FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs <p><strong>The <a href="http://www.fudutsinma.edu.ng" target="_blank" rel="noopener">FUDMA</a> Journal of Sciences (FJS) </strong>is a peer-reviewed publication of original research papers, review articles, technical reports and short communications in all aspects in the fields of science and technology such as Chemistry, Earth and atmospheric sciences, Biology in general, Agriculture, Biochemistry, Botany, Microbiology, Environmental Science,&nbsp; Computer Science, Engineering, Physics, Materials Science, Mechanics, Mathematics, Statistics, Nutrition and Food Science, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Polymer and Textile Sciences, Process Modeling and Computational Analysis, Renewable Energy and waste to resource processes.</p> en-US <p>FUDMA Journal of Sciences</p> fjs@fudutsinma.edu.ng (FUDMA Journal of Sciences) editor_fjs@fudutsinma.edu.ng (Dr. Emmanuel Joseph) Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 MACHINE LEARNING-BASED APPROACH FOR DIAGNOSING INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN NORTHERN NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2404 <p>Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) present a significant health challenge in many developing regions, including Northern Nigeria. Traditional diagnostic methods are often inadequate due to their labor-intensive nature and requirement for specialized expertise. This study explores the application of machine learning (ML) to improve the management of IPIs, by utilizing demographic information from 651 fecal samples collected from school-aged children. Two neural network techniques, Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) and Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN), were employed. Significant Risk Factors assessment were conducted using Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) and Lasso regression. The MLP-Lasso model demonstrated higher performance with an accuracy score of 0.83, a recall score of 0.87, and an AUC score of 0.92. These findings suggest that ML can significantly enhance diagnostic accuracy and efficiency, providing a valuable tool for public health interventions in resource-constrained settings.</p> Yusha'u El-Sunais, Nkiru Charity Eberemu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2404 Mon, 01 Jul 2024 22:53:32 +0000 GROUND MAGNETIC STUDY OF GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES AND MINERALIZATION IN AWO AREA, NEAR EDE, SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2513 <p>Ground magnetic study was carried out in Awo area, Osun State, Nigeria. The area lies within latitudes 7<sup>0</sup> 44¢N and 7<sup>0</sup> 48¢N and longitudes 4<sup>0</sup>20¢E and 4<sup>0</sup>24¢E in Southwestern part of Nigeria. The study focused on delineation of geological structures like: faults, fractures and possible minerals in the area.&nbsp; GM122 Proton Precession magnetometer was employed and 16 traverses were executed along roads and pathways for ease of labour and adequate coverage at spacing interval of 10 m between station points. Isolation of residuals was carried out to get magnetic residual intensity values that were plotted against station points using Microsoft excel. The quantitative interpretation was done using “half-slope” and “straight-slope” methods, as they are easy to use, fast and cost effective. The range of overburden thickness to the top of magnetized body obtained was between 2.50 and 30.00 metres. Qualitatively, the results obtained were used to delineate inflection points, contacts, fractures and faults by plotting 2-D and 3-D contour maps using Sufer applications. The graphs indicate geological structures, rock types and magnetic characteristics of minerals. The low magnetic values suggest presence of faults and fractures in the area while the high relative intensity values indicate deep structures, which may be due to block faulting. These findings have significant implications for mineral exploration in the region, particularly for identifying structurally controlled deposits. Rock types including banded gneiss and granite gneiss with pegmatite veins and economically valuable minerals such as tantalite, barite, quartz, mica and gravel were found in the area.</p> Wilfred N. Igboama, M. T. Aroyehun, J. A. Olowofela, O. S. Hammed, N. U. Ugwu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2513 Mon, 01 Jul 2024 22:55:47 +0000 A BAYESIAN SIMULATION APPROACH TO MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NARCOTIC DRUG USE PREVALENCE AND UNEMPLOYMENT RATE USING AGGREGATE DATA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1988 <p>Fitting a Binary Logistic Model relating narcotic drug use prevalence and unemployment rate can be a challenge in the face of aggregate data. This aggregation limits the use of the Classical Binary Logistic Regression Model. This limitation&nbsp;informed our development of a Bayesian Statistical Simulation Modeling Procedure. The modeling procedure embeds the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm which is implemented on an Open Source Software Platform-Windows; Bayesian Inference Using the Gibbs Sampler (WINBUG). Part of the modeling activity is the mathematical analysis on the response of the success probability of narcotic drug use prevalence to changes in unemployment rate. This was done under conditions of positive and negative values of the regression parameters (constant and covariate coefficient). The extent to which unemployment rate is a risk factor of the success probability was investigated and the zones within Nigeria where unemployment rate is a risk factor of narcotic drug use prevalence where also identified. Results&nbsp;revealed that unemployment rate is a risk factor to narcotic drug use prevalence in four (4) zones (North-Central, South-East, South-West and North-East) with risk levels of 53.65%, 51.59%, 49.42% and 46.02% respectively. While, factors latent to study impact negatively on five (5) zones (North-East, North-West, North-Central, South-East and South-West). It is recommended that attention should be drawn to the South-South zone where unemployment rate is not a risk factor to narcotic drug use prevalence, but other factors latent to the study are impacting positively on it.</p> Enobong F. Udoumoh, Patrick O. Emaikwu, Patience O. Agada, Theresa Subeno Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1988 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF INCENTIVE MECHANISM FOR DISTRIBUTED FILE SHARING NETWORKS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2535 <p>Sharing of files and resources has been one of the main reasons for development on networking and the internet, the internet itself has been created for achieving this objective in a secured way and without loss of data or information. To successfully exchange files (such as movies, video files, audio, software&nbsp;systems, eBooks, etc.) over the Internet, a number of file peer-to-peer sharing systems (such as Bit-Torrent, Gnutella, suggested, eMule, UTorrent etc.) have been developed to counter the limitations of the server-client model. These platforms are used worldwide to share and download files by millions of Internet users. Users of these systems share files amongst themselves cooperatively. However, some nodes may want to exploit the system for their selfish purposes such as the common concept of consuming from the network resources without sharing, which is known as free-ridding. This phenomenon degrades the quantity of service of the network in addition to destroying trust among peers. To motivate peers to share their file chunks and achieve optimal quality of service in the network, an incentive mechanism is introduced in this study. The study employs mathematical modeling to represent the system, and the results showed that by using incentives to encourage node’s active participation, the problem of free-riding has been drastically reduced which in turn, reduces file download time.</p> Ruqayyah Rabiu Ibrahim, G. N. Obunadike, Jamilu Ahmad Bashir Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2535 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF ENCAPSULATED COW FAT-BASED SOLID LIPID NANOCARRIER FOR IMPROVED BIOAVAILABILITY OF A POORLY WATER SOLUBLE NON STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUG: EFFECT OF SURFACTANT IONIC STATE ON PRODUCT PERFORMANCE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2484 <p>Oral route delivery of many non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs possessing poor gastrointestinal fluid solubility is associated with low gastrointestinal absorption and poor bioavailability. Nanoparticle technologies are being employed as effective techniques to overcome the challenge of poor aqueous solubility of many drugs. The study aimed at utilizing cow fat as solid-lipid nanocarrier system to enhance the aqueous solubility of diclofenac. Preformulation studies including melting points, gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometery, dynamic scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were carried out on the cow fat prior to product preparations Six (6) diclofenac-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle formulations containing varied proportions of stearic acid, cow fat and selected surfactants were prepared by the hot homogenization and ultra-sonication processes. The resulting preparations were characterized for surface morphology, particle size distribution, drug loading efficiency and drug release profiles. Thereafter, the SLNs were lyophilized and filled into number 4 empty gelatin capsule shells for further studies. The melting point of the fat was 43.13 ± 0.64 <sup>o</sup>C. Spectral analyses of the optimized SLN formulation revealed the existence of smooth surface with amorphous texture. The mean particle size of the SLNs formulated with stearic acid as solid lipid was in the range of 56.28 ± 0.56 - 100.23 ± 0.37 nm while formulations prepared with cow fat had their mean particles sizes ranging from 97.24 ± 04 to 171.29 ± 0.08 nm. The drug loading efficiencies of various formulations ranged from 72.32 ± 0.97 – 94.43 ± 0.11 % with the rate of releases being formulation component dependent...</p> R. C. Omeh, C. C. Adonu, Ibeabuchi J. Ali, G. O. Ikeh, A. A. Omeh Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2484 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF ET EXPLANATORY VARIABLES IN CONFLUENCE STATE, LOKOJA, SAVANNAH REGION OF NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2468 <p>This observational study investigated trends of Lokoja climate variables relating to evapotranspiration from 1989 to 2019. Studying evapotranspiration in the savannah region of Nigeria is critical for understanding the local climate, water availability, and ecosystem dynamics, and can inform sustainable development and adaptation strategies in the face of&nbsp;climate&nbsp;change. The FAO-56 Penman-Monteith model (P-M) was used to estimate the ET from the ERA5 reanalysis monthly mean temperature, precipitation, wind speed and atmospheric pressure data of Lokoja. Statistically significant explanatory variables were determined using multiple regression analysis, and multicollinearity and heteroscedasticity tests were conducted on the results. Clustered column charts used to visualize the performance of the model revealed that increase in precipitation did not automatically translate to increase in ET. Linear regression of ET against temperature revealed that temperature explains approximately 29% of the variability in ET.&nbsp; At 95% confidence level and 251 degree of freedom, the R<sup>2</sup> (0.98) with standard error 0.11 indicate that the statistical analysis of the ET explanatory variables is robust and reliable, and the model is able to accurately predict the values of the ET. The multiple regression analysis result revealed that a mean daily increase of ET, starting from 0.54mm per day, is affected positively by average wind speed (u) of about 0.31mm/day for every unit increase in wind speed (u) at two meters height, 0.27mm/day for a unit increase in net radiation (Rn), 0.98mm/day for a unit increase in vapour pressure deficit (VPD), but a decrease of 0.01mm/day for every unit increase...</p> Otori M. Yahaya, E. O. Ogolo, S. O. Agele, V. O. Ajayi Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2468 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 FUNCTIONAL AND NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL OF Terminalia Catappa https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2537 <p><em>Terminalia catappa </em>(<em>T. catappa</em>) is a folklore plant whose leaves, roots and stem bark treat various infectious diseases such as dermatosis and hepatitis. However, herbalists often transform some parts, like the stem, via pyrolysis to charcoal to achieve a different therapeutic outcome. Charcoal has been known as an anti-poisonous substance with no therapeutic or nutritional relevance. This study transformed the stem bark of <em>T. catappa</em> to charcoal, evaluated its proximate minerals and phytochemical compounds using standard methods, including inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP AES) and Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Stem bark were gotten from tree, dried in the sun, and then subjected to a Thermofitcher muffle furnace at 1450 °C without oxygen for about an hour to activated charcoal.Subsequently. The charcoal was pulverised to smooth powder and then subjected to analysis. Proximate analysis reveals that <em>T catappa</em> charcoal is rich in primary nutrients such as carbohydrates (65.20±4.34), proteins (5.68±0.21), crude fibre (8.31±1.10), ash (13.20±2.10) and moisture content (7.50±0.10) %. Mineral analysis of the extract revealed the presence of essential minerals such as calcium (128.26±11.09), copper (0.83±0.001), magnesium (77.80±9.08), iron (24.51±5.08), manganese (1.83±0.05), and zinc (4.59±0.12) mg/100g as the most predominant, which are crucial for numerous cellular processes. Two (2) phytochemical compounds were detected by GC-MS, including methyl-6-0 beta-galatose (93.24%) and stigmastan-3, 5-diene (6.76 %). The study revealed that charcoal is contains nutrients and functional compounds that may be included in feed and a potential therapeutic drug target against hypercholesterol and cancer.</p> Rosephine Enadeghe, Samuel I. Ojeaburu, Olusanya Olasehinde Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2537 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OPTIMIZATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTY OF RICE HUSK ASH (RHA) https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2538 <p>Recently, rice husk (RH) has attracted researchers attention for their possibilities to be more than any other crop remnant, this is due to its availability and promising nature. Averagely, 500 million tonnes of rice are produced worldwide each year, leaving behind huge amounts of waste that will be used in our cement and ceramic industries to produce 100 million tonnes of husk as a variety of byproducts.. When rice husk is incinerated, it produced a high quantity of ash known as Rice Husk Ash (RHA). On average, 200 kg complete combustion of rice husk ash is obtained from one tonnes of rice husk. Raw Paddy Rice was bought and blended with motar to extract rice husk. The grinded paddy was extracted locally by spreading the rice on tray and blew into air in an enclosed room. The RH was calcinated at 700°C for 1hour 30mins, grind and sieve to remove agglomeration. The sample was treated with NaOH and HCl acid to remove the unwanted material and enhance the silica production. X-ray fluorescence and X-ray Diffraction analysis results revealed RHA treated with NaOH is rich in silica with about 19.33 (4%wt) molecular structure, which indicated that chemical treatment play a vital role in improving the physico-chemical properties of RHA.</p> Mohammed Isah Kimpa, Sani Garba Durumin-Iya, Yusuf Abubakar Sadiq, 1Ahmad Alhaji Abubakar, Muhammad Uzair, 2Muhammad Nasiru Zakar, 1Kasim Uthman Isah Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2538 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 APPLICATION OF RANDOMIZED RESPONSE TECHNIQUE ON A SURVEY OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2539 <p>This study investigated the efficacy of the Randomized Response Technique (RRT) in addressing the challenge of underreporting in surveys related to drug abuse in Nigerian Universities. Recognizing the inherent social stigma and confidentially concerns associated with self-disclosure, the RRT is employed as a methodological strategy to elicit more accurate and truthful responses. The research assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of the RRT in uncovering the prevalence and patterns of drug abuse among survey undergraduate students of the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. Estimate-adjusted proportion was used to ascertain the drug abuse prevalence while the chi-square test proved to be the most suitable statistic for comparing the relationship between the variables. Confidence interval was used to determine the range in which the true prevalence lied. It was deduced that the proportion of drug abuse among undergraduates using the RRT is 0.3907 which amounts to 39% of the population. Additionally, 64% believed that peer pressure proved to be a strong contributing factor to drug abuse among this population group. While there was no significant relationship between drug abuse and the students’ allowance. Consequently, efforts that aimed at empowering undergraduates in the universities or higher schools of learning against drug abuse should be vigorously pursued by the government and other stakeholders to eradicate or reduce this menace called drug abuse.</p> H. J. Okoduwa, O. B. Aladeniyi, O. A. Famose Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2539 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM COW DUNG AND FRUIT WASTE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2375 Oluwadamilola N. Faronbi, Kelechi I. Njoku Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2375 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 PYTHON-BASED POPULATION FORECASTING FOR DELTA STATE: TRAPEZOIDAL AND INTEGRATION METHOD https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2372 <p>The paper focuses on the development of Population Forecasting of Using Population Exponential Model Python with case Study of Delta State Population Census 2006. The focus is to generate manual estimation using the Population Exponential Model; to compare the result estimation with python library. Also, to formulate of an algorithm for area of population of Delta State; visualize the result of prediction of Population with graph and bar chart to see the trend of prediction population trend of Delta State. Population Area under curve of Integration Method and Trapezoidal Method for Delta State for 20 years is obtained. The performance accuracy of 99.9 percent of the population model of Exponential Model of Python with Trapezoidal and Integration Method. Moreover, the calculated sensitivity of the adopted models are in alignment.</p> Edafe John Atajeromavwo, Rume Elizabeth Yoro, Okiemute Dickson Ofuyekpone, Daniel Ukpenusiowho, Charles Ugbosu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2372 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 EVALUATION OF THE PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS IN LEAF EXTRACT OF APIUM GRAVEOLENS L. GROWN IN JOS, NIGERIA, USING UV-VIS AND FTIR ANALYSES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2487 F. Habila, Suleman Stephen Mshelia, Chukuka Achuenu, Esther A. Adelakun, Yakubu O. Shirley, Raymond Dashe Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2487 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 BIO-CHEMO-PETROGRAPHICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CENOMANIAN-TURONIAN CARBONATE DEPOSITS IN THE MIDDLE BENUE TROUGH, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2384 <p>Recently, the Middle Benue Trough has become an area of interest in the country for the exploration activities in Ebenyi-A well which will give more insights into the subsurface potentials in the area. Several authors studied the Awgu Formation geologically, stratigraphically, petrographically, and geochemically but the petrographical and geochemical studies on the carbonate deposits to evaluate the potential reservoir quality are scarce in the literature. This study focuses on the geology, field investigation, petro-sedimentological and geochemical studies. The field investigation reveals two lithofacies of the carbonate reservoir rock namely shelly and crystalline carbonate facies. Petrographic studies show that the shelly facies are characterized by high diversity brachiopod, gastropods, shell fragments, alga materials, high CaO, and classified as biosparite on the Folk classification and wackestone/packstone to crystalline facies on the Dunham classification. Pore types in the shelly biosparmicrite microfacies are moldic porosity while the crystalline micritic microfacies is distinguished by an increased composition of grains which enhance grain-to-grain contacts and promoting interparticle porosity. The geochemical results show that the carbonates of Awgu Formation were deposited under a shallow marine environment. It also indicates that the MgO values are lower than the CaO values. The diagenetic processes considered are micritization and neomorphism. The outcome of these investigations will contribute to understanding of carbonate pore types dissolution in the deposits that will enhance identification of variable reservoir hydraulic flow units within the carbonate lithofacies for successful exploration in the Middle Benue Trough.</p> Hauwa Shitu Naibi, Obaje N. G., Y. Ishaq, L. M. Adamu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2384 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 AN ENHANCED AUDIO EVENT DETECTION WITH ATTENTION NEURAL NETWORKS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2399 <p>Multimedia recordings are very vital in the aspect of audio event detection with attention neural networks and it’s a task of recognizing an audio event in an audio recording. The aim of the proposed work is to improve the development of existing audio/sound event detection in continuous streams and audio recording. Also, to compute the classes of audio events such as gunshots, screaming, door slamming, bell ringing, coffee, bird singing etc from an audio recording and also to estimate the onset and offset of these acoustic events. In this work, the propose system is going to use the modern machine learning methods called attention neural networks. The enhancement in the quality of audio event detection is achieved using an attention neural network based approach. Different activation functions that include RELU, LeakyReLU, ReLU6, ELU, and Swish known as SILU were investigated, the performance of the models using the above mentioned activation functions and Evaluate the performance of the baseline system using the different activation functions and compare the performance with the results of the existing studied papers were presented and discussed. As discussed and shown in this research, Swish network achieved mAP of 0.361432 and dprime of 2.642 outperformed the ReLU network and D-prime, from the baseline paper even though they both achieved the same AUC using the same architecture with 1024 hidden units. Using the feature level attention model, Swish activation function with mAP of 0.370 outperformed ReLU with mAP 0.369 in the baseline paper. Swish performance is...</p> Muhammad Sadisu Isah, G. N. Obunadike, Mukhtar Abubakar Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2399 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 HYDROPHYSIO-CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF WASTES WATER COLLECTED FROM EFFURUN ABATTOIR https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2540 <p>The purpose of this study is to examine the physiochemical qualities of abattoir wastewater. Weekly sampling of abattoir waste was done for four weeks. Standard laboratory procedures were followed in the analysis of sample wastewater, this is to ensure standard results. In this study, the pH of abattoir wastewater is in the range of alkaline region and also falls within the permissible levels of World Health Organization (WHO) for discharging wastewater. The dissolved oxygen (DO) is below the allowable limit of water while that of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is above the allowable limit set by WHO. The concentration of total nitrogen and phosphate in sample wastewater is above the standard limit set by WHO. The value of magnesium is quite higher when compared with the standard recommended by WHO. Therefore, the release of abattoir waste into the receiving water could lead to surface water pollution. The result of heavy metals in this research is below the permissible level of WHO, however the receiving water needs regular monitoring. Arising from the results obtained from this research, abattoir wastewater needs treatment before discharge into receiving water. It is also important for agencies of government to monitor surface water receiving abattoir effluents regularly.</p> Ufuoma Ugbune, Okagbare Aregbor Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2540 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 IMPACT OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING ON HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS ON ALBINO MICE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2390 <p>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive technique that uses strong magnetic fields and radiofrequency radiation, to measures behaviour of atomic nuclei inside the body, producing signals that are used to create images. The interactions between the biological systems and magnetic fields present in MRI, concerning changes in hematological parameters are not understood. This research investigated the effects of MRI on hematological parameters in albino mice. 30 male albino mice were divided into two groups, A (control) and B (exposed), each consisting of 15 mice. Mice in group B were exposed to a 1.5 T MRI scanner once a week for 30 minutes for 3 weeks. After the first exposure 5 mice from the exposed and 5 mice from the control were deeply sedated. This was repeated in the second and third exposure. Ministry of Health in Oyo State approved all protocols for animal experimentation. Data were expressed in mean ± standard error (S.E.) and analyzed using GraphPad Prism. First week of exposure indicated a significant increase in packed cell volume, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes of the exposed group except for white blood cells which decreased. There was significant decrease in packed cell volume and lymphocytes of the exposed group except for white blood cells and Neutrophil which increased, monocytes were not significant in the second week. Third week indicated significant increase in white blood cell, lymphocytes, monocytes except for packed cell volume and Neutrophil which decreased. Thus, the hematological parameters of albino mice are negatively impacted by MRI exposure.</p> Bolaji Oluwatoyin Babalola, Dauda Biodun Amuda, Emmanuel Abiodun Oni, David Bolawa Oguntunji, Victor Olufemi Oyedepo, Temitope Olugbenga Bello, Celestine Etumonu Gilbert, Olatunde Micheal Oni, Ismail Oyeleke Olarinoye Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2390 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 PALEOENVIRONMENTAL INTERPRETATION OF THE UPPER CRETACEOUS AND TERTIARY SEDIMENTARY DEPOSITS IN THE GONGOLA SUB-BASIN, UPPER BENUE TROUGH, NE-NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2397 <p>The Gongola Sub-Basin plays a significant role in understanding the geologic evolution of the Upper Benue Trough, it is equally important due to hydrocarbon exploration ongoing in the Sub-Basin. Palynological and lithological analyses were conducted on studied samples to interpret paleoenvironmental conditions of the sedimentary deposit. Palynological evidence including relative abundance and diversity of miospores, marine (dinocysts) and freshwater (<em>Pediastrum and Botryococcus)</em> indices coupled with lithological data recorded&nbsp; from twelve (12) boreholes,&nbsp; each drilled to the depth of 63 meters&nbsp; have been used to interpret the paleoenvironment of the Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary sedinentary deposits of the Kashere-Billiri-Futuk general area within the Gongola Sub-Basin, Upper Benue Trough in northeast Nigeria. The admixture of palynomorphs recovered from borehole sections D, F, I, N, O, R, S, T, V and X which include <em>Proxapertites cursus</em>,<em> Proxapertites operculatus </em>(brackish water palynomorphs), <em>Cingulatisporites ornatus, Gleicheniidites sp., Cyathidites australis, Longapertites marginatus, Echitriporites trianguliformis, Proxapertites operculatus, Distaverrusporites simplex </em>and Diatom frustules revealed a primarily terrestrial deposition environment characterized by lacustrine settings . Borehole sections B and P with characteristic palynoflora of <em>Cingulatisporites ornatus, Tricolporopollenites </em>sp<em>., Gleicheniidites senonicus, Ephedripites </em>sp<em>. Cyathidites </em>sp<em>., Longapertites </em>sp<em>., Echitriporites trianguliformis </em>and<em> Distaverrusporites simplex, </em>however, indicates&nbsp; a deposition of sediments&nbsp; with a predominantly fluvial-lacustrine influences.</p> Sa'id Abdulkarim, Abubakar Sadiq Maigari, Ahmed Isa Haruna, Nuhu K. Samaila, Norbert I. Nnakenyi, Mohammed Mohammed, Nuru Abdullahi Nabage, Mustapha Aliyu, Usman Yahaya Yaro, Umar Sambo Umar, Fatima Saidu, Abdullateef Lawal, Abdulkarim Haruna Aliyu, Idris Ismail Kariya Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2397 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 SOME EFFICIENT MODIFIED HOUSEHOLDER ITERATIVE SCHEMES FOR NONLINEAR EQUATIONS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2541 <p>The Householder scheme is a well-known iterative scheme for estimating the solution of nonlinear equation. Its major setbacks includes low convergence order, non-optimal and require high function derivative evaluation assessment in an iteration cycle. In this manuscript, we offered an iterative scheme that is an extension of the Householder scheme. In order to circumvent the highlighted setbacks of the Householder scheme, its modified form that is of convergence order four, optimal and require no second function derivative is put forward. The scheme was further modified via the use of weight functions to scale its convergence order from four to eight at the expense of one additional function evaluation and still retains its optimality property. The performance measures on the developed schemes was carried out by comparing their computational performance with that of some existing robust schemes.</p> O. Ogbereyivwe, C. Awariefe, O. D. Agbedeyi Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2541 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 DEVELOPMENT OF SOFTWARE AGENT-BASED PERFORMANCE EVALUATION MODEL https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2507 <p>Agent-based performance evaluation systems help an organisation's predetermined uniform appraisal score weights but have some deficiencies, like difficulty in simulation tests, amongst others. The purpose of this study is to design computer-based systems for the effective performance evaluation of employees in an organization. The regression model was applied, and the results reveal that employee appraisal elements "must be objectives" and "tools for development" have a statistically significant positive influence on performance evaluation. This implies that an increase in "must-be objectives" and "tools for development" will correspondingly lead to an improvement in performance evaluation. Besides, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) outperformed the other computer-based systems as it had an error bias of negligible value of 0.001. Meanwhile, in comparing the empirical data analysis results to the simulation, it is observed that the estimated parameter values of the regression model align with the findings, hence enhancing the precision of the model in achieving a steady state of the Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE). Additionally, the computer-based models are a good fit for the data, and the introduction of the three models shows better precision for performance evaluation in an organization. Therefore, the organisation should equip itself with the required knowledge base in computer-based systems to connect the real-life situation of predicting effective and unbiased performance evaluation.</p> Sadauki Bako, Olasunkanmi Maruf Alimi, Gabi Danlami Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2507 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 EVALUATION OF UDDER MEASUREMENTS AND MILK COMPOSITION OF TWO BREEDS OF SHEEP IN MAIDUGURI BORNO STATE OF NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2543 <p>The evaluation of udder measurement and milk composition of two breeds of sheep were assessed. A total of one hundred and sixty sheep comprising of (80 Yankasa and 80 Uda breeds of sheep. Matured ewes were used, age ranges between 2- 4 years of age and with average body weight of 30 - 40kg.The udder characteristics were measured using flexible tape, vernier caliper, while body weight was measured using&nbsp;&nbsp; weighing balance. Milk qualities were analyzed for fat%, protein % lactose%, solid and non-solid fat% and vitamins %. The body weight (BW), udder length (UL) and udder volume (UV) were significantly affected by breed with&nbsp;&nbsp; Yankasa breed having the higher value of 40.93±2.1 kg, 14.19±0.54cm and 1.31±0.11m<sup>3</sup> followed by Uda breed 37.37±1.50 kg, 12.11±0.37cm and 0.95±0.07 m<sup>3</sup>. Strong positive and significant correlation was recorded between udder width and udder volume (r =0.79**), udder length and udder volume (r =0.78**) while moderate correlation was observed between udder width and udder circumference (r =0.53**). There was significant difference (p&lt;0.05) during lactation in value of udder length 13.70cm, udder weight 12.88kg, udder circumference 4.15cm, udder volume 1.25m<sup>3</sup>, teat length 2.71cm, teat width 1.67cm and&nbsp;&nbsp; distance between teat to floor 6.53 cm was higher in Yankasa breed&nbsp;&nbsp; than Uda breed.&nbsp; There was significant difference (p&lt;0.05) with Yankasa breed ewes during pregnancy which had&nbsp; higher body weight 42.99kg, higher udder length 14.68cm, udder width 12.49cm, and udder volume 1.37m<sup>3</sup> as compared to&nbsp; Uda breed&nbsp; There was significant variations in the shape of the...</p> J. Adamu, U. A. Sanda, H. Maijidda, A. B. Bunu, B. M. Munza, M. N. Grema Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2543 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 TESTING THE PERFORMANCE OF TWO DIFFERENT DIGESTERS FOR BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM HOUSEHOLD WASTE CO-DIGESTED WITH COW DUNG https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2544 <p>The research was carried out at Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria. Different researches of bio-digesters have been conducted for biogas production but the physico-chemical properties of wastes, constituents of biogas and volume of digesters were not considered in previous research which resulted to poor performance of digesters by producing low flame. Hence the physico-chemical properties of wastes were determined, constituents of biogas were determined and volumes of digesters were considered for this research work so as to have effective performance of the digesters. This study involved&nbsp; the performance evaluation of two different digesters for the production of biogas from household Wastes co-digested with cow dung to select the best digester among the two suitable for household used. Two different digesters each of 5.5 litres and 90 litres were used for testing the performance of digesters using household Wastes co-digested with cow dung in which anaerobic digestion process at both mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures were employed.After the physico-chemical properties of wastes test, analysis of biogas constituents, Ventilation test and flammability test of both digesters were conducted.The highest volume of biogas produced for Digester 1 was 115 liters/day within a period of 15days and 2537 liters/day within a period of 28days for Digester 2.The Ventilation and flammability tests were conducted of both digesters in which Digester 1 passed Ventilation test and failed flammability test.The Digester 2 passed both Ventilation and flammability tests.The research concluded that, the Digester 2 was more effective&nbsp; because of large volume of Digester...</p> Ubaidullahi Yakubu, Sani Umar Mohammed, Mary Samuel Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2544 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ASSESSMENT OF SOME ROLL BACK MALARIA INTERVENTION MEASURES ON PATIENTS ATTENDING AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, ZARIA-NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2545 <p>Malaria is one of the common debilitating diseases in Nigeria. Thus, an assessment of roll back malaria intervention measures on patients attending GOPD clinic of ABUTH Zaria was conducted. A total of 650 Blood samples were collected and examined for malaria parasites. Research on methods of physical and chemical protection was investigated, the use of aerosol insecticide was most popular whereas the use of bed nets had least exposure risk to mosquitoes with a PAR Value (-1.63). The use of prophylactic measures was not significantly associated with malaria prevalence. There was a significant difference between malaria prevalence in individuals that did malaria blood test and those that did not (p&lt;0.05). Of all the preventive measures used in malaria control, Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNS) were least known; only 27.5% of the individuals studied knew about them. It is suggested that the improper use of personal/ preventive measures probably led to the high prevalence of malaria. It is recommended that enlightenment control campaigns on the protective role of ITNS against mosquitoes be stepped up, as ITNS provide a remarkable degree of protection against malaria.</p> Nicholas Osazuyi Osagiede, H. C. Yayock Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2545 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM AFRICA STAR APPLE (Chrysophyllum albidum) SEED SHELL https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2485 <p>Activated carbon are carbonized materials with high surface area and porosity. This research explores the use of two stages: carbonization of the Africa star apple (<em>C. albidum</em>) seed shell followed by activation at 600 °C with sulphuric acid. The prepared activated carbon (AC) was characterized using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), Fourier transform infrared, thermo-gravimetric analyzer, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for its surface morphology with its elemental composition, functional groups, thermal stability, specific surface area and porosity and its crystalline structure respectively. Based on the analysis, the activated carbon contains highly irregular and jagged surface, characteristic of activated carbon material with active surface properties due to the functional groups. The EDX spectrum and elemental report of the activated carbon indicates a significant concentration of carbon atoms within the activated carbon sample. XRD pattern of activated carbon presents the existence of a specific crystallographic plane which implies the presence of well-organized layers of carbon atoms in the AC structure. The surface area of the activated carbon is determined to be 47.129 m²/g with pore volume of 0.08712 cc/g.&nbsp; A high surface area is indicative of a large number of available adsorption sites, which is advantageous for adsorption processes. Therefore, <em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em> is an apt agricultural by product for the preparation of high-quality activation carbon.</p> Muhammad Mubarak Shuaib, M. Musah, J. T. Mathew Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2485 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECT OF SOME ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS ON THE PREVALENCE OF Plasmodium falciparum AMONG PATIENTS IN KADUNA STATE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2546 <p>Clinical studies involving of blood samples were randomly collected from out-patients in selected hospitals in the three (3) Senatorial districts of Kaduna State were examined for Plasmodium falciparum. Blood samples were collected from 1,918 patients attending the General Out Patient Department ward from various State Government owned hospitals in the three (3) Senatorial districts. Information obtained from questionnaires administered to out-patients who tested positive for P. falciparum revealed inconsistencies in the use of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) and Chemoprophylaxis to prevent malaria.&nbsp; The most commonly used anti-malaria drugs for self-medication among patients from the three senatorial districts shows that 56.6% of the respondents in Kaduna North uses chloroquine/fansidar, 71.5% in Kaduna South and 67.0% in Kaduna Central. Many of the patients investigated do not have sufficient access and knowledge to ITNs as provided by the Roll Back Malaria programme or State malaria campaigns</p> Nicholas Osazuyi Osagiede, H. C. Yayock Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2546 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF NIGERIAN CROTON GRATISSIMUS, CROTON LOBATUS, CROTON MEMBRANACEUS AND CROTON PENDULIFLORUS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2547 <p>With about 1300 species of herbs, shrubs, trees, and lianas, Croton (<em>Euphorbiaceae</em>) is one of the largest genera of flowering plants. It is an important component of secondary vegetation in the tropics and subtropics of the world and has ecological significance. The growing consumer interest in ingredients originating from natural sources has led to a recent surge in the demand for natural extracts in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Determining the proximate analysis of Croton gratissimus, lobatus, memebranaceus, and penduliflorus stembarks is the aim of this work. The proximate analysis was carried out using AOAC standard procedures in order to assess the moisture contents, dry matters, crude proteins, ash contents, carbohydrates, fat contents and fiber contents of the stated plant materials. The findings showed that there was a significant amount of dry matter, fiber and carbohydrates at 82.52%, 32.48% and 38.63% respectively in the stem bark of Croton gratissimus. Croton lobatus showed the highest amount of protein and fat content at 17.83% and 4.71% respectively while Croton lobatus and penduliflorus contains the same amount of moisture at 24.53%. Findings of the study showed that the stembarks of the plants possess high nutritional value.</p> T. Adamu, H. A. Atanda, B. K. Al-Adams, S. C. Nwaokoro, M. S. Isyaka, M. A. Abdullahi Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2547 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 EVALUATION OF SPECIFIC HEAVY METALS IN DRINKING WATER CONSUMED IN YAR’AKWA QUARTERS, NA’IBAWA, TARAUNI LGA, KANO STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2470 <p>The study focused on analyzing selected heavy metals in drinking water used in Yar’akwa Quarters. Water samples were collected from boreholes, taps, and wells across different locations and times. Using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (PerkinElmer PinAAcle 900h AAS), the samples were tested for Ni, Pb, Co, Zn, and Cu. Results showed that Lead (Pb) was not detected in any samples. Cobalt concentrations ranged from 0.032 to 0.050 mg/L, with a maximum of 0.050 mg/L, while copper ranged from 0.040 to 0.057 mg/L, peaking at 0.057 mg/L. Nickel levels ranged from 0.026 to 0.052 mg/L, with a maximum of 0.052 mg/L, and zinc ranged from 0.020 to 0.027 mg/L, reaching up to 0.027 mg/L, all observed in the Na’ibawa borehole water sample. These values conform to World Health Organization (WHO 2020) standards, suggesting that the water in this area is suitable for drinking, domestic, and other purposes. However, ensuring ongoing monitoring of boreholes and tap water sources is recommended.</p> Sulaiman Nasir Mujahid, Muhammad Umar Bala, Adam Mubarak Isyaku, Musa Abba, Suleiman Sani, Hussaini Aliyu, Aliyu Muhammad, Yahuza Jamilu, Sani Shafiu, Musa Yusuf Umar Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2470 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF EPOXY, HORN, ALKALINE TREATED/UNTREATED COCONUT SHELL PARTICULATES HYBRID COMPOSITE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2464 <p><strong>ABSTRACT: </strong>The mechanical properties (Tensile and Flexural Strengths) of sheep horn, treated and untreated coconut shell particles reinforced epoxy composite were investigated in this work. The composite was formulated using design expert software, with weight fraction of epoxy resin varied from 90 to 100%, while that of each of the sheep horn and coconut shell particles varied from 0 to 5 % weight, resulting in the composite of single and hybrid reinforcements. The results obtained showed that tensile and flexural strengths of the hybrid composite were superior to those of the individual fiber reinforced composite. Maximum tensile strength and flexural strength of 36.52 MPa and 67.93 MPa respectively, representing 74.3%, and 35.6% improvement, compared to the tensile strength and flexural strength of the control sample were obtained with the hybrid composite sample containing a blend of 5% wt. sheep horn and 3% wt. treated coconut shell particles. The microstructure analysis revealed the enhanced interfacial adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcement of the composite samples containing alkaline treated coconut shell particles. Hence, alkaline treatment is a good natural fiber’s surface modification technique to improve adhesion between the fibers and the matrix.</p> Kabiru Ajao, Salawu Abdulrahman, Ambali Abdulkareem Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2464 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 SYNTHESIS OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES FROM SUGARCANE WASTE: PRECIPITATION-BASED SIZE CONTROL AND CHARACTERIZATION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2425 <p>Sugarcane waste, a byproduct of sugar production, poses significant environmental challenges through releasing harmful gases that contribute to air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. This work presents the utilization of sugarcane waste to synthesize silica nanoparticles using the extraction-precipitation method. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) was used to identify the particles, and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to assess their size. By extracting silica from the waste material using sodium hydroxide and lowering the pH to achieve the precipitate, smaller-sized silica nanoparticles&nbsp;were produced. On the other hand, the silicate solution was again treated with sodium hydroxide to increase its size before the pH was lowered and the resulting precipitate was heated to a higher temperature. This also reduced the hydroxyl group content that is present due to silanol vibration.&nbsp;Previous studies have revealed the potential of sodium hydroxide addition for silica particle increment using the Stober method. We reported here an unprecedented increase in silica particle size with the aid of sodium hydroxide as a catalyst through a greener technique, the extraction-precipitation method.</p> Mustapha Sulaiman, Naseer Inuwa Durumin Iya, Mamudu Aliyu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2425 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 TOXICOLOGICAL STUDY AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF ALLURA RED (E129) DYE ADDITIVE IN SOME FOOD BEVERAGES CONSUMED IN KATSINA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2434 <p>The continuous use of synthetic dyes in beverage foods as additives for consumers’ attraction could lead to many health-related issues that include cancer, allergic reactions etc. These have leads to urgent monitoring of the amount of such colorants in foods and beverages. Experimentally, the acute toxicity (LD<sub>50</sub>) was carried out on the Allura red (E129) dye using wistar albino rats in accordance with the administered doses per body weight of the tested animals, as well as quantitative determination of the dye analyte in some food beverages consumed in Katsina metropolis, Nigeria. However, the quantitatively analyzed samples were found to contain 115.294 ± 0.013, 109.142 ± 0.115, 117.173 ± 0.037, 118.385 ± 0.080 and 123.203 ± 0.051 mg/L of the Allura red (E129) dye in sample A, B, C, D and E, respectively. Also, the LD<sub>50 </sub>result of the Allura red (E129) dye standard was estimated to be more than 5000 mg/L per body weight of the tested animals. Even though, there are few changes in the animals’ behavioral attitudes, which vary according to the concentration of doses administered and the results produced no mortality at the given doses range of 50 to 5000 mg/L after administering the dye standards. Therefore, the results justify the unsafe consumption of the analyzed beverages since the concentration of the Allura red (E129) azo dye in them is above the maximum permissible limits of 50 mg/L as supported by the Guideline for the Testing of Chemicals, Acute Oral Toxicity–Acute Toxic (OECD, 2001).</p> Abubakar Lawal, Suraj Abdulkarim Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2434 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBAPENEM RESISTANT Klebsiella pneumoniae FROM WOUND SURFACES OF PATIENTS ATTENDING GENERAL HOSPITAL MINNA, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2494 <p>The spread of carbapenem-resistant bacteria constitutes a global public healthcare problem due to their rate of spread and limited therapeutic options against them. The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize carbapenem-resistant <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (CRKP) from patient wound surfaces at General Hospital Minna, Nigeria. One hundred wound specimens were obtained and screened for <em>K. pneumoniae</em>. Using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique, isolates of <em>K. pneumoniae</em> were tested for carbapenem resistance using imipenem and meropenem discs. Carbapenem-resistant <em>K. pneumoniae</em> were screened for carbapenemase production using a modified carbapenem-inactivation method.&nbsp; Using polymerase chain reaction, carbapenemase-encoding genes were also tested for in carbapenem-resistant isolates. Results revealed that 63.0% of the samples were bacteria culture positive and 67 Gram negative bacteria including; <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> 14(20.9%), <em>Escherichia coli</em> 33 (49.2%) and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> 20 (29.9%) were isolated. Infection rate was higher in females (52.2%) than males and in patients within the age group of 21-40 years (49.3%). Nine out of the 14 <em>Klebsiella</em> <em>pneumoniae</em> isolates were resistant to carbapenems, and they exhibited high-level of resistance to Trimethoprime-sulfamethoxazole, Ciprofloxacin and Amoxicillin+clavulanate and high level of susceptibility to Fosfomycin and Colistin. None of the CRKP produced carbapenemase production and 55.6% were indeterminate. Molecular identification also confirmed that genes encoding carbapenem resistance (blaOXA-48, blaKPC and blaNDM) were not present in the five indeterminate, carbapenem resistance <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae </em>isolates.&nbsp;&nbsp; High prevalence of CRKP was recorded in the study area and efforts should be intensify towards limiting their spread.</p> Hafsat Isa Doko, Sherifat Ozavize Enejiyon, Muhammad Muhammad Wuna, Saheed Abdulameen Adedeji, Murtala Sa'adu, Rukayat Abidemi Fasasi, Nasiru Usman Adabara Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2494 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF CASSIA FISTULA SYNTHESIZED SELENIUM NANOPARTICLES AGAINST MOULDS OF GROUNDNUT https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2548 <p>Mold infestation in oil seeds like groundnuts results in significant quantitative and qualitative losses, typically managed with chemical treatments posing risks to humans, animals, and the environment. Prioritizing effective biological controls with presumed lower risks, this study explored selenium biosynthesized nanoparticles as antifungal agents against <em>Aspergillus flavus </em>and <em>Penicillium </em>sp. in groundnuts. Standard methods identified the spoilage molds, while <em>Cassia fistula</em> leaf extract facilitated the biosynthesis of selenium nanoparticles. Biosynthesized Selenium Nanoparticles (CFSNPs) were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrometry, and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The stabilized CFSNPs exhibited a brownish color with a UV-visible absorption peak at 450 nm, indicating SeNP formation. TEM micrographs revealed spherical, cubic, rod, and irregularly shaped CFSNPs with clusters, while EDX spectra showed selenium (Se) as the predominant element (80.76% by weight). FTIR peaks at 4400, 3173.00, 2361.44, 1594.00, 1373.00, 1027.29, and 674.23 cm-1 confirmed characteristic vibrations. Antifungal assays demonstrated CFSNPs' efficacy, inhibiting fungal mycelial growth by 75.1% and 95.12% against<em> A. flavus</em>, and 71.5% and 86.25% against <em>Penicillium</em> species at concentrations of 0.75 mg/ml and 1.0 mg/ml, respectively. In comparison, Cassia leaf extract exhibited lower inhibitory activity against <em>A. flavus</em> (20.8%, 35.6%) and <em>Penicillium</em> spp. (23.1%, 40.6%) at similar concentrations. The antifungal properties of CFSNPs suggest potential applications in preserving agro-produce, thereby extending the shelf life of oil seed crops.</p> Temitope A. Ihum, C. F. Oledibe, A. I. Kurrah, E. J. Akande, O. A. Ajayi, J. T. Olatunji, E. A. Kayode, Z. O. Lawal Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2548 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 BEYOND THE DUMP: UNMASKING THE CUMULATIVE HEALTH RISKS OF HEAVY METALS IN GROUNDWATER SAMPLES NEAR GOSA DUMPSITE, FCT, ABUJA, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2549 <p>Concerns about heavy metal (HM) contamination of groundwater from dumpsite leachate have global human health implications. The study assessed the concentration level of Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) in the sampled well water near the Gosa dumpsite in FCT, Abuja. Water samples collected were taken to the laboratory in clean airtight plastic containers where HM analysis was performed on the water samples using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) using standard procedures. &nbsp;The concentrations of the HM exceeded the recommended standards for drinking water by both the World Health Organization (WHO) and Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) except Mn that was within the WHO permissible standard but exceeded the SON permissible limit. Regular consumption of well water near the Gosa dumpsite pose a carcinogenic health risk with respect to Pb, Cr and Cd exposure via oral routes. The cumulative non-carcinogenic risk effect of the HM as indicated by the Hazard Index (HI) exceeded a value of one (HQ&gt;1) to both groups of consumers with children having higher values compared to adults. The study recommends the need to monitor the quality of water while ensuring proactive action is taken by environmental agencies to tackle the looming threat.</p> O. A. Opasola, E. Otto, J. T. Salami, B. Y. Adiama Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2549 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF TWO STORAGE METHODS ON QUALITY OF OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus l. Moench) FRUITS IN AWKA-SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2439 <p>An investigation was carried out at the research Laboratory of Plant Protection of Crop Science and Horticulture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka to compare effects of storage materials on quality of okra fruits (<em>Abelmoschus esculentus </em>L. Moench). The experimental design was a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) replicated six times. The experiment consisted of storing of freshly harvested okra fruits in two storage containers viz: woven baskets (lined with bitter leaves and unlined baskets) and perforated Paper Cartons (lined with bitter leaves and unlinedwith&nbsp; cartons).&nbsp; The baskets and perforated cartons containing the okra fruits were then kept on laboratory benches. Okra fruits in the storage containers were covered with white transparent nylon material and observed for 14 days. At the end of the period, the fruits were sorted out into relatively healthy fruits, rotted fruits, green fruits, light green fruits, spotted fruits and shriveled fruits.&nbsp; The weight loss of okra fruits was recorded to an accuracy of 0.01 g using mettle balance model (P1200).&nbsp;&nbsp; Results showed that packaging materials had significant effect on physical qualities of okra fruits after two weeks of storage, where unlined cartons had the highest (38.3%) number of relatively healthy fruits followed by 37.5 % in unlined baskets while the least (30.8%) was obtained in lined baskets. The results also showed that packaging materials had significant effect on moisture content of okra fruits stored in different storage materials where there was lesser moisture loss in okra fruits stored in lined cartons compared to other storage packages...</p> Christian Chukwunenye Iwuagwu, U. V. Ezeufoh Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2439 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 DESIGN OF SOME ENERGETIC COMPOUNDS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2429 <p>Due to the increasing production of modern explosive-resistant vehicles, materials, and equipment, the calls for improved energetic materials (EMs) with a more destructive energetic capability and high thermal stability for engineering and warfare have received tremendous attention from researchers. Weka version 3.8.5 machine learning software has been used in this research to carry out the accurate energetic velocities predictions and to develop and generate five (5) novel models from the seventy-one (71) experimental EM compounds. Also, the quantitative structural property relationship (QSPR) method was used to design five (5) new EM along with their new energetic velocities (EV) of 10.835 Km/s, 10.22 Km/s, 10.531 Km/s, 10.436Km/s, and 10.33Km/s. The energetic velocities of all the five newly designed EMs were better than those reported in the literature and also better than the standard energetic compounds, TNT. Because of their unique energetic properties, The energetic compounds such as N, N'-(3,6 dinitropyrazolo[4,3-c]pyrazole-1,4-diyl)bis(N-fluoronitramide) should be given special consideration while synthesizing those compounds. Furthermore, the results of this research have proven the scientific importance of using QSPR as a research tool in the field of energetic materials</p> Yakasai Jamila Bashir, Fyafa Hannah Habila , Umar Abdulmumuni, Abdulfatai Usman Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2429 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF NORMAL REFERENCE VALUES FOR THORACIC AORTIC DIAMETER IN KADUNA STATE NIGERIA: A BASELINE STUDY https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2453 <p>Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) nowadays attract public concern as a result of its high level of mortality and morbidity. Aortic-arch dimension has a strong relationship with the dimension of the chest as well as the heart, age, gender and body surface area affect aortic size. Increase in aortic caliber may be a sign of aortic disease such as aortic aneurysm. Computed Tomography (CT) is widely used in the assessment of thoracic-aorta due to its high sensitivity, specificity and availability. The study aimed at establishing normal reference values for the thoracic-aortic diameter in Kaduna State Nigeria and to study the effects of age, gender, and anthropometric-indices on aortic diameter. A prospective study was conducted in the study population between April 2021 to August 2021.&nbsp; A total of 384 consented patients aged between 19-65 years that met the inclusion criteria were recruited using convenience sampling method. Patients with history of cardiovascular diseases that affect aortic size were excluded. The patients underwent chest CT scan and their aortic diameters were measured. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 22. The preset <em>p</em>-value was set at 0.05. The mean ascending-aortic-diameter, aortic-arch and descending thoracic-aorta are 36.29±5.40 mm, 31.25 ±4.99 mm, 28.79 ±4.74 mm and 32.84<strong>±</strong>4.35 mm, 28.26<strong>±</strong>4.31 mm and 25.61±4.06 mm for males and females respectively. The results of this study shows that aortic diameter of the population is in line with the findings of most of the literature reviewed.&nbsp; Age, weight, BMI and BSA are independent predictive factors for thoracic-aortic diameter.</p> Abdullahi Shuaibu, Angel-Mary Anakwue, Sidi Mohammed, Abdurrahman Umaru, Mohammed Yusuf Mohammed, Abubakar Aminu Abubakar, Inwang Edet Usoro, Ibrahim Muhammed Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2453 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ASSESSING EDUCATION QUALITY IN MILITARY BASE SECONDARY SCHOOLS: A CANONICAL CORRELATION STUDY OF INPUTS AND OUTPUTS IN KADUNA STATE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2449 <p>Education Quality (EQ) encompasses various factors influencing the effectiveness of an education system in achieving its learning objectives. This study assessed education quality in Military Base Secondary Schools (MBSS) in Kaduna State, Nigeria, using Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) on data from the 2020-2022 West Africa Senior Schools Certificate Examination (WASSCE). Factors analyzed included student performance in Mathematics, English Language, Chemistry, Physics, and Biology, and educational inputs such as student-teacher ratio (STR), average laboratory expenditure per student (AE), gender parity index for teachers (GPI), teachers’ teaching experience (TTE), and ratio of military to civilian staff (RMCS). Descriptive statistics showed significant disparities, notably in RMCS (mean = 16.73, SD = 18.65). A weak negative correlation (-0.217) between STR and AE and a moderate positive correlation (0.358) between TTE and GPI were found. A strong positive correlation (0.964) between Mathematics and English Language performance was also identified. The study highlighted that a higher proportion of military staff negatively impacts student performance, emphasizing the need for balanced staffing policies. The predictive model underscored the significant role of RMCS in education quality in MBSS The study recommends that military authorities and educational policymakers address staffing disparities, Efforts should ensure balanced staffing, optimize resource allocation for laboratory expenses, promote gender balance among teachers, and prioritize recruiting experienced educators. Additionally, integrated teaching approaches should reinforce the positive correlation between English language proficiency and mathematics performance.</p> Musa Tasi'u, Paul John Ogwuche, Hussaini Garba Dikko Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2449 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 DURABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF MICROBIAL INDUCED CALCITE PRECIPITATE/CEMENT STABILIZED LATERITE BLOCKS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2550 <p>This study investigates the strength and durability characteristics of molded laterite blocks stabilized with microbial-induced calcite precipitate (MICP) bacteria namely <em>Bacillus coagulans (B.coagulans</em>) and cement. The properties checked includes the water absorption and wet compressive strength of the laterite blocks tested at different curing ages of 7-, 14-, 21-, and 28 days by examining the impact of <em>B.coagulans</em> calcite precipitate, cement, and the combined effects of both on these properties. The <em>B.coagulans</em> bacteria having a 3g/l nutrient broth content served as the bio-calcination agent, while ordinary Portland cement acted as the stabilizer, The <em>B. coagulans</em> concentrations were varied at 0, 1.5E+08, 6.0E+08, 1.2E+09, 1.8E+09 and 2.4E+09 cell/ml suspension densities using the McFarland standards. From results obtained the water absorption properties shows improvement, decreasing from 32% for un-stabilized soil to optimal values of 15%, 9%, and 6% for MICP-stabilized, cement-stabilized, and MICP 5% cement-stabilized laterite blocks, respectively, at 28 days of curing. The wet compressive strength of un-stabilized soil ranges from 0.5 to 1.0 N/mm<sup>2</sup> for curing periods 7 to 28 days respectively which is lower than for the stabilized laterite blocks which were 1.99 N/mm<sup>2</sup> for 1.80E09 <em>cell/ml B.coagulans </em>suspension density and 3.7 N/mm<sup>2</sup> for 5% cement stabilized laterite blocks at 2.4E09 cell/ml <em>B. coagulans</em> suspension density after 28 days curing.&nbsp; Results obtained showed that the stabilized laterite blocks outperform the unstabilized blocks and therefore the cement-MICP combination used gave positive outcomes in stabilization of laterite blocks with a minimal percentage of 5% cement-stabilized MICP for sustainable building applications.</p> S. Abdullahi, Bilkisu Hassan Sada Amartey, J. M. Kaura, Y. D. Amartey Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2550 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 NONPHARMACEUTICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL COVID-19 PREDICTION MODELS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2551 <p>Global tourism and leisure came to hurt due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The ways we lived our lives was automatically truncated due to the fear of the virus of unknown etiology. We started adjusting to new lifestyle. Community life came to hurt due to lockdown to curtail the spread of the virus. Various forms of non-pharmaceutical approaches (NPA) or intervention (NPI) was adopted in the absence of vaccine. As time progresses different vaccine became available (Pharmaceutical approach {PA)) was discovered to mitigate the spread of the virus. To reassure the safety of people, different levels of social distancing values in meters was applied due to the fear that the virus was airborne.&nbsp; This study tends to investigate whether onset data from the NPA and PA interventions could be used to predict the probability of infection thereby bringing the spread of the virus to a hurt. The analysis based on these prediction models revealed that both the NPA and the PA are very effective in mitigating and hurting the spread of the virus. The PA prediction model revealed that as more people are vaccinated with time, the probability of infection reduces drastically thereby increasing the probability of social mingling. Therefore, we concluded that these data independent prediction models are useful to predict the likely outcome of infection of the disease of unknown etiology based on the onset data.</p> Friday Zinzendoff Okwonu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2551 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 COMPARATIVE CYTOGENETIC STUDY AMONG PARACHANNA OBSCURA POPULATIONS FROM SELECTED WATER BODIES IN SOUTH WEST, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2509 <p><em>Parachanna obscura</em> is a freshwater Perciform species that belong to the family Channidae. In contrast to many other fish species, the genetic information about <em>P. obscura</em> as a species is very scarce and its chromosome compliments in different confined populations all over remain undiscovered. In view of this, this study considered the cytogenetic variations among three populations of <em>P. obscura</em> collected from River Elemi, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Egbe-Ekiti Reservoir, Egbe, Ekiti State and Esa-Odo Reservoir, Esa-Odo, Osun State, Nigeria. Each sampled fish was injected with 0.05% Colchicines solutions (1.0ml/kg), metaphase chromosome spread were made from the head kidney of each sample. Slides were prepared using conventional Giemsa staining method while digital images of the metaphase spreads were taken. Study revealed that all <em>P. obscura</em> from the three different population has the same diploid chromosome number 2n=46. The chromosome length range from River Elemi, Ado-Ekiti (6.10-14.91 µm), Egbe water reservoir, Egbe-Ekiti (5.91-16.06 µm) and Esa-odo water reservoir, Esa-Odo (6.24-14.31 µm), were very close thus exhibiting homomorphic character with respect to total length. Karyotypic formula differs among populations of River Elemi, Ado-Ekiti (2n= 2sm + 44t), Egbe water reservoir, Egbe-Ekiti (2n=4sm + 2st + 40t) and Esa-odo water reservoir, Esa-Odo (2n=2st + 44t), this implies that the three populations were navigating different evolutionary course resulting from fragmentation and isolation of populations. In conclusion further molecular cytogenetic studies may add more to the view presented in this study.</p> Olugbemi Victor Ekundare, Omotayo Fagbuaro Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2509 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 GEOCHEMISTRY AND GENETIC IMPLICATIONS OF BASEMENT ROCKS AROUND MAKARFI AREA, NORTHWESTERN NIGERIA BASEMENT COMPLEX https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2552 <p>Major and trace element analysis of rocks around Makarfi were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the geochemical characteristics of the lithological components of the area. The area is composed of migmatite gneiss, biotite gneiss, granite gneiss, schists and granites. Analysis for major, trace and REE revealed that the gneisses, are paragneisses and metaluminous. The granites are peraluminous (A/CNK&gt;1) and calc-alkaline. The granites had undergone changes from a more primitive hornblende-biotite I-type variety to a more fractionated muscovite bearing S-type variety. Chemical data shows that the peraluminosity and enrichment in Li, Rb, Cs, Ta, Sn, Nb and Ga increases in the course of differentiation and evolution from hornblende-biotite granite to muscovite granite. Signatures of biotite and muscovite granites suggest emplacement in a syn-collisional tectonic setting while those of hornblende-biotite granite suggest a post-collisional tectonic setting.</p> Raliya Aminu Hayatu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2552 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 UTILIZING A FUSION OF MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES FOR DIABETES MELLITUS SUBTYPES CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2510 <p>Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most common health challenges in the world we live in today. It is a deadly disease which prevents the body from making enough insulin. Diabetes Type1 and Type2 are the two major types, which have some similarity in symptoms. Identifying Diabetic Patients with respect to type plays a very significant role in the management process. Misdiagnosis of these types leads to serious impediments. Research shows that the overlapping nature of features contributed to the difficulty in identifying the types and the classification into sub-types. This is still an area of concern (Hassan, et <em>al</em>, 2020; Albahli, 2020). In this research, we proposed a method of Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest Tree (RFT) for the classification of Diabetes sub-types. To reduce the dimensions of the feature set, &nbsp;the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Logistic Regression (LR) were used. For effective research, data is sourced from the Center for Endocrinology and Diabetes-Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital and Medical City Hospital's public laboratory Dataset to ensure wide coverage. The dataset consists of 834 patient records with eight features and an output column labelled "Type I" or "Type II." This study conducted the experiment using Python, and the results show that the hybrid model outperformed the other prediction methods.</p> Malik Adeiza Rufai, Muhammad Bashir Abdullahi, Opayemi Aderike Abisoye, Oluwaseun Adeniyi Ojerinde Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2510 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 COMPARATIVE NUTRITIONAL AND MINERAL ANALYSIS OF FERMENTED PENTACLETHRA MACROPHYLLA (UKPAKA), FERMENTED RICINUS COMMUNIS (OGIRI), AND FERMENTED PROSOPIS AFRICANA SEED (OKPEYE) https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2351 <p>Fermented African mesquite bean, Castor oil bean, and African oil bean seeds were Purchased at Ogige Main Market in Nsukka Local Government of Enugu State and examined for the relative assessments of their mineral and nutritional proximate qualities. The Association of Official Agricultural Chemists' techniques were used to ascertain the approximate composition and mineral characteristics of the fermented samples. The fermented African oil bean seed had the highest lipid content (43.31%) and fibre (16.85%), whereas the fermented African mesquite bean had the highest levels of carbs (41.98%), ash (6.54%), and protein (33.64%). The beans with fermented castor oil showed the highest moisture content (29.4320%). Fermented African mesquite bean seed had the highest levels of calcium (1813.30 mg/L), magnesium (292.03 mg/L), and iron (48.26 mg/L), according to the mineral contents, whereas fermented castor bean seed had the highest potassium levels (3,544.72 mg/L). There were no heavy metals such as lead(Pb), chromium (Cr), cadium (Cd), or cobalt (Co) in any of the samples. In comparison to fermented African oil bean and Castor oil bean seeds, it can be stated that fermented African mesquite bean seeds (Okpeye) contain higher amounts of protein, carbohydrates, and ash.</p> NDIDIAMAKA. JUSTINA AGBO Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2351 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 DETERMINATION OF SOME PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN VEGETABLES (OKRO, SORREL AND SPINACH) SAMPLES FROM FORI, JERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2406 <p>This study is aimed at determining the levels of some pesticide residues in vegetable samples (Sorrel, African spinach and Okro) from the Fori area of Jere. The vegetable samples were collected at three different sampling points designated F1 to F3. Extraction and clean-up of vegetable samples were carried out using standard procedures. The levels of the pesticide residues in the vegetable samples were determined using GC-MS. Dichlorvos was observed (178 – 2814.5 mg/kg) in all the samples from the three locations. In location, F3, 16 mg/kg and 11 mg/kg of cypermethrin were observed in okro and spinach respectively. In location, F2, 3979 mg/kg and 3220 mg/kg of cyhalothrin was observed in Okro and spinach respectively. Diazinone (3380 mg/kg) was observed only in F2 (sorrel).&nbsp; The concentrations of the detected pesticides in all the three vegetable samples from the three locations were greatly higher than the Minimum Regulatory Limit (MRL) values. When comparing our result with that agricultural standard (TAS 9002-2013) we found out that our MRL value is far higher than the institute value. As such we recommended that the farmers in Fori should be properly trained and directed on how to use pesticides and another related chemical to avoid health risks and toxic effects on the farmers, the plants and generally to the consumers.</p> Aliyu S. Auwalu, Abdullateef Baba, Mohammed I. Abdullahi Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2406 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 PRODUCTION OF BRIQUETTES FROM A BLEND OF RICE HUSKS AND PALM KERNEL SHELLS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOLID FUEL https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2506 <p>In this study, composite briquettes were produced from agricultural waste (rice husks and palm kernel shells) using a manually operated 20-ton air hydraulic press fabricated for this purpose. This research addresses current fuel sources' environmental and economic challenges by developing an alternative solid fuel from agricultural waste. The rice husk and palm kernel shell samples were ground into powder and sieved with a 1 mm sieve mesh. Thereafter, (RH) and (PKS) samples were thoroughly mixed to obtain a uniform and homogeneous mixture. The mixtures were prepared at RH: PKS weight ratios of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 100:0, and 0:100 and compacted under a pressure of 110 bar using 25% gelatinized starch as a binder. The experimental results of the produced briquettes showed that the compressed and relaxed densities of the fuel briquettes ranged from 0.84 to 1.09 g/cm³ and 0.54 to 0.68 g/cm³, respectively. Proximate analysis of the briquettes showed that the percentages of moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon ranged from 4.18 to 5.57%, 12.48 to 19.32%, 74.39 to 81.38%, and 0.05 to 2.11%, respectively. The results for higher heating value (HHV) ranged from 16.92 to 19.19 MJ/kg, which compared well with the standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The briquette with a 50RH:50PKS ratio recorded the highest HHV of 19.19 MJ/kg, implying it has a higher heating advantage over the remaining samples and is therefore recommended as an alternative fuel to conventional fuels (charcoal and firewood).</p> Halilu Ibrahim Jume, Bala Yakubu Alhaji, U. Ahmadu, Sharifat Olalonpe Ibrahim, M. Agida, Alhassan Muazu, Mohammad Mohammad Ndamitso, Bello Abdulkadir Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2506 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 PANEL REGRESSION INVESTIGATION ON THE IMPACT OF SERVICE EXPORT AND AGRICULTURAL RAW MATERIALS ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN 5 SUB-SAHARAN COUNTRIES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2525 <p>Population expansion, rising incomes, and increasing urbanization characterize Sub-Saharan Africa's economies, indicating potential market development but also posing trade stability problems. Poor economic performance and dependency on oil exports in the region have necessitated additional research and talks. This study will look into the impact of service exports and agricultural raw materials on the economic growth of five Sub-Saharan African countries between 2012 and 2022. The study will examine the impact of service exports (sexp) and agricultural raw materials (aexp) on GDP using several regression models, to determine the most appropriate model using the Hausman test. The research seeks to establish the relationship between service exports, agricultural raw material exports, and economic growth in these countries, chosen based on their GDP performance as of 2023. The study used three different estimators to ensure robust results. The Hausman test revealed that the fixed effects model is most suitable for addressing challenges related to independent variables with a positive but negligible impact on GDP. Overall, the research found that while service exports have a positive impact, it is statistically insignificant for GDP. The findings are also applicable to agricultural raw materials. The consistent and large value shows that an increase in service exports and agricultural raw materials will increase the selected Sub-Saharan African countries' GDP. According to the findings, authorities in these countries should develop policies to establish conditions that promote the productive and advantageous roles of agricultural raw materials and service exports in driving economic expansion across Sub-Saharan Africa.</p> Nkem Juliet Akobundu, M. O. Adenomon, Bilkisu Maijama’a Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2525 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 RADIOLOGICAL HAZARD IMPACT OF RESERVOIR FRACKING WASTEWATER: DRINKING WATER IMPLICATION, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2565 Emmanuel Oghenevovwero Esi, Emeka Charles Oduah, Augustine Onyema Nwabuoku Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2565 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCES OF FOUR TOTAL STATION INSTRUMENTS IN CONTROL EXTENSION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2566 <p>In the Surveying profession, advanced and modern instruments are improving the accuracy and precision of measurement and observation. However, accessing these instruments, such as Total Stations (TS), must be done with caution. This study is aimed at evaluating and analyzing the performance of TS instruments in a horizontal control extension. To conduct this study, a closed traverse was carried out to extend horizontal control points using Leica 1201+ series TS. The observations were carried out three time for five days. The result serves as the base for comparison with other four TS instruments. The TS instruments used include: Ruide RTS-820 Series, Nikon TS DTM-352/332, Sokkia CX – 105 series, and Topcon Total Station GTW-210 Series. The four TS were used to run a closed traverse on these same reference points. The observed data was processed using the least square adjustment procedure. The Standard Deviation (SD) and Root Mean Square (RMS) of the mean coordinate values for the four TS were computed. The result shows the highest SD as 0.0137508m and the highest RMSE as 0.012663m. This signals that all the mean coordinates obtained by the four TS were relatively close to reference TS data and also, that the residuals of the coordinates did not differ significantly. The two-way ANOVA test carried out however, signifies that at 0.01 level of significance the result of the four TS instruments dose not differ from the reference TS. It is therefore concluded that, all the four TS instruments has no significant difference in terms...</p> Takana Abubakar, N. Japhet, J. G. Mono Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2566 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 MAPPING THE LANDSCAPE AND ANALYZING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC PORTRAITS OF TOMATO VALUE CHAIN IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2437 <p>This study identifies and mapped out the tomato value chain actors and the roles played by each actor along the value chain. The actors identified include the Input dealers, Producers (farmers), Marketers (rural assemblers, wholesalers, and retailers), the Processors (hotel, restaurants, industries), transporters and Consumers. Other actors supporting the value chain as extension organizations and research institutes were also identified. Findings of this study (Table 1) reveals the socio-economic portraits like age, gender, educational status, major occupation among other. The study reveals the mean age of the value chain actors approximately as 39 years, 44 years, 44 years, 41 years and 43 years for input dealers, producers, marketers, processors and consumers respectively. The study also reveals that majority of the value chain actors in the area were male and married. The result implies that there is a wide disparity in educational attainment among the value chain actors as findings indicated that only the input dealers in majority (38.5%) attended the formal education system. While, majority of other actors attended the informal education system. Tomato value chain structure in the study area comprises of different forms of marketing channels through which tomatoes flows from initial point of production (farmers) to the end users (consumers). Among all the identified marketing channels, the channels with low number of market intermediaries were considered by the farmers as the most preferred channels because the more the number of market intermediaries the higher the value added and the lower the profit share realized by farmers.</p> Suleiman Nazir Jamilu, Z. Abdulsalam, A. A. Hassan, M. Umar Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2437 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 POOR PERFORMANCE OF A POPULAR MALARIA RAPID DIAGNOSTIC KIT COMPARED TO MICROSCOPY IN ADULTS P. FALCIPARUM INFECTIONS IN NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2456 <p>Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have become the mainstay of malaria diagnosis, especially in endemic rural settings where microscopy is difficult to perform. However, the performance of malaria rapid diagnostic tests is infrequently accessed in adults in Nigeria. We therefore accessed the performance of CareStart<sup>TM</sup> malaria RDT in the routine detection of <em>Plasmodium</em> in adults. A total of 134 participants were tested for malaria infection using both microscopy and CareStart<sup>TM</sup> Malaria Pf (HRP2) Ag RDT (ACCESSBIO, USA) in Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. The prevalence of malaria was higher based on microscopy (20.1%) compared to RDT (3.7%), with a mean parasite density of 2954.1 parasites per microliter of blood. The sensitivity and specificity of the RDT were 3.70% and 96.26%, respectively, while the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 20.00% and 79.84%, respectively. Although RDT sensitivity varied significantly with parasite density, it failed to detect malaria infection with high parasitaemia. Our observation suggests possible reduced diagnostic sensitivity of RDT for the diagnosis of <em>P. falciparum</em> malaria in adults and the need to support the interpretation of RDT results with microscopy.</p> Oluwaremilekun Grace Ajakaye Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2456 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF THE CORROSION INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF Annona muricata LEAVES EXTRACT ON ALUMINUM IN HYDROCHLORIC ACID MEDIUM https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2460 Nnenna Winifred Odozi, Mathew Chukwudi Emesiani, Chidinma Deborah Charles, Bilqis Omobola Seriki, Msenhemba Moses Mchihi Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2460 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 DEFINING VARIATION OPERATOR FOR GRAMMAR REACHABILITY SEARCH BASED VULNERABILITIES DETECTION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2463 <p>In population-based search algorithm such as Evolutionary Programming (EP), the search process typically involves seeding population of first generation with randomly generated individuals, selecting parents through fitness evaluation, producing offsprings through variation of parents, and selecting parents and offsprings into next generation of candidate solutions. Obviously, the quality of the variation operator is important in leading the search process towards global optimal solution.&nbsp; In this paper, a high-quality variation operator is proposed. The proposed variation operator has the capacity to bias search towards optimal solutions while ensuring adequate balance between exploration and exploitation of the search space so as to facilitate discovery of optimal solutions in fewer number of generations. The proposed variation operator was used in our published work named EPSQLiFix. The proposed variation operator demonstrated high performance. Thus, it can as well be applicable in other related problem domains.</p> Umar Kabir Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2463 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM DATE PALM (Phoenix dactylifera) SEEDS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2567 <p>In this study, agricultural waste (date seeds) were used to produce activated carbon in an oxygenated environment. The produced activated carbon was characterised. The HRSEM showed mesoporous structural morphology, which exhibited a surface area of 54.53 m<sup>2</sup>/g, pore size of 10.34 nm and pore volume of 0.1256 cc/g. The EDX spectrum revealed the presence of C and O as the major elemental compositions in the activated carbon. The FTIR spectrum indicated the presence of OH<sup>-</sup>, C=C, C=O and C-H at absorption bands of 3400, 2900, 1650, and 1300 cm<sup>-1</sup>, respectively.&nbsp; The diffractogram of the activated carbon revealed graphitic carbon 2&nbsp;peaks of 22<sup>o</sup> and 43<sup>o</sup> which are related to (002) and (100) plane, respectively. The conversion of agricultural waste to activated carbon possessing these unique properties could serve as a promising and low-cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic pollutants from industrial wastewater.</p> Muhammad Abdulkarim, I. L. Ibrahim, M. Mohammed, M. Musah Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2567 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 UTILIZING LOGISTIC REGRESSION TO IDENTIFY HOUSEHOLD POVERTY STATUS IN BENUE STATE OF NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2524 <p>Despite numerous poverty alleviation programmes in Nigeria, household poverty continues to rise. This paper aimed to improve poverty detection by analyzing household socio-economic and environmental data using logistic regression models. Data was collected through Google forms and pre-processing and feature extractions were performed. Five logistic models were developed to represent different types of poverty. The models were evaluated for accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score, achieving 80% for Absolute Poverty and 100% for Chronic/Structural, Conjectural/Transitory, and Locational/Spatial poverty. The analysis revealed that over half of the households were poor, with Spatial/Locational poverty being the most prevalent. Targeting this type of poverty is recommended for effective intervention.</p> Terseer Andrew Gaav, Beatrice O. Akumba, Samera U. Otor, Selumun Agber Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2524 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ASSESSMENT OF THE CONCENTRATIONS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE TO HEAVY METALS IN BATHING SOAPS IN NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2500 <p>The presence of heavy metals in consumer products, particularly in personal care items like soaps, poses potential health risks to consumers. This study aimed to determine the concentrations and risks of Pb, Ni, Zn, Co, Cd and Cr in commonly used bathing soaps available in the Nigerian market. A total of seventeen bathing soaps comprising of medicated, moisturizing, toilet and skin whitening soaps were obtained for this study. Analytical procedures under satisfactory conditions were harnessed to determine the various concentrations and the results revealed varying concentrations of Pb (0.08 to 0.39 mg/kg), Ni (0.05 to 0.33 mg/kg), Zn (0.10 to 6.42 mg/kg), Co (0.04 to 1.93 mg/kg), Cd (0.02 to 0.09 mg/kg), and Cr (0.01 to 0.19 mg/kg) across the different soap categories. The systemic exposure dosage (SED) values for these metals obtained from the use of these bathing soaps were below their respective provisional tolerable daily intake or recommended daily intake values. The margin of safety (MoS) values obtained were greater than 100 which indicated that the concentrations of the metals in these soaps do not present considerable risk to the users. The findings underscore the importance of regular monitoring and regulation of heavy metal content in consumer products, particularly personal care items like soaps. As prolonged exposure to these metals, even in trace amounts, may have adverse effects on human’s health and long-term toxicity. Therefore, stringent quality control measures and regulatory standards are imperative to safeguard public health and ensure the safety of consumers in Nigeria.</p> Victory I. Oviri, Godswill O. Tesi, Onoriode O. Emoyan Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2500 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 TIME-VARYING CORRELATION BETWEEN SEAFOOD AND MEAT INDEX IN THE PRESENCE OF OCEAN POLLUTION SHOCK https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2486 <p>This study examines the complex relationships between global meat and seafood markets, focusing on the time-varying correlation between the Meat Index Market and the Seafood Index after Japan's nuclear wastewater release. Employing a Bayesian technique combined with the Skewed Multivariate Generalized Error Distribution, the study efficiently captures the time-varying correlations, with causality tests determining directional influences between the indices. The results reveal significant disruptions in seafood markets, highlighting the geopolitical impact on market dynamics. By offering a fresh perspective on market interdependencies during environmental crises, the study aids in risk assessments and effective risk mitigation strategies, introducing a Bayesian perspective into traditional financial econometrics and signifying a methodological shift in advanced model selection. Ultimately, understanding the dynamic relationships between meat and seafood markets can help traders, decision-makers, and market players navigate the financial effects of external shocks on global seafood market dynamics.</p> Kabiru Tukur Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2486 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A HYBRID APPROACH TO SOLVING COMPLEX OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS USING EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2576 <p>It can be difficult to optimize complex issues, and doing so frequently calls for the application of cutting-edge methods like mathematical modelling and evolutionary algorithms. Our proposal in this work is to address complex optimization issues using a hybrid strategy that integrates both approaches. The suggested method builds a surrogate model of the issue by mathematical modelling, which is subsequently optimized through the application of evolutionary algorithms. The hybrid methodology is tested against other optimization methods, such as particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithms, on a series of benchmark tasks. The experimental findings demonstrate that in terms of both computing time and solution quality, the suggested hybrid strategy performs better than various alternative methods. The suggested methodology exhibits great potential as a means of resolving intricate optimization issues across diverse fields, such as engineering, finance, and healthcare.</p> Justin Onyarin Ogala, Ohoriemu Blessing Okeoghene Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2576 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 BIOSURFACTANT THERAPEUTIC POTENTIALS: A REVIEW https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2503 <p>Natural products have proved to be an important source of novel antimicrobial agents and their uses in traditional medicine have brought about the discovery of several bioactive compounds. Biosurfactants are derived from many microorganisms and are classified as secondary metabolites. Some bacteria are capable of synthesizing chemical products that are essential in areas such as pharmaceuticals, biomedicine, and biotechnology. The study therefore reviews production of biosurfactants, their applications and unique physicochemical characteristics that make them suitable for commercial production of therapeutics. Biosurfactants different areas of exploit as antimicrobial agents and in drug delivery systems, are also reviewed. If well exploited, biosurfactants could be a potential candidate in the production of many therapeutics as well as biochemicals.</p> Mudasiru I. O. Raji, S. A. Bello Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2503 Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000