. Olaiyifa Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2266 Wed, 06 Mar 2024 00:00:28 +0000 EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF MORINGA OLEIFERA EXTRACT AS A NATURAL TISSUE FIXATIVE FOR HISTOPATHOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2267 <p>Histopathology, crucial for disease diagnosis, heavily relies on effective tissue fixation to maintain cellular architecture. However, the carcinogenic nature of formalin has spurred interest in safer alternatives. Moringa oleifera, renowned for its medicinal properties, presents a promising natural fixative candidate. This study aimed to assess Moringa oleifera extract's viability as a fixative for histopathological applications, specifically focusing on its compatibility with subsequent histological analyses. Distilled water and normal saline solutions of Moringa extract were prepared at varying concentrations. Kidney tissue samples from euthanized rats were treated with these solutions alongside formalin. Tissue sections underwent manual processing, embedding, sectioning, and staining using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&amp;E) technique. Microscopic examination revealed varying degrees of tissue preservation across Moringa concentrations and solvents. Higher concentrations (15%) in distilled water exhibited optimal preservation, akin to formalin-fixed tissues, while lower concentrations and normal saline solutions showed suboptimal fixation. These findings highlight Moringa oleifera's potential as a tissue fixative, particularly at higher concentrations in distilled water. Further research is recommended to isolate active components and explore alternative Moringa extracts for enhanced tissue preservation. Comparative studies would elucidate the efficacy of Moringa-derived fixatives and inform their utilization in histopathological practice.</p> Hassan Chiwar, A. T. Alkali, A. I. Musa, H. B. Umar Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2267 Wed, 06 Mar 2024 00:22:50 +0000 STRUCTURAL, ELECTRONIC AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF VANADIUM DOPED DELAFOSSITE CUGAO2: AN AB INITIO STUDY https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2196 <p>Delafossite copper gallium oxide (CuGaO<sub>2</sub>) is one of the most important copper-based delafossite materials reported. It has variety of applications that include but are not limited to; photo catalysis, dye-sensitized solar cells. However, due to the wide band gap of this material, it appears very attractive as transparent conductive oxide (TCO). Thus, it is very important and applicable in optoelectronic device technologies. In this paper, the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of vanadium (V) doped delafossite CuGaO<sub>2 </sub>are investigated using first principle study based on density functional theory (DFT) as implemented in the QUANTUM ESPRESSO simulation package. We used Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange-correlation scheme for the undoped and vanadium (V) doped structures. There is no structural transition after the doping. The results indicated that the V doping reduced the band gap of the undoped delafossite CuGaO<sub>2</sub> by 0.8 eV. It also contributed more to the conduction band states. However, our results also revealed that the 50 % V doping induced significant changes to the magnetic properties of the undoped CuGaO<sub>2</sub>. It was found that the undoped CuGaO<sub>2 </sub>is slightly paramagnetic similar to the same group member CuAlO<sub>2</sub>, whereas the V doped CuGaO<sub>2</sub> system is slightly ferromagnetic. This result is in agreement with previous literature concerning the effect of doping semiconductor material with magnetic metals. Thus, based on our results, V doped CuGaO<sub>2</sub> material may be considered as an important candidate for spintronics and other related applications.</p> Shamsuddeen Sani Alhassan, Aliyu Lawal Albaba Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2196 Wed, 06 Mar 2024 02:15:53 +0000 TILTED DOUBLE BOTTOM-SIMULATING REFLECTION RELATED TO RECENT FOLD LIMB ROTATION FROM THE DEEP OFFSHORE DEEPWATER NIGER DELTA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2222 <p>Double-BSRs are enigmatic seismic data reflections with implications on subsurface fluid migration and phase, and hydrate stability in shallow subsea sediments. From 3D exploration seismic data, we detail the occurrence of a double BSR from the Offshore Niger Delta. Identified in an earlier study, we delineate the areal extent of the double-BSR and model expected temperatures at the deeper BSR to provide constraints on its origin. The deeper BSR occurs at a minimum estimated depth of 114 m below the upper BSR. Temperature modeling results indicate Structure I hydrates are unstable at the current depth of the deeper BSR. The lower seismic amplitudes and discontinuous nature of the deeper BSR and its apparent hinterland tilt relative to the upper BSR suggest it marked the base of the gas hydrate stability zone in the climatic (GHSZ) and tectonic past when the pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions were significantly different. We propose that recent tectonic uplift on the thrust-cored ridge system considerably altered local P-T conditions which led to the dissociation of gas hydrates and consequent upward migration of the base of the GHSZ to shallower levels until it reached its present state, leaving behind a tilted relic of its former position. The relic likely benefited from low advective rates which encouraged its preservation through time. We further reckon that the tilt of the Relict BSR relates to the rotation of the fold limb during recent thrust activity and as a result we aver that Relict BSRs may record limb rotation on fault-bend folds.</p> Muslim Babatunde Aminu, Samuel Ojo Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2222 Wed, 06 Mar 2024 16:59:28 +0000 PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF VITAMIN C ON ACETAMINOPHEN-INDUCED LIVER AND KIDNEY TOXICITY IN MALE RATS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2237 <p>Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a widely used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic medication known for its efficacy and safety when administered within recommended doses. However, overdose or prolonged use of acetaminophen can lead to severe hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity, posing a significant public health concern. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of vitamin C on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Six rats were randomly assigned to seven groups, with Group 1 designated as the control. Groups 2, 4, and 6 were given daily single oral doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of acetaminophen, respectively. Meanwhile, Groups 3, 5, and 7 received daily single oral doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of acetaminophen, followed by intraperitoneal administration of 100 mg/kg of vitamin C daily, for 14 days. Liver function markers (AST, ALT, total bilirubin, and total protein) and renal function indicators (urea and creatinine levels) were assessed, alongside antioxidant status in liver and kidney tissues through antioxidant assays (SOD, CAT, GSH, and MDA). The results demonstrated the protective influence of vitamin C on liver and kidney tissues, as indicated by the modulation of biochemical markers. These findings suggest that vitamin C may play a pivotal role in alleviating acetaminophen-induced liver and kidney damage across different dosage regimens, potentially serving as a therapeutic intervention for preventing or treating drug-induced organ injuries. Further investigations are essential to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and validate the translational potential of vitamin C as a protective agent against acetaminophen toxicity.</p> Shirley Onagbonfeoana Ebhohon, Ekene Victor Asoya, Harrison Ekhorseye Iyare Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2237 Wed, 06 Mar 2024 19:26:41 +0000 DIGITAL CADASTRE FOR POTABLE WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK IN LOKOJA, KOGI STATE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2225 <p>Water is one of the most important natural resources, and as a resource to any nation, it should be well-planned, developed, conserved, distributed, and managed. Its infrastructure should also be properly maintained to avoid future water problems. This project sought to evaluate the water infrastructure in Lokoja with a focus on identifying areas requiring improvement. The scope of the study encompassed mapping the primary water pipeline distribution network and gathering geometric and attribute data concerning storage tanks and reservoirs within the designated area. Employing a combination of remote sensing and ground survey techniques, data was collected and utilized to generate a detailed spatial distribution map illustrating the major water supply networks and reservoirs. ArcGIS 10.2 was utilized for data processing and analysis, with the 3D analyst tool utilized to generate an elevation map and ascertain optimal site selection for gravity reservoir placement. The outcomes of the analysis included a visual representation of major pipeline connections, the precise location of tanks and reservoirs, and a comprehensive database containing both location and attribute information for these structures within the study area. The study findings revealed a pressing need for enhancing maintenance practices for water reservoir tanks, as a significant portion were found to be in substandard condition. Additionally, the study highlighted the necessity for pipeline extension to incorporate newly developed suburban areas within the study vicinity. The collated data serves as a pivotal resource for informed decision-making regarding the establishment of new reservoirs and the expansion of existing pipeline networks. Overall, this...</p> Ngozi Gloria Johnson, Happy O. John-Nwagwu, David U. Agada, G. T. Pepple, Franklin U. Okoli, A. L. Yaya Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2225 Wed, 06 Mar 2024 20:06:19 +0000 BASELINE SURVEY ON ENDOPARASITIC FAUNNA OF THE SILVER CATFISH (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) FROM ESCRAVOS ESTUARY, DELTA STATE NIGERIA, AND ITS ZOONOTIC IMPLICATION FOR FISH CONSUMER’S HEALTH https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2223 <p>The Silver Catfish (<em>Chrysichthys</em> <em>nigrodigitatus</em>) is one of the important food fishes for the inhabitants of the Escravos Estuary. Due to lack of information on the parasites of fish species in the Escarvos Estuary, including <em>C. nigrodigitatus</em>, fish eaters from the Escravos Estuary are at grave danger of contracting zoonotic diseases. &nbsp;The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of endoparasites in the Silver Catfish (<em>Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus</em>) from the Escravos Estuary, Nigeria. A total of 180 samples of <em>C. nigrodigitatus </em>were collected from September 2023 to February 2024 from fish landing sites in Okerenkoko community. The fish samples were transported to Fisheries and Aquaculture Laboratory, Nigeria Maritime University, Okerenkoko for examination and endoparasites identification. Two genera of endoparasites were found that infect <em>C. nigrodigitatus</em> from the Escravos Estuary, namely <em>Procamallanus</em> <em>laevionchus </em>and <em>Pomphorhynchus laevis</em> belonging to nematode and acanthocephalan. Only 6 samples were infected with 12 endoparasites with a total prevalence of 3.33 %. More hosts were infested with more parasites in the rainy season than dry season with a rainy season prevalence of 4.17 % and 1.17 % for dry season. Prevalence (6.25 %) of endoparasites was higher in 40.0 – 49.9 cm size class than other length classes with 20.0 – 29.9 cm size class recording the least prevalence (1.67%). More female hosts (66.67%) were infested than male hosts (33.33 %). Parasites were only found in the intestine and stomach of <em>C. nigrodigitatus</em> with no parasite in the fillet, liver, heart, and kidney. In conclusion,...</p> Amaka Michael, Victor O. Eyo, Ochuko Joshua Eriegha Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2223 Wed, 06 Mar 2024 20:36:49 +0000 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL ZEOLITE-X ENCAPSULATED Cu (II) PHTHALOCYANINE COMPLEX FOR SMALL MOLECULE ADSORPTION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2264 S. O. Okeniyi, P. E. Omale, Abdulrazak Shittu, Y. Mohammed, G. O. Itiveh Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2264 Thu, 07 Mar 2024 12:32:43 +0000 DNA BARCODING OF Caranx senegallus FROM THREE WATER BODIES ADJOINING THE GULF OF GUINEA, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2242 <p>Fish species show astonishing phenotypic and genetic diversity in populations. The delimitation and recognition of fish species are not only of interest to taxonomists but also a requirement in studies of ecology. In this study, the genetic structure of <em>Caranx senegallus</em> collected from three water bodies adjoining the Gulf of Guinea, Nigeria was characterized using the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode gene region. Fish samples collected from Qua Iboe estuary, Escravos estuary, and Lagos lagoon were identified morphologically, and muscle tissues were used for DNA barcoding using Fish1 and Fish2 primers. Evolutionary analysis showed the formation of diverging clades in the neighbor-joining tree and indicated the presence of multiple species. The result also revealed that morphological identification was not entirely successful, as the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) prediction confirmed the presence of three specimens initially identified as <em>C. senegallus </em>but genetically matching <em>C. fischeri</em> and <em>Trachinotus goreensis.</em> This observation further emphasized the need for an integrative method for species identification.</p> Ochuko Joshua Eriegha, Jerimoth Kesena Ekelemu, Oster Francis Nwachi Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2242 Thu, 07 Mar 2024 13:34:35 +0000 THE MODULATORY ROLE OF L-CARNITINE ON INFLAMMATION IN EXPERIMENTALLY-INDUCED TESTICULAR TORSION IN WISTAR RATS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2271 Richard Jewo Bebekah, Malajiya Ibrahim Alhaji Saleh, Aliyu Mohammed, Yusuf Tanko Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2271 Thu, 07 Mar 2024 22:37:51 +0000 DEVELOPMENT OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH PREDICTIVE MODELS OF SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE CURED USING DIFFERENT CURING METHODS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1012 <p>Curing is the process of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss, relative humidity and temperature from newly poured concrete for a certain period of time after it has been cast or finished to ensure that the cement has been properly hydrated and the concrete has hardened. The concrete strength, durability and other physical properties are affected by curing and application of the various types as it relates to the prevailing weather conditions in a particular locality, as curing is one of many requirements for concrete production, as such it is important to study the effect of different curing method. The concrete cube specimens produced with cement, fine aggregate, and coarse aggregate mix-ratio of 1:2.23:1.62 were prepared with a water-cement ratio of 0.5 and superplasticizer (SP) dosages of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%. The SP dosages were computed as percentages by weight of the cement content.&nbsp; The cubes were tested for compressive strength after curing for 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days using three curing methods namely; Immersion, open air, and wet burlap curing methods. This study assessed the effect of different curing methods on compressive strength of self-compacting concrete through the development of a mathematical method to model and analyze the effect of the curing methods used on the compressive strength of the SCC and also to validate the reliability of the method used. &nbsp;Data Fit software was used in the model development, the curing age and super-plasticizer dosage were used as independent variables while the compressive strength...</p> Bilkisu Hassan Sada Amartey, Ibrahim Aliyu, Bashir Usman Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1012 Fri, 08 Mar 2024 00:13:43 +0000 LOCATIONS OF TRIANGULAR EQUILIBRIUM POINTS OF THE RESTRICTED THREE-BODY PROBLEM WITH POYNTING-ROBERTSON DRAG AND VARIABLE MASSES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2275 <p>The restricted three-body problem (R3BP) is a fascinating problem that has been receiving attentions of astronomers and scientists because of its vast implications in diverse scientific fields, including among others; celestial mechanics, galactic dynamics, chaos theory and molecular physics. In this paper, we examine the locations of the triangular equilibrium points of the R3BP with Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag forces and variable masses. The primaries are assumed to vary under the unified Mestschersky law and their dynamics defined by the Gylden-Mestschersky equation, while the smaller primary is assumed to be a radiation emitter with P-R drag. The dynamical equations are obtained for both the non-autonomous with variable coefficients and autonomized system with constant coefficients. Further, the locations of the triangular points of the autonomized systems are obtained using perturbation method. It is seen that the positions are defined by the mass parameter, radiation pressure and P-R drag of the smaller primary. The triangular points of the non-autonomous equations are obtained with help of the Mestschersky transformation, and differ from those of the autonomized system due to a function of time. The equilibrium points have several applications in space missions, satellites constellations and station-keeping.</p> Oni Leke, Tajudeen Oluwafemi Amuda Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2275 Sun, 10 Mar 2024 22:34:50 +0000 EFFECT OF CHITOSAN INCLUSION ON THE PROPERTIES OF XANTHAN GUM-BASED EDIBLE FILMS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2165 Mercy Oyindamola Olowolafe, Victor Ndigwe Enujiugha, Ajibola Mitchell Oyinloye, Solomon Temidayo Olowolafe Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2165 Sun, 10 Mar 2024 22:58:59 +0000 DETERMINATION OF ANTIBIOSIS OF Trichoderma species AGAINST FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH CORN (Zea Mays L.) SPOILAGE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2252 <p>Biological control of food spoilage microorganisms is gaining more attention because it is a safe and cheap technique. This study evaluated the antagonistic potential of <em>Trichoderma </em>species against corn spoilage fungi by plate co-culture technique for seven days. Fungal isolates from corn spoilage were examined morphologically and microscopically. The percentage growth inhibition (PGI) of <em>Trichoderma</em> species against the corn spoilage fungi were <em>A</em>. <em>flavus </em>(15%), <em>A</em>. <em>niger </em>(14%), <em>A</em>. <em>terreus</em> (62.9%), <em>Fusarium </em>spp. (5.9%), <em>Nigrospora </em>spp. (61.4%) and <em>Penicillium </em>spp. (62.5%). The result obtained in this study revealed that <em>Trichoderma</em> spp. had significant inhibitory effects against the growth of fungal pathogens associated with corn spoilage. Therefore, it could be explored for control of post-harvest fungal spoilage of corn. It is recommended that in order to compare the antagonistic strength of the Trichoderma species, different species of Trichoderma should be tested against the same spoilage fungi.</p> Onyinyechi Ndimele Akomah-Abadaike, P. O. Anosike Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2252 Sun, 10 Mar 2024 23:32:45 +0000 NUTRITIONAL CONTENT, PHYTOCHEMICALS AND IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF RED AND WHITE ONION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2137 <p>Since antiquity onions (<em>Allium cepa, L</em>) have been cultivated across the globe as an important source of food and medicine. The study evaluated the nutritional content, phytochemistry and invitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extract of red and white onion bulbs. Red and white onion bulbs were purchased from a Local market in Maiduguri. Ethanol extracts were prepared using homogenized bulb. The proximate analysis, flavonoids, tannin, and phenol contents of the extracts as well as the antioxidant activities (total antioxidant activity, reducing power, and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities) were evaluated using standard procedures. The ash and carbohydrate contents of the two extracts were similar. However, the fat and protein contents were higher in white onion (2.44% &amp; 1.05%) compared to the red onion (1.00% &amp; 0.13%) while the moisture content was higher in red onion (16.10%) compared to the white onion (13.60%). The flavonoids, tannin, and phenol content as well as the total antioxidant activity was significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) in the red onion relative to the white. White onion had a better reducing power activity compared to the red while the red had higher DPPH free radical scavenging activity compared to the white. Conclusively, our findings revealed that both red and white onion contains varying quantity of phenolic compounds with strong reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activity. However, red onion was shown to have higher antioxidant activity relative to the white.</p> Hauwa Hajjagana Laminu, Fatimah Buba, Nathan Isaac Dibal, Rakiya Abana, Zamdai Yusuf Mamza, Sunday Joseph Manye, Abdulfatah Alhaji Hassan, Barka Ishaku Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2137 Sun, 10 Mar 2024 23:59:30 +0000 PALYNOFACIES STUDIES OF THE LATE CRETACEOUS (TURONIAN-MAASTRICHTIAN) STRATA FROM JAURO JATAU, GONGOLA SUB-BASIN, NORTHERN BENUE TROUGH, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2224 <p>Geographically located within Gombe, Bauchi, and Yobe states, the Gongola Sub-basin has drawn attention from several academics looking to increase Nigeria's oil reserves relative to the inland frontier basins. This paper's goal is to determine the thermal maturity of strata from drill samples of the Fika shales in Nigeria's Northern Benue Trough, Gongola Sub-basin. To predict the well section's maturity and kerogen type, this study uses optical and organic facies studies. Twenty-seven samples of ditch cuttings were prepared using the universally accepted acid palynological procedure. The dispersed mounted slides revealed a variety of pollen, spores, and palynomacerals upon microscopic inspection. The well section under study exhibits a range of thermal maturation from mature to late mature, indicating the possibility of producing oil and gas. This corresponds to a range of thermal alteration values of 4 – 6 and equivalent vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) values of 0.6% – 1.35%. The total recovered Sedimentary Organic Matter (SOM) in this study was classified into Palynomorphs, Amorphous Organic Matter (AOM) and Phytoclasts and plotted on a ternary graph. The Percentage frequencies of AOM, Phytoclast and Palynomorphs were compared with the zones of the Tyson Ternary diagram. Most of the distribution frequencies lie within zones II, IX, VI and Iva suggesting Kerogen types III (gas-prone) and II (oil-prone).</p> Abdulkarim Haruna Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq Maigari, Bappah Adamu Umar, Nuru Abdullahi Nabage, John Jitong Shirputda, Fatima Saidu, Mohammed Mohammed Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2224 Mon, 11 Mar 2024 20:59:26 +0000 COMPARISON OF THREE DISTRIBUTION FREE CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO CRIME DATA OF NIGERIA PRIOR AND POST COVID-19 PANDEMIC https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2276 <p>This paper considers a comparison and evaluation of the performance of the three distribution-free classification methods in classifying states in Nigeria. The methods were CT, KNN, and ANN. The methods classified the state into high and low crime rates using selected variables impacting crime rates. The classification results showed that the CT performed best, correctly classifying 8 as high and misclassifying 3, which yields an apparent error of 27.27%, and also correctly classifying 12 as low and misclassifying 2, which gives an apparent error of 14.29%, 80% accuracy, 80% sensitivity, and 80% specifity for training sample. While for the testing sample, the CT correctly classified 3 as high and misclassified 1, which yields an apparent error of 25%; it correctly classified 6 as low and misclassified 2, which gives an apparent error of 25%, 75% accuracy, 60% specifity, and 75.7% sensitivity, as shown in Table 7, respectively. The KNN method resulted in an apparent error of 66.67%, an accuracy of 41.67%, 42.86% sensitivity, and 40% specifity for testing data. While for training, in Table 3 below, KNN has an apparent error of 66.67%, an accuracy of 88%, 90% specifity, and 86.67% sensitivity, respectively. Lastly, the ANN did not perform well; correctly classified gives an apparent error of 100%, an accuracy of 0%, 0% sensitivity, and 0% specificity in the training sample, while for the testing sample, the method has an accuracy of 50%, 28.57% sensitivity, and 100% specificity. However, it offers many advantages that make it a useful method.</p> Usman Abubakar, Abdulhamid Ado Osi, Yusuf Ibrahim Muhammad, Ilyasu Abubakar Salisu, Abba Bello Muhammad, Nura Muhammad, Wakili Abubakar Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2276 Wed, 13 Mar 2024 10:20:46 +0000 PREVALENCE OF MALARIA AND UTILIZATION OF INSECTICIDES TREATED NETS (ITNS) AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN YOLA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2278 N. Enock, S. M. Pukuma, L. M. Augustine, A. Mathias, M. Ismail Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2278 Wed, 13 Mar 2024 12:02:00 +0000 DETERMINATION OF ENERGY CONTENT OF PLANT BIOMASS FOR DOMESTIC AND SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIAL HEATING APPLICATIONS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2280 <p>Determination of the calorific values and elemental contents of plant biomass are important in considering their heat energy potential and environmental friendliness. It is also important in performance modelling calculations on thermal systems. This study measures the calorific values of twenty (20) biomass comprising herbaceous plants and agricultural waste with the aim of understanding their energy potential to be used as alternative fuels for small-scale industrial and domestic heating activities. The direct measurements of the calorific values were made using Bomb calorimeter (model 6100 series) and estimated from the ultimate analysis data of the samples. The relationships between the calorific value and the total carbon and hydrogen contents of samples were also investigated. The analysis results indicate that palm kernel shell and locust bean pod have the highest energy values of 41.1165 MJ/kg and 36.2230 MJ/kg respectively. Camel foot and soybean stalks give the lowest energy values of 6.0484 MJ/kg and 5.3353 MJ/kg respectively. The energy values of about 60% of biomass samples are in the range of 15-21 MJ/kg in agreement with the widely reported values in the literature. Further analysis indicates that the experimental measurements do not excellently agree with the values estimated using correlation equations and, in most cases, the experimental data is higher than that estimated using correlation equations. However, about 60% of the data points computed using the two equations agree closely. The study shows that the calorific values of all samples are strong function of their total carbon contents and have no...</p> Aminu Ismaila, Rabiu Nasiru, Muhammad Usman Kaisan, Nuradeen Nasiru Garba Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2280 Tue, 19 Mar 2024 10:03:40 +0000 LOCAL AND GLOBAL STABILITY ANALYSIS OF MEASLES EPIDEMIC MODEL AT DISEASE-FREE EQUILIBRIUM https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2219 <p>In this study, a continuous mathematical model for the dynamics of Measles (rubeola) outbreak at constant recruitment rate was formulated. In the model, we partitioned the population into Susceptible (S), Vaccinated (V), exposed (E), Infected (I) and recovered (R) individuals. We analyzed a SVEIR compartmental nonlinear deterministic mathematical model of measles epidemic in a community with constant population. Analytical studies were carried out on the model using the method of linearized stability. The basic reproductive number R<sub>0</sub>&nbsp;that governs the disease transmission is obtained from the largest eigenvalue of the next-generation matrix. The disease-free equilibrium is computed and proved to be locally and globally asymptotically stable if R<sub>0</sub>&lt;1 &nbsp;and unstable if R<sub>0 </sub>&gt;1 respectively. Finally, we simulate the model system in MATLAB and obtained the graphical behavior of each compartment. From the simulation, we observed that the measles infection was eradicated in the environment when R<sub>0</sub>&lt;1.&nbsp;</p> Philip Onyema Ochi, Apeh Andrew Agada, Ifeoma B. Nworah, Damascus Arinze Nworah, Achi Nathan Goni Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2219 Tue, 19 Mar 2024 12:22:14 +0000 CARBON QUANTUM DOTS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT: PRESENT PROGRESS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2208 <p>Wastewater has continued to pose environmental pollution as various industrial and domestic processes effluents are released daily. As man’s activities increase daily, the possibility of facing water scarcity is imminent, coupled with the climate impacts of wastewater on aquatic lives, soil microorganisms, and agricultural produce. Therefore, several innovative developments have considered using carbon-based nanomaterials like carbon quantum dots (CQDs) to treat and recycle wastewater before they are discharged. These CQDs, just like activated carbon, possess adsorptive abilities that can remove heavy metals, solid pollutants, and foul odors from wastewater. However, they are more unique and effective than the traditional adsorbents because they display quantum effects, fluorescence, high stability, tough compatibility, water solubility, little toxicity, easy to produce, and affordable. This review discusses the nature of CQDs, their chemistries, adsorption abilities, limitations, and recommendations for future application and innovation for economical uses.</p> U. Victor Agbogo, Belief S. Rifore, Chinaecherem Tochukwu Arum, Precious D. Iorver, Joshua Mathew, Salome A. Tanko Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2208 Sat, 02 Mar 2024 11:09:04 +0000