FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs <p><strong>The <a href="http://www.fudutsinma.edu.ng" target="_blank" rel="noopener">FUDMA</a> Journal of Sciences (FJS) </strong>is a peer-reviewed publication of original research papers, review articles, technical reports and short communications in all aspects in the fields of science and technology such as Chemistry, Earth and atmospheric sciences, Biology in general, Agriculture, Biochemistry, Botany, Microbiology, Environmental Science,&nbsp; Computer Science, Engineering, Physics, Materials Science, Mechanics, Mathematics, Statistics, Nutrition and Food Science, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Polymer and Textile Sciences, Process Modeling and Computational Analysis, Renewable Energy and waste to resource processes.</p> Faculties of Physical Science and Life Science, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State - Nigeria en-US FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES 2645-2944 <p>FUDMA Journal of Sciences</p> TOXICITY OF LITHIUM BATTERY WASTE ON SELECTED INVERTEBRATES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2152 <p>Electronic waste poses a major menace to ecosystems owing to the toxic properties of materials used for the manufacture of electronic goods. In this present study, the toxicity of lithium battery waste on invertebrates, snails (<em>Archachatina marginata</em>) and earthworms (<em>Apporrectodeal longa</em>) were evaluated using appropriate concentrations of toxicant. The physicochemical and heavy metal analysis of the toxicant was carried out according to the method of APHA (2008). The standard protocol obtained from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the protocol obtained from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) were adopted for the 14-day exposure to varying concentrations of the toxicant (0.3125, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg) for earthworm and (3.125,6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) for snail respectively. The pH, Electrical conductivity. Total dissolved solids, Lithium, cadmium and mercury results of the toxicant were (2.6, 13500, 8640, 36.60, 2.03 and 10.48mg/L) respectively. The result also shows an increased in the &nbsp;mortality of test organisms with increase in toxicant concentration. LC<sub>50, </sub>LOEC, NOEC, TUc and TUa with exposure time for snails and earthworms were (1.05, 0.86,0.77,94.88, 129.87 mg/kg) and (0.68, 0.41,0.31, 147.06, 322.58.mg/kg), respectively. The study established that the toxicant (lithium battery) is considered a high risk to animals, plants and the environment as it adversely affects soil invertebrates which bring about soil fertility if not properly disposed of.</p> Elvis Nwaogbeni Stephen Okanezi Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 1 4 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2152 OCCURRENCE OF VIRULENCE GENES OF Staphylococcus aureus AND Escherichia coli IN VENDED FOODS IN SELECTED MOTOR-PARKS IN OBIO/AKPOR, RIVERS STATE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2326 <p>The study aimed at evaluating the microbiological safety of vended foods in selected motor parks in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. Forty-eight samples obtained from four motor parks (Choba, Rumuokoro, Eliozu and Oil-mill Park) were analyzed using standard microbiological methods for total heterotrophic bacteria count, virulent and antibiotic resistant profiles of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em>. Total heterotrophic bacteria count ranged from 4.60 to 8.39 log<sub>10</sub>CFU/g. A total of 10 (20.83%) samples were positive for <em>S.</em> <em>aureus</em> while 14 (29.17%) were positive for <em>E.</em> <em>coli</em>. Total staphylococcal and <em>Escherichia</em> <em>coli</em> counts ranged from 4.89 to 7.01 and 2.70 to 5.31 log<sub>10</sub>cfu/g<u>,</u> respectively. Both bacteria were 100% resistant to augmentin. The confirmed <em>E. coli</em> showed varying resistant to cefixime (50%), ceftazidime (42.86%), cefuroxim (14.29%) and ofloxacin (7.14%); while <em>S. aureus</em> also showed varying resistant to erythromycin (10.00%), ceftriaxone (90.00%), cloxacillin (100.00%) and gentamycin (0.00%) The confirmed <em>E. coli</em> produced the expected bands for the <em>E. coli</em> attaching and effusing (<em>eaeA</em>), aggregative adherence fimbriae (<em>aggR</em>) and antimicrobial sensitivity testing (<em>astA</em>) virulence genes while <em>S. aureus</em> did not produce the expected bands with staphylococcal enterotoxin A (<em>sea</em>) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (<em>seb</em>) genes. The detection of virulence gene bearing <em>E. coli</em> and multiple antibiotic resistant <em>E. coli</em> and <em>S. aureus</em> portends danger for commuters who patronizes these foods, hence the need for urgent public health interventions.</p> Peace Darlington Onoriode Christian Eruteya Onyinyechi N. Akomah-Abadaike Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 5 14 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2326 B-HEMATIN INHIBITION ACTIVITY OF THE METHANOL LEAF EXTRACT AND RESIDUAL AQUEOUS FRACTION OF FICUS ASPERIFOLIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2161 <p>Chemotherapy is still regarded as the major intervention in fighting the malaria scourge despite the recent introduction of malaria vaccine. Screening of medicinal plants provides opportunities for the discovery of the potential drug molecules. Ficus asperifolia (Miq) family Moraceae has been traditionally employed in the treatment of many diseases including pain, fever and malaria. The aim of this study was to examine the anitmalarial activity of both the methanol leaf extract (MEFA) and residual aqueous fraction of Ficus asperifolia (RAF) through the determination of their heme polymerization inhibition ability. The powdered leaf was extracted using 70%</p> Ibrahim Doma Abdullahi Abdullahi Hamza Yaro Mustapha Ibrahim Gudaji Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 15 22 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2161 ASSESSMENT OF THE NUTRITIONAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF VENDED TIGER NUT (Cyperus esculentus) DRINK IN CHOBA, RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2327 <p>The study was aimed at determining the nutritional and microbiological quality of tiger nut milk (Kunun-aya) sold by three vendors for a three-week period in Choba, Rivers State, Nigeria. Standard methods were employed in determining the proximate, mineral composition, total heterotrophic bacterial counts and presence of <em>Staphylococcus</em> and <em>Escherichia</em> species. Moisture content was consistently highest, ranging from 78.04±2.24 to 87.34±1.24, followed by carbohydrate (7.41±1.88 to 15.14±2.33) and the least was ash (0.11±0.03 to 0.26±0.14). The most abundant of the five minerals was potassium (K) with values ranging from 837.98±15.26 to 931.43±33.30, followed by sodium (Na) with values ranging from 587.39±15.58 to 663.78±34.65 and the least was iron (Fe) with values ranging from 8.50±3.57 to 13.44±3.47. Microbial counts results reveal the following for total heterotrophic bacteria (1.4 to 9.5×10<sup>7 </sup>cfu/ml), <em>Staphylococcus</em> (1.6×10<sup>3</sup> to 5.5×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/ml) and <em>Escherichia</em> spp. (0 to 5×10<sup>3</sup> cfu/ml). The results obtained in this study has revealed the presence of valuable nutrient needed for healthy living as well as high microbial loads and presence of etiologic agents of human infections in vended tiger-nut milk sold in Choba. This underscores the need for the milk to be aseptically prepared to forestall the transmission of pathogenic bacteria to consumers.</p> Onoriode Christian Eruteya J. C. Mmonu F. C. Jonathan Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 23 28 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2327 MODULATION OF CYTOKINE EXPRESSION AND ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY OF RESIDUAL AQUEOUS FRACTION OF THE METHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF FICUS ASPERIFOLIA IN PLASMODIUM BERGHEI INFECTED MICE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2160 Ibrahim Doma Abdullahi Mustapha Ibrahim Gudaji Abdullahi Hamza Yaro Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 29 37 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2160 ENUMERATION AND DETERMINATION OF ANTIBIOGRAM OF BACTERIA ISOLATES FROM HAND-DUG WELL WATER IN BOSSO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2125 <p>Regular water supply surveillance is crucial in low-income nations like Nigeria, where households often rely on alternative sources, predisposing preventable water-borne diseases. Therefore, this study determined the occurrence and antibiogram of bacteria in hand-dug well water in Bosso metropolis, Nigeria. Exactly 10 well water samples were collected and processed for bacteria isolation and identification using standard microbiological techniques. The antibiotic sensitivity was determined via Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion techniques. The total viable bacteria count ranged from 0.45×10<sup>3</sup> cfu/mL to 2.15×10<sup>4 </sup>cfu/mL, while the total coliform bacteria count ranged from 0.27×10<sup>3</sup> cfu/mL to 8.91×10<sup>4</sup> cfu/mL. Out of the 18 different bacteria isolated, <em>Pseudomonas </em>species had the highest occurrence (26.9%), and the least (3.9%) was observed for each of <em>Shigella</em> sp., <em>Klebsiella </em>sp., and<em> Staphylococcus aureus</em>. Also, 7 out 26 bacterial isolates isolated were multidrug-resistant. <em>Escherichia</em> <em>coli</em>, <em>Shigella</em> sp., <em>Salmonella</em> sp., <em>Pseudomonas</em> sp., and <em>Klebsiella</em> sp. were susceptible (100%) to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, though resistant (100%) to ampicillin and amoxycillin/clavulanate. All the Gram-negative bacteria isolates except <em>Salmonella</em> sp. were susceptible to gentamycin. Similarly,&nbsp;<em>Pseudomonas</em>&nbsp;sp.,&nbsp;<em>Proteus</em> sp.,&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Salmonella</em> sp. exhibited varied resistance to nitrofurantoin (71–100%), cefuroxime (50–100%), and ceftazidime (42.9–100%). <em>Bacillus</em> sp., <em>Enterococcus</em> sp., <em>Staphylococcus</em> sp., and <em>Streptococcus&nbsp;</em>sp. were resistant to cloxicillin and amoxycillin/clavulanate. In addition, <em>Bacillus&nbsp;</em>sp.&nbsp;(100%) and&nbsp;<em>Enterococcus</em> sp. (100%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin while remaining susceptible to ofloxacin and amoxycillin/clavulanate. Our findings highlight the urgent need for enhanced water quality and public health measures in the study areas...</p> Aisha Usman Victor Eche Ekainu Abdulameen Saheed Adedeji Hafsah Muhammad Abdullahi Kaltum Umar Mustapha E. N. Majin Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 38 45 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2125 BANKS SHORT MESSAGE SERVICE THREATS NOTIFICATION SYSTEM ON ANDROID BASED PHONE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2339 <p>This research is carried out for the development and implementation of an end-to-end encrypted Short Message Service (SMS) App, utilizing a hybrid cipher algorithm, driven by the notable insecurity observed in SMS communications on mobile devices. SMS is a widely used communication method, and the primary goal of this study is to create a system (App) for end-to-end encrypted SMS. Loss of phones is becoming vulnerable for threats, because we store vital records in android and these records are secret such that no other third party is required to see them, such as Bank SMS, Event Notification etc. Also this information can be compromised if android phone is been lost and found by the criminals. Kidnapping activity is serious case happening in northern part of Nigeria, so if a phone is being lost and discovered how financed he is (the device holder), there is any means of bank account compromisation as that would allow the bank to give some information about the account because of the registered SIM card inserted in android devices (phones). This system is aimed to secure Bank SMS by not allowing an unauthorized person to views the banks SMS, but all other SMS can be view. Whenever the Banks SMS is received by the Android phone, the system will encrypt it and can only be viewed if using correct decryption key, a notification will be sent to the owner other phone if more than two attempt to view the message is made, using a Hybrid Cipher...</p> Ishaq umar Muhammad Muhammad Mukhtar Liman Joshua Abah Timothy Moses J. Agushaka Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 46 58 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2339 UPTAKE OF Co(II), Pb(II) AND Ni(II) IONS BY Annona senegalensis STEM BARK BIOCHAR FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION: OPTIMIZATION, KINETIC AND THERMODYNAMIC STUDIES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2341 <p>The concern for heavy metal pollution in the environment is especially so since they are non-biodegradable. The use of agro materials in the removal of these heavy metal pollutants has been recognized as a low-cost alternative to the costly conventional remediation techniques. The equilibrium sorption of the chemically activated <em>Anonna senegalensis</em> stem bark was investigated. Using standard techniques, the physicochemical properties of activated carbon (MAASC) were ascertained. By using a simultaneous batch adsorption approach, the adsorption of Co<sup>2+</sup>, Pb<sup>2+</sup>, and Ni<sup>2+</sup> onto MAASC was examined as a function of pH, solution temperature, initial metal ion concentration, agitation time, adsorbent dose, particle size, and carbonization temperature. The equilibrium sorption data generated were fitted into Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models as well as pseudo first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. From the obtained results, it was discovered that the Langmuir isotherm provided the best match conformation of all the models, except for Pb<sup>2+</sup>, which was best for Freundlich with an R<sup>2</sup> of 0.95. Physisorption was shown to be the mechanism by Dubinin-Radushkevich. For Co<sup>2+</sup>, Pb<sup>2+</sup>, and Ni<sup>2+</sup>, respectively, the pseudo second-order kinetic model had R<sup>2</sup> values of 0.997, 0.999, and 0.999 that best matched the data. Both intraparticle diffusion and the boundary layer effect also contributed to regulating the rates of the adsorption process. The study's thermodynamic results showed that H<sup>o</sup> for Co<sup>2+</sup>, Pb<sup>2+</sup>, and Ni<sup>2+</sup> were 27.51, 19.70, and 13.37 KJ/mol, respectively. These values are all positive and suggest an endothermic reaction, supporting the physisorption mechanism.</p> Aminu Omale Nwachukwu R. Ekere Jamila A. Omale Janefrances N. Ihedioha Samuel A. Egu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 59 72 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2341 MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF INDOOR AIR QUALITY OF STUDENT HOSTELS AND CANTEENS IN A NIGERIAN UNIVERSITY CAMPUS: RISKS ON STUDENTS’ HEALTH https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2206 <p>Microbial air contaminants affect the quality of air we breathe and these microbial air contaminants can settle on body parts, clothes, food etc. which poses a serious threat to human health. Therefore, the level of bacterial contamination in various in-door air of the students’ hostels and canteens of Kaduna State University (KASU) and their antibiotics susceptibility patterns was studied. A total of 44 samples were collected from the rooms (18), toilets (18) of the students hostels and canteen (8) of KASU; using the settle plate method. Gram staining and standard biochemical methods were used to identify the bacterial isolates and antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined by disc diffusion method. The bacteria load was between 1.2 x 10<sup>3</sup> to 6.7 x 10<sup>3 </sup>cfu/ml<sup>3</sup>. A total of 30 bacteria isolates were identified, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> had the highest (9, 30%) occurrence, followed by <em>Streptococcus</em> spp (6, 20%), <em>Bacillus subtilis </em>and<em> Clostridium</em> spp had similar (4, 13.2%) occurrence, The antibiotic susceptibility testing carried out revealed that the Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria isolates were more susceptible to vancomycin (75%, 43.5%), tetracycline (75%, 47.8%) and gentamicin (50%, 43.5%) while high resistance was observed with chloramphenicol (100%, 73.9%), ceftriaxone (100%, 100%), cefoxitin (100%, 73.9%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (100%, 87%), and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (100%, 78%). &nbsp;All the indoor samples were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria and there was high level of multidrug resistance. &nbsp;This is very dangerous to the students’ health because it can be a source of transmission infections and antibiotic resistant bacterial strains.</p> A. F. Obajuluwa I. O. Akanni K. B. Bege Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 73 78 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2206 LEAF ANATOMICAL ADAPTATIONS OF FOURTEEN TREE SPECIES GROWING IN LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY, OJO CAMPUS. LAGOS, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2209 <p>Plants growing in different locations exhibit various anatomical adaptations which make them survive in their various habitats. Therefore, this study examined the leaf anatomical adaptations &nbsp;of fourteen tree species namely <em>Acacia auriculiformis, Albizia lebbeck, Anacardium occidentale, Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya, Delonix regia, Gmelina arborea, Lagestroemia speciosa, Mangifera indica, Polyalthia longifolia, Tectona grandis, Terminalia catappa, Terminalia ivoriensis </em>and <em>Yucca gigantea </em>growing in Lagos State University, Ojo Campus.. The leaf epidermal layers were isolated using nail polish; and were observed under the light microscope to determine the stomata features, epidermal cell and trichome types. The results showed that all the species were hypostomatic, with the exception of <em>Acacia auriculiformis </em>and <em>Terminalia ivorensis</em> that were amphistomatic. Eight stomatal complex types such as anomotetracytic, staurocytic, anisosytic, brachyparacytic, paracytic, pericytic, brachyparatetracytic and anomocytic were observed among the species. The stomatal density ranged from 46.05 mm-<sup>2</sup> 342.11 mm<sup>-2 </sup>on both leaf surfaces. The stomatal index ranged from 16.17% - 91.23% on both leaf surfaces. Trichomes were found in <em>Albizia lebbeck, Delonix regia, Gmelina arborea</em>, <em>Polyalthia longifolia</em>, <em>Tectona grandis</em> and <em>Terminali aivorensis. </em>The anticlinal cell wall patterns observed were round, curved, wavy and straight; while the epidermal cell shapes were irregular, isodiametric and polygonal. This study revealed that leaf anatomical adaptations such as amphistomatic leaf type, presence of stomatal complex types (anomocytic, anomotetracytic, brachyparatetracytic, staurocytic and anisocytic) with many subsidiary cells; high stomatal density and index; absence of trichomes; and wavy anticlinal cell wall pattern might be responsible for survival of the species in their locations.</p> Kehinde Theophilus Omolokun Omoteso K. Oluwa Olubunmi J. Sharaibi Olajide M. Keshinro Mustapha M. Mamudu Temisan O. Vincent Olanrewaju J. Oloyede J. Adeniyi Jayeola Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 79 86 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2209 RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF VEGETABLES DRIED ALONG MAJOR HIGHWAYS IN NORTHWESTERN NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2342 Usman Musa Kankara Rabiu Nasiru Nuraddeen Nasiru Garba Aminu Ismaila Abdullahi Muhammad Vatsa Echeche Onuh Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 87 91 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2342 CYBER SECURITY ATTACK DETECTION MODEL USING SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2343 <p>The increasing digitalization of our society has brought about numerous benefits, enabling seamless communication, convenient transactions, and efficient operations. However, with this growing reliance on interconnected systems and information technology, the risk of cyber-attacks has also surged. Cyber threats, such as data breaches, ransomware, and sophisticated malware, have become more prevalent, threatening the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of critical data and services. Organizations across industries face the daunting challenge of defending against a wide array of cyber-attacks that continue to evolve in complexity and stealth. In response to this ever-changing cyber threat landscape, Cyber Security Risk Management (CSRM) and attack detection have become critical components of any comprehensive cybersecurity strategy. The ability to identify and mitigate cyber risks and swiftly detect malicious activities is paramount for safeguarding sensitive information, preserving business continuity, and maintaining the trust of customers and stakeholders. A novel approach to Cyber Security Risk Management through an Attack Detection Model that utilizes Semi-Supervised Learning Auto-Encoders in conjunction with Probabilistic Bayesian Networks. The study compares the performance of Multi Connect Variational Auto-Encoder (MC-VAE), Probabilistic Bayesian Networks (PBN), and a combined model of MC-VAE and PBN. The study employs the NUSW-NB15_GT dataset for training and evaluation purposes. Notably, the Semi-Supervised Learning with Probabilistic Bayesian Networks (SSL-PBN) model demonstrates exceptional results, achieving a precision rate of 94% and a recall rate of 90%. The F1 score of 0.9191 highlights the SSL-PBN model's efficacy in achieving a balanced trade-off between precision and recall, critical for minimizing false positives and false negatives...</p> Samson Isaac Damilola Kolawole Ayodeji Yusuf Luqman Solomon Mathew Karma Jibril Aminu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 92 100 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2343 PHENOTYPIC DETECTION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF EXTENDED SPECTRUM BETA LACTAMASE PRODUCING Escherichia coli FROM SUSPECTED CASES OF URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN KANO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2344 <p>Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, especially ESBL-producing <em>Escherichia coli </em>can be life-threatening as therapeutic options available to treat infected patients are limited. Resistance due to ESBL-producing bacteria poses a peculiar challenge in treating infections because of its association with multidrug resistance. <em>The aim of this study was thus to determine the susceptibility pattern and phenotypic detection of ESBL-producing E. coli from UTI patients.</em> Two hundred and forty-six (246) <em>E.coli</em> isolates obtained from patients with suspected urinary tract infections were studied. The identity of the isolates was confirmed using standard biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out using the Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion Technique. Screening for ESBL production was done using the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint. Suspected ESBL producers were subjected to confirmation using the Double Disc Synergy Test. Standard Discs of Augmentin (AMC 30µG Oxoid England), Ceftazidime (CAZ 30µG, Oxoid England) and Cefotaxime (CTX 30µG, Oxoid England) were used for the screening and confirmation. Multidrug-resistant <em>E.coli</em> were found to be 65.4%. Screening for ESBL production showed 67.1% suspected ESBLs producing <em>E.coli</em>. The Double Disc Synergy Test showed 22.4% confirmed ESBLs producing <em>E.coli</em>. Antimicrobial sensitivity of the ESBLs producing organisms showed 100% resistance to augmentin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime while resistance to gentamicin was 91.1%, chloramphenicol 89.2%, nitrofurantoin 78.4%, and cotrimoxazole 94.6%. A 100% sensitivity to imipenem was also observed. ESBL-producing <em>E.coli </em>are present in Kano metropolis and are resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics. We, therefore, suggest screening and confirmation for ESBL, to prevent treatment failure.</p> Aisha Mohammed A. M. Magashi M. Yushau Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 101 105 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2344 PREVALENCE OF VESICO VAGINAL FISTULA AND COPING STRATEGIES OF WOMEN IN KEBBI STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2240 <p>Vesico-Vaginal Fistula (VVF) poses a significant challenge for women, particularly in Kebbi State, Nigeria, where a VVF Centre operates to provide surgical repair and healthcare professional training. Despite this, research on VVF prevalence and coping strategies in Kebbi State remains limited, warranting further investigation to address knowledge gaps. This study investigates the prevalence and coping strategies associated with Vesicovaginal Fistula (VVF) among women in Kebbi State. Employing purposive sampling, 49 questionnaires were distributed to women aged 15 years and above. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, including frequency, and inferential statistics, with Spearman rank correlation analyzing variable associations. Results indicate that the mean age of marriage is 16, with the highest frequencies of married (35.9%) and divorced (27.4%) respondents. Occupation-wise, 33.4% are housewives, revealing low-income earners, especially among casual laborers (28.9%) and farmers (26.9%). VVF prevalence is concentrated among ages 14–19 (30.7%), and overall prevalence is 29.3 per 1000 deliveries. The disease exhibits an increasing trend, with the years 2011-2012 having the least frequency (17%) and a mean score of 5.1. Yearly variations are noted in documented VVF cases from Gesse VVF Centre in Birnin Kebbi (2011-2020). Knowledge of VVF prevalence is highest (100.0%) among age groups 30-34 and 40 and above, contrasting sharply with the smaller proportion (15-30 age group). Coping mechanisms predominantly involve accepting fate. Recommendations include implementing comprehensive health education, targeting girls and women to address early marriage and reproductive health, facilitated by government and health workers.</p> Ismail Garba Wali Jamilu Sani Abdulmumin M. Omiya Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 106 112 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2240 EFFECT OF WASTE ENGINE OIL ON PROXIMATE, PHYTOCHEMICAL, AND ANTIBACTERIAL CONSTITUENTS OF Teffairia Occidentalis (PUMPKIN LEAF) https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2239 <p>The improper disposal of waste engine oil effluent onto gutters, open lands, and cultivated farm lands is a common practice in Nigeria, especially among mechanics. These effluents contain substances derived from hydrocarbons that can diminish soil fertility and also influence the properties of plants. This study was consequently undertaken to examine the effects of waste engine oil on the nutritional, phytochemical, and antibacterial constituents of <em>Telfairia occidentalis</em> (Pumpkin leaf). Various levels (0ml, 100ml, 200ml, 300ml, and 400ml) of diesel oil contamination were mixed with 2 kilograms (kg) of soil, with each treatment replicated three times. Plants were watered daily for four months, and after 16 weeks, leaf samples were collected for laboratory analysis. The nutritional composition, phytochemical properties, and antibacterial components of the leaves were examined. The results indicated a significant reduction (P&lt;0.05) in protein (12±0.02), fats (7±0.02), ash (15±0.25), fiber (10±0.03), and carbohydrate (10±0.25) content in the 400ml waste oil treatment compared to the control (0ml) values (protein: 38±0.01, crude fat: 25±0.13, total ash: 45±0.07, crude fiber: 36±0.15, carbohydrate: 42±0.04). Phytochemical analysis demonstrated a noteworthy decrease in alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, and phenols as waste oil levels increased in the soil, compared to the control (0ml). The antibacterial activity screening revealed that among the various concentrations (80mg/ml, and 20mg/100 ml) of extracts studied, 80g/ 100 ml showed the highest degree of inhibition on all the test organisms. However, there was a notable reduction in inhibition as the level of waste oil pollution increased in the soil, compared to the control...</p> E. I. Atuanya E. Sunday Rufus E. Aso Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 113 117 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2239 APPLICATION OF GENERALIZED EXTREME VALUE DISTRIBUTION TO ANNUAL MAXIMUM RAINFALL https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2268 <p>Generalized Extreme Value Distributions was used to model annual maximum rainfall data in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria from 1981-2019. The parameters of the distribution are estimated using the maximum likelihood estimation method. The model fit indicated that the shape &nbsp;parameter is negative this suggests that Fréchet distribution is the appropriate model for describing annual maximum rainfall in Ondo-state Nigeria. The estimated return levels for different return periods revealed an increase in the value over the years.</p> Anthony O. Ilesanmi Omobolaji Y. Halid Samuel O. Adejuwon E. Ayooluwa Odukoya M. Sunday Olayemi Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 118 122 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2268 A RISK-LEVEL ANALYSIS OF INTRA-COMMUNAL VIOLENCE A CASE STUDY OF UVWIE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, DELTA STATE NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2345 <p>Intra-communal violence perpetrates across various families and factions in a community and this is strongly supported by the undeniable solidarity felt and exhibited by the violent parties for their respective groups. In this research work, we made some assumptions regarding the violence risk level of the human community. Basic mathematical analyses such as the violence-free and the violent-persistent equilibrium points and the basic reproduction number were examined. As a case study, an analysis of the violence risk level of Uvwie local government, Delta State, Nigeria, was carried out, and the data collected via questionnaires revealed that the community is at high risk level of violence, and so violence will occur in most cases. The violence risk level and the peace level perceptions of various categories of the residents of the community were clearly presented and analyzed. The computational software used in this research was the Version 12 Mathematica Programming Software.</p> Joshua S. Apanapudor Sylvester O. Okpako Newton O. Okposo Friday Z. Okwonu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 123 136 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2345 ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND VEGETATION USING MODIS NDVI AND LST TIMESERIES DATA IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2305 <p>This study assessed the relationship between land surface temperature (LST) and vegetation using MODIS NDVI and LST timeseries data in Kaduna Metropolis. MOD13Q1 and MOD11A2 datasets were accessed using Google Earth Engine. Mann-Kendall trend test was used to analyse the trends in LST and NDVI. Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient and Linear Regression were used to examine the relationship between LST and NDVI. Mann-Kendall trend test revealed monotonic downward trend in NDVI with a Z-statistics of -1.2758, but upward trend in daytime and nighttime LST, with a Z-statistics of 0.567 and 2.107 respectively. For the relationship, vegetation showed strong negative relationship with daytime LST with -0.704. Vegetation also showed weak positive relationship with nighttime LST. The linear regression analysis revealed that vegetation was able to predict 49.5% of LST in Kaduna Metropolis, with R<sup>2</sup> value of 0.495 and a standard error of estimate is 2.459. The study concluded that loss of vegetation is responsible for the increase in land surface temperature. The study therefore recommended regulatory agencies should ensure that trees are planted whenever they are removed due to infrastructural development in order to prevent UHI phenomenon and planting of trees should be encouraged in order to regulate the urban climate.</p> Muhammad Lawal Abubakar Dorcas Thomas Muhammad Sambo Ahmed Auwal Farouk Abdussalam Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 137 148 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2305 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE DURABILITY PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE PRODUCED WITH METAKAOLIN AS PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF CEMENT https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2127 <p>The research investigates the durability properties of concrete produced with metakaolin (MTK) as partial replacement of cement. Cement was partially replaced by metakaolin at 5% to 30% at an interval of 5%. Physical properties of materials were tested. A 100 x 100 x 100mm cube was used for density, compressive strength, water absorption and abrasion resistant test, while, 100mm x 200mm cylinder was used for split tensile strength, at a mix ratio of 1:2:4 with 0.5 w/c ratio, and cured at 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days under different curing conditions. Result shows that the density of concrete increase as the curing ages of concrete increases. The highest compressive strength of concrete at 28days was at 0% control which achieved 28.2 N/mm<sup>2</sup> and 27.6 N/mm<sup>2</sup>, while, 10% has the highest strength of 32.1 N/mm<sup>2</sup> and 31.1 N/mm<sup>2</sup> at 90 days for concrete cured in H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> and MgSO<sub>4 </sub>respectively. 10% MTK concrete has reduce absorption capacity of 11.34, 11.17% and 6.57% in H<sub>2</sub>O, H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4 </sub>and MgSO<sub>4 </sub>respectively, as compared to that of control concrete, and has improve resistance to abrasion in aggressive environment. Chemicals significantly affect the strength of concrete. MgSO<sub>4</sub> is more deleterious to concrete than H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>. In conclusion, metakaolin is a suitable pozzolana for use in the production of concrete, at lower volume of replacement will enhance the reduction of cement usage in concretes, thereby reducing the production cost and environmental pollution from exploration and production of cement. 10% MTK is the optimum percentage in concrete, therefore,...</p> Shamsudeen Abdulazeez Agboola Aliyyu Abiola Abdulraheem Khadija Ibrahim Abbas Akewusola Ridwanullahi Abiodun Musa Abdulhakeem Kolawole Moshood Shabi Olawale Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 149 162 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2127 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, FTIR CHARACTERIZATION, AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DOUM PALM (HYPHAENE THEBAICA) https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2274 <p>The doum palm fruit (Hyphaene thebaica), a native of northern Africa, is an oval, edible fruit that grows on desert palm trees. It grows extraordinarily well in the northern part of Nigeria as well. It is a member of the palm family Arecaceae. The optimal process for making an aqueous extract from raw doum fruit was determined using the extraction methods. The crushed doum fruit is soaked for 12 days at room temperature in a solution of methanol and ethanol. The plant's crude pericarp powder was used in the new study's phytochemical screening procedure using conventional phytochemical techniques. Tannins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, and terpenoids were found in the extract in low and moderate concentrations, according to the phytochemical examination. To get high-spectral-resolution data over a broad spectral range, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is utilized. Doum palm plants are a highly significant source of bioactive components that may be helpful in the creation of novel chemotherapeutic drugs. The results of FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of O-H, C-H, C=C, C=O, C-O, and C-H functional groups. The result shows the frequencies of 3268 cm-<sup>1</sup>, &nbsp;2925 cm-<sup>1</sup>, 1719 cm-<sup>1</sup>, 1607 cm-<sup>1</sup>, 1443 cm-<sup>1</sup> and 1287 cm-<sup>1</sup> &nbsp;from Methanol extract and 3283 cm-<sup>1</sup>, 2925 cm-<sup>1</sup>, 1719 cm-<sup>1</sup>, 1611 cm-<sup>1</sup>, 1104 cm-<sup>1</sup> and 992 cm-<sup>1</sup> from Ethanol extract. The microbial activity of the doum palm fruit extract has shown a greater effect on Salmonella typhi and Escheria coli at high concentration of about both microbial organism but no effect at lower concentration of...</p> Ibrahim Shuaibu Ibrahim Abdullahi Haruna Birniwa Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 163 169 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2274 A STUDY ON THE VOLATILITY SPILLOVER BETWEEN NIGERIAN AND BRICS ECONOMIES USING MULTIVARIATE GARCH MODELS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2270 <p>BRIC-African relation has been of interest to key stakeholders especially given the inclusion of South Africa. In the existing literature some researchers hypothesized inclusion of Nigeria will accelerate BRICS objective of enhancing market access to ensure rapid economic growth among other objectives. This study utilized daily exchange rates of Naira/Dollar together with BRICS Dollar exchange rate for a period of 18 years. The study aimed to determine the volatility spillover between Nigerian and BRICS nations via Multivariate GARCH family: VECH, DBEKK and CCC Models. The result of VECH and DBEKK Models showed that all parameters were significant at 5% level, indicating clearly that there is positive impact of Exchange Rate shocks of Nigeria on the Exchange Rate Volatility of the BRICS economies, while for the CCC model only one parameter was significant at 5% level. This clearly indicated the existence of positive impacts of Exchange rates shocks of Nigeria on the Exchange Rate Volatility of the BRICS economies. On the other hand, only VECH model was able to capture the volatility spillover (own and cross) both on negative direction, suggesting a causal relationship between past volatility shocks in Nigeria and current volatility in the BRICS economies. Conclusively based on the information above VECH model was found to be appropriate to capture the volatility spillover between Nigerian exchange rate and that of the BRICS nations.</p> Mamuda Kukasheka Ibrahim M. Tasi’u H. G. Dikko Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 170 179 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2270 ESTABLISHMENT OF ORTHOMETRIC HEIGHT CONTROLS IN THE EASTERN PART OF KOGI STATE USING GNSS AND EGM 2008 https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2346 <p>The aim of this study was to model the orthometric heights in parts of Kogi East, Kogi State using GNSS and EGM 2008 with the objectives of establishing the best geoid undulation for height determination. The Hardwares used for this study include; Hi target V.30 dual frequency GNSS receiver and its accessories, Data logger, Computer hardware and software and Computer – HP Laptop and internet facilities. Softwares used included; Arc GIS, Google map, microsoft word, Microsoft excel, Hi target Geomatic offices, CSRS – PPP website andGeoid Eval Calculator. GNSS observations were conducted on 6 station monument. The dual frequency v30 Hi target instrument was used in the static mode to make observations on all the established points at an epoch rate of 30 seconds; for a period of one hour to one hour thirty minutes (session) per station. The secondary data were the EGM 2008, obtained from Geoid eval platform in <a href="https://www.geographiclib.sourceforge.ion/cgi-bin/GeoidEval">https://www.geographiclib.sourceforge.ion/cgi-bin/GeoidEval</a>. Geoid Eval platform makes provision for the geographical coordinates to be inputed before the geoidal-ellipsoidal separation values can be provided.&nbsp; Geoid Eval computes the height of the geoid above the WGS 84 ellipsoid using interpolation in a grid of values for the earth gravity models. To obtain the orthometric height, the geoid value is subtracted from the ellipsoidal height obtained from the GNSS-PPP observation. The accuracy of the geoid value is 1mm and that of the GNSS-PPP was adjudged to be 3cm respectively. It was recommended that, more orthometric heights be distributed for monitoring of the earth’s dynamisms.</p> Achimugu Amos Negedu Matthew Nnonyelu Ono Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 180 187 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2346 ETHNOBOTANICAL SURVEY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED TRADITIONALLY FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF VARIOUS AILMENTS IN KAURA NAMODA, ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2277 <p>The research was carried out between December 2022 and March 2023. Eighty-eight (88) informants provided information on traditional knowledge via a semi-structured questionnaire. The demographic data of the respondents was presented using descriptive statistics. The popularity of the referenced species was examined using Use Consensus Values (UCs) and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC). There were 88 informants, of which 27% were women and 73% were men. Most respondents (35 percent) are between the ages of 51 and 60. Just 6.8% of the respondents were single, while the majority, 80.7%, were married of the responders, and 64.8% had never attended college. Herbalists made up 42 percent of the respondents. A total of twenty-four (24) families' worth of plant species were collected. The dominant family is called Fabaceae with eighteen (18) members, and malvaceae, with three (3) and four (4) members, in order of precedence. There was one (1) member in each of the following families: SolanaceaeAsteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Zingiberaceae, Curcubitaceae, Convulvolaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Apocynaceae, Ebanaceae, Rutaceae, Moringaceae, Rubiaceae, Zygophylaceae, and Annonaceae The plant <em>Azadirachta indica</em> exhibited the greatest Use Concensus Value (UC) of 0.40 and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) of 0.20. Most plants are used to treat a variety of conditions, including piles, diabetes etc., asthma, malaria, typhoid, stomachaches, anti-snake bites, diarrhea, yellow fever, whereas certain herbs arouse libidinal urges.</p> Khalid Tukur Bello Bello Musawa Mukhtar Lawal Abubakar Mustapha Sani Muhammad Hammanjoda Salihu Abba Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 188 195 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2277 THERMODYNAMIC ADSORPTION STUDIES OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM COCONUT SHELL USING METHYL ORANGE DYE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2285 Kamal Danazumi Ahmad Muhammad Sani Alhassan Kabir Usman Ibrahim Mahfuz Uba Umar Shehu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 196 203 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2285 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE CLAY CATALYSTS FOR TRANSESTERIFICATION OF WASTE COOKING OIL INTO BIODIESEL https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2347 <p>The development of low-cost green catalytic materials is crucial for the conversion of non-edible vegetable oils or waste materials into biodiesel. The research focuses on the preparation and characterization of aluminium pillared clay and NaOH-doped bentonite clay catalysts for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using XRF, XRD, FTIR and N<sub>2 </sub>adsorption-desorption techniques. The molecular profile and functional group assessment of the biodiesel were done using GC-MS and FTIR respectively. XRF analysis revealed the presence of oxides in all samples. The amount of SiO<sub>2</sub> in all samples was within the range of 35.303–39.199 wt%. Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> increased from 15.560 to 19.11 wt%, while the interlayer cations decreased after pillaring. FTIR revealed the appearance of peaks which are characteristic of bentonite. The pillaring and impregnation of NaOH with bentonite led to a distortion of certain peaks' intensity, as evidenced by FTIR results. The pillaring caused an increase in BET surface area and pore volume compared to bentonite from 302.1 to 366.4 m2/g, and 0.186 to 0.189 cc/g respectively, while a decrease in surface area and pore volume was observed in NaOH/bentonite due to impregnation. The XRD data have shown the increase of basal d-spacing of pillared clay from 12.65 to 16.49 Å relative to bentonite with a decrease to 12.45 in the case of NaOH/bentonite. The catalysts prepared outperformed neat bentonite with NaOH/bentonite, resulting in the highest yield of (83 ± 1.80). GC-MS, FTIR, and physicochemical analyses confirmed the production of fatty acid methyl esters.</p> Faruk Usman Muhammad Alkali Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 204 211 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2347 ISOLATION OF SQUALENE FROM DICHLOROMETHANE EXTRACT OF CROTON NIGRITANUS LEAF https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2049 <p>A precursor of steroids with a variety of biological activities is squalene. The purpose of the study was to identify and describe the industrial/medical chemical found in Croton nigritanus. Using the solvents such as; dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane, the procedure entails a liquid-liquid extraction stage using the partition method and a solid-liquid extraction step using the maceration method. For separation and purification, gravity column chromatography (GCC) and thin-layer chromatography were employed. The isolated chemical's identity was determined using FTIR, <sup>1</sup>H NMR and GC-MS spectroscopy. The inquiry successfully extracted and analyzed the major chemical compound which was identified as Squalene.</p> Abdullahi Muhammad Abdullahi Olime M. Nkemakonam Usman Garba Muhammad A. Mustapha Muhammad I. Nazifi Muhammad B. Usman Umar M. Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 212 216 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2049 LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS FED PSIDIUM GUAJAVA AND MANGIFERA INDICA LEAF EXTRACT https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2348 <p>The length weight relationship (LWR) of Clarias gariepinus fed Psidium guajava and Mangifera indica leaf extract was evaluated for six (6) months. A total of 420, eight (8) weeks old fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus was used for this study. Experimental fish were fed 40 % crude protein diet with inclusion of both leaf extracts at 0 %, 4 %, 6 %, and 8 %. Experimental fish were stocked in twenty-one 4ft by 4ft tarpaulin tanks half filled with borehole water, acclimation was done for 7 days during which they were fed commercial diet. Aqueous extract was done for both leaves and stored in plastic cans for further use. Weight and length of fish was measured biweekly and data was used to assess the length-weight relationship. The result of this study showed that the best weight was recorded in treatment 2 fed 4 % Psidium guajava extract and the least in treatment 5 fed 4 % Mangifera indica extract. The result on LWR revealed the regression coefficient ‘b’ to be&nbsp; from 17.68-20.40 which indicates a positive allometric growth, since ‘b’ value is more than 3. This further means that the fish samples in this study became heavier, stouter, deeper bodied or bigger as it increases in length i.e all parts of the fish increase in size proportionately with the length.</p> Ikenga Esther Ekpemikoghene Nwabueze Agatha Arimiche Ekelemu Jerimoth Kesena Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 217 224 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2348 HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER FLOW IN A CHANNEL FILLED WITH POROUS MEDIUM IN THE PRESENCE OF VARIABLE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2236 Ibrahim Hassan Kaita Sahabi Yabo Zayyanu Ladan Mas'ud Aminu Hamisu Ukashatu Abdullahi Danjuma Muhammad Auwal Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 225 234 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2236 ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF SOME HYDRAZONES SYNTHESIZED FROM NICOTINIC ACID HYDRAZIDE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2314 <p>N’-(2-pyridinylmethylene)nicotinohydrazide <strong>A</strong>, N’-(4-pyridinylmethylene)nicotinohydrazide <strong>B</strong>, N’-(2- ethoxybenzylidene)nicotinohydrazide <strong>C</strong>, N’-(4- ethoxybenzyldene)nicotinohydrazide <strong>D</strong> and N’-(2-hydroxyl-5-methoxybenzylidene)nicotinohydrazide <strong>E</strong>, was prepared by refluxing the ethanolic solution of nictonic acid hydrazide and ethanolic solutions of 2-pyridinrcarboxaldehyde, 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, 2-ethoxybenzaldehyde, 4-ethoxybenzaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde in 1:1 mole ratio for 4 hours in a separate reactions. The compounds obtained had a melting point between (120-236 <sup>o</sup>C) and a percentage yield between (52.38-77.70 %). They were crystalline solids. The compounds' solubility were assessed in water, ethanol, methanol, acetone, hexane, diethyl ether, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethyl acetate, and chloroform. The substances were discovered to be fully soluble in DMSO and methanol. FT-IR, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR and <sup>13</sup>C-NMR were used for the characterization of the compounds. The antibacterial and antifungal properties were tested against <em>Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci, S. aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa, A. nigre, A. flavus, </em>and<em> C. albicans.</em> The zones of inhibitions ranged from 22 to 28 mm and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were found to be 0.063 mg/mL, 0.125 mg/mL and 0.125 mg/mL respectively. These indicated that the compounds might be good potential drug candidates.</p> Ahmad Muhammad Hamisu Ibrahim Rachael G. Ayo Dele P. Fapojuwo Zenixole R. Tshentu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 235 240 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2314 A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF SECURITY APPROACHES FOR DETECTION AND PREVENTION OF SQL INJECTION ATTACKS IN WEB-BASED APPLICATIONS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2308 <p>SQL Injection Attack (SQLIAs) is a web application attack that has been known for almost two decades, and that has been among the biggest cyber threats especially because most of the world’s population interacts with web apps in one way or the other. Over the years many methods have been developed to identify and deter SQLIAs, thereby reducing the risk on web applications. Four various methods used to identify and stop SQLIAs are reviewed, compared and critically evaluated in this paper, these include tokenization and lexicon detection process, combined static and dynamic method, novel, and search-based methods. This work further reveals the gap in current knowledge, specifically, increased efficiency can be achieved by integrating two of the most effective approaches. Furthermore, a real-world application of these methods is presented and finally, recommendations are made for further study.</p> Yusuf Bukar Maina Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 241 246 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2308 EVALUATION OF PROPHAGES AND ANTI MICROBIAL RESISTANCE PROFILE OF BACILLUS SUBTILIS USING IN SILICO APPROACH https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2349 <p>The main objective of this study was to identify the prophages and antimicrobial resistance profile of &nbsp;Bacillus subtilis using computational methods. Prophages are potential therapeutic antimicrobial agents against antibiotic- resistant pathogens. The potential of prophage to induce antimicrobial resistance and increase pathogenicity in bacterial genomes resulted in renewed interest in the identification of prophage sequences and their associated antimicrobial resistant genes in bacterial genomes. Sequences of Bacillus subtilis retrieved from the &nbsp;sequence raw archive (SRA) of the National Centre for Biotechnology Information was submitted to &nbsp;bacterial viral bioinformatics resource centre for genome assembly. Prophage sequences were identified using the PHASTER server. The region length, region position and GC percentage of nucleotides of prophage sequences were identified. The antimicrobial resistance gene family, drug class, resistance mechanism and length of reference sequences were identified using the resistance gene identifier protocol of the comprehensive antimicrobial resistance database. It can be concluded that the Bacillus subtilis strain evaluated contained prophage sequences associated with antimicrobial resistance genes, there is, therefore, the need to assess the safety of bacteriophages before they are&nbsp; &nbsp;utilized as alternative to antibiotics.</p> I. S. Musa H. S. Haruna Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 247 249 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2349 NUMERICAL STUDY OF TRANSIENT/STEADY STATE MIXED CONVECTION FLOW IN A VERTICAL CHANNEL WITH RADIATION IMPRESSION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2289 Abdullahi Hussaini Bala Yabo Isah Sahabi Yabo Zayyanu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 250 258 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2289 APPLICATION OF TRANSPORTATION MODEL TO SOLVE TANKERS’ – ROUTING PROBLEM https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2352 <p>The problem of selecting minimum cost routes for tankers in distributing petroleum products and satisfying customers’ requirement without scarcity in Nigeria remains a huge challenge to major marketers in the oil industries. The cost of transporting petroleum products from sources to destinations matters a lot to oil marketers because of the direct impact it has on their profits. The means of distributing petroleum products from refineries to depots or filling stations are tankers’ routing and pipelines. In this research, we extended some existing tankers’-routing models in literature which use a discrete integer programming approach to determine efficient and effective distribution of petroleum products. Consequently, we developed a new transportation linear programming algorithm to determine minimum cost routes in the delivery of petroleum product from their supply centers (refinery) to demand centers (filling stations). The significance of the application we adopted in this research lies in the modified distribution approach to tackle the complexity involved when transportation problems are formulated as linear programming problem having several variables and constraints. In this research, we formulate a new version of transportation model of tankers’ routing with the aim of reducing the cost of petroleum products delivery. The proposed transportation linear programming model was applied to a numerical example alongside other existing transportation algorithms. It is observed that, the new algorithm produced approximately the same total cost obtained by using other existing algorithms</p> S. A. Ogumeyo C. E. O. Omole Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 259 266 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2352 MEASUREMENT AND ENHANCEMENT OF GRAVITY DATA FOR GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN ABUJA, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2362 <p>The availability of gravity data is useful to individuals, governments and organizations that wish to carry out a geophysical investigation in Abuja. The data provides an accurate model for environmental monitoring and disaster studies. This research was aimed at measurement and prediction of gravity data in Abuja, Nigeria. The aim was achieved by observation of terrestrial gravity data at forty (40) gravity stations around the federal capital territory Abuja, prediction of the gravity data at other points and the evaluation of the predicted data. Gravity reduction was carried out on the measured data to account for drift correction, free air correction, bouguer correction latitude correction and terrain correction. The data was further enhanced by interpolation using the Kriging method. A total of 59 points were predicted from the 40 measured stations. The predicted gravity anomalies were validated by comparing with their corresponding gravity anomalies obtained from the Earth Gravity Model 2008 (EGM08) because of their well-established reliability. For the number of observations, n = 59, the RMSE and SE were computed as 4.797mGal (4.787x10<sup>-5</sup> ms<sup>-2</sup>) and 4.880mGal (4.880 x10<sup>-5</sup> ms<sup>-2</sup>) respectively. Also, the correlation value obtained was 0.991 which is significant at 0.01 level. This shows a strong relationship signifying a perfect possible agreement in the values obtained. It was therefore concluded that Kriging is a good interpolator that provides an estimate with high reliability and dependency. In this regard, considering the high cost of geophysical data collection, gravity prediction can make geophysical data collection more efficient and cost-effective.</p> T. Abubakar E. Olumba Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 267 276 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2362 APPLICATION OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD FOR SAFETY EVALUATION OF ASEJIRE DAM IBADAN, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2290 <p>Dam construction provides economic importance to the environs through, water supply and flood control. Post-construction investigation is however necessary for maintenance stability to avoid irreversible environmental changes. In view of this, horizontal resistivity profiling and vertical electrical sounding (VES) were conducted along the embankments and the downstream of Asejire dam to determine its integrity. The methods used were horizontal resistivity profiling and vertical electrical soundings conducted along the embankments and the downstream. Thirty-one VES and Dipole-Dipole Profiling were occupied along the embankments and downstream using Resistivity meter at 20 m intervals for both the VES and Dipole-Dipole. The Dipole-Dipole data were inverted into 2-D Resistivity Images using DIPPRO™ 4.0 Inversion Software while the VES data were quantitatively interpreted using the partial curve matching technique and Winresist 1.0 Version Software. Results of dipole-dipole image and geo-electric section identified three geo-electric layers; comprising topsoil presumably clayey sand and laterites with resistivity and thickness between 59-760m and 0.7-5.2m respectively. The second layer is weathered layer attributed with clay/clayey sand having resistivity and thickness 18-766m and 3.1-36.7 m. The third layer suspected to be fresh bedrock with resistivity range 121-3672m and 18-766 m thick. The Dipole-Dipole results displayed resistivity less than 500m in the first layer with structural evidence of discontinuous observables, but the underlying sequences displayed no indicative of structural weakness. This significant features play a major role in seepage processes from the dam, therefore lithological composition obtained from these results shows the dam has a good integrity.</p> Olagoke Peter Oladejo Charles Olubunmi Ogunkoya Taiwo Bukola Fasiku Surat Alaba Olanrewaju Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 277 285 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2290 EVALUATION OF NEW DEVELOPED MODELS FOR ESTIMATION OF DIFFUSE SOLAR RADIATION OVER IKEJA, LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2363 <p>This study investigates the estimation of diffuse solar radiation in Ikeja, Nigeria (6.58°N, 3.33°E, 39.40m above sea level). Employing a 22-year dataset (2001-2022) of monthly average climatic data from NASA website, nineteen new models were developed to predict diffuse solar radiation. These models incorporated various meteorological parameters including global solar radiation, wind speed, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity. A categorized approach was used, with models falling into five groups: modified Page, Liu and Jordan; clearness index with one additional variable; two-variable; three-variable; and a four-variable model. Evaluation using five statistical tests tools of Mean Bias Error (MBE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Percentage Error (MPE), t-test, and Coefficient of determination (R²) identified Equation 28h (the model relating diffuse radiation to clearness index and temperature) as the most suitable model out of all the models in each of the five categories for estimation of diffuse solar radiation for Ikeja. Hence, emphasizing the importance of considering both atmospheric clarity and temperature for accurate diffuse solar radiation estimation in this coastal location.</p> D. O. Akpootu Simeon Imaben Salifu M. Idris I. Nouhou T. A. Kola A. Yusuf O. E. Agidi M. A. Aliyu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 286 295 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2363 POWER MEDIAN-BASED ESTIMATORS OF FINITE POPULATION MEAN https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2291 <p>In this paper, median based mean estimators for estimating finite population mean are proposed. The proposed estimators were obtained by transforming estimators in literature utilizing mean of auxiliary variable into median based estimators with the aim of obtaining estimators with higher efficiency. The mean square error of the proposed estimators was obtained up to the first order of approximation using Taylor series approach and the optimum values of the unknown of the estimators were obtained by means of partial derivative of the mean square error and equating to zero. A Numerical study was carried out to support the fact that the proposed estimators are more efficient as compared to the existing ones, as the proposed estimators have the least mean squared error at optimum values of the unknown constants and have higher percentage relative efficiency (PRE). This implies that the proposed estimators are more efficient than the traditional ones considered in the study.</p> Ajibola Yahya Yusuf Ahmed Audu Mojeed Abiodun Yunusa Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 296 300 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2291 ARCSINE RAYLIEGH PARETO DISTRIBUTION: PROPERTIES AND APPLICATION TO CARBON FIBERS DATA SETS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2364 <p>In this paper, we introduce a new modified distribution called arcsine Rayliegh Pareto (ASRP) Distribution. We derived its mathematical and statistical properties, including survival function, hazard function, entropy, moment, moment generating function, and order statistics. We also used maximum likelihood estimation for estimating the parameters of the distribution. The plots of the cdf, pdf, hazard rate function, and survival function were illustrated with right skewed probability density function, cumulative distribution function with monotone increasing function, which converge at one. The value of some goodness of fit measure (i.e. AIC, AICc, and BIC) were computed, as well as the KS, A, and W statistic. Finally, we suggested that the new modified model outperform better than the other standard distribution using Carbon fibers data sets.</p> Usman Abubakar Abdulhameed Ado Osi Iliyasu Abubakar Salisu Hassan Muhammad Yusuf Ibrahim Muhammad Abbas Abubakar Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 301 305 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2364 INVESTIGATION OF TROPOSPHERIC RADIO REFRACTIVITY AND OTHER RELEVANT PARAMETERS USING METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES OVER BAUCHI, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2366 <p>The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) archives were used in this work to obtain the measured monthly average daily temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric pressure over a 41-years period (1981–2021) for Bauchi (latitude , longitude ) to calculate the monthly tropospheric radio refractivity. The site is located in Nigeria's midland climate zone. We also looked into the variation with other factors, the refractivity gradient, and the percentage contribution of the dry term (N<sub>dry</sub>) and wet term (N<sub>wet</sub>) radio refractivity. The results showed that during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively, the months of August and February had the highest and lowest average values of radio refractivity, measuring 355.032 (N-units) and 273.255 (N-units), respectively. This suggests that radio refractivity is higher during the rainy season than it is during the dry season. The wet term contributes to the significant fluctuation in radio refractivity values, while the dry term makes up 77.60 % of the total value. The average refractivity gradient estimate was found to be – 40.854 N – units/km suggesting super-refraction propagation for Bauchi indicating that electromagnetic waves are often bent downward towards the earth when the super refraction condition occurs.</p> Davidson Odafe Akpootu Z. Aminu A. Yusuf I. Nouhou T. A. Kola O. E. Agidi S. I. Salifu M. Idris M. A. Aliyu S. Aruna Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 306 314 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2366 ANALYSIS OF SUITABLE DUMP SITES IN KAFANCHAN, JEMA’A LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2367 <p>The research focuses on assessing the suitability of dump sites for solid waste disposal in Kafanchan town, Kaduna state, utilizing Surveying and Geo informatics techniques. With the escalating environmental impact of waste due to population growth, urbanization, and industrialization, the study aims to identify appropriate locations for waste disposal. The methodology employs Geographic Information System (GIS) tools, involving the overlaying of datasets and criteria such as drainage, land use, and road networks. The process includes investigating solid waste disposal in Kafanchan, acquiring data through a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, converting criteria into GIS layers, and processing the collected information on a computer system using ArcGIS software. The spatial analysis reveals potential sites suitable for solid waste disposal based on connectivity, contiguity, and overlay methods. The results advocate for the effectiveness of GIS in promptly selecting suitable waste disposal sites. The conclusion emphasizes the recommendation to adopt the identified sites for solid waste disposal in the area. Overall, the study underscores the significance of GIS in addressing contemporary environmental challenges related to waste management and highlights the practical application of spatial tools for sustainable solutions.</p> Inkuza Dogara Saliu Ibrahim Ajobunu Jibril Haruna Umar Adams Kennedy Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 315 322 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2367 ENHANCED APPROACH FOR CHANGE OF COURSE OF STUDY USING FUZZY LOGIC https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2369 <p>In tertiary institutions of Nigeria, students are admitted through the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) to study courses of their choice. However, most students often perform poorly. Thus, the need to change their programme of study becomes a necessity or risk being withdrawn from the university. The student for a change of programme is required to present a cumulative grade point average (CGPA), which informs the student’s status and commonly used criteria to determine the student’s qualification for a change of programme of study. The students are allowed to choose or advised which programme to choose based on their perceived strength. This is not scientific and have proven ineffective since may be based on biased perception. Thus, most of these students still perform poorly in the new programme of study and may end up being withdrawn. In order to minimize subjectivity and handle uncertainty in such a decision process, this paper proposed a fuzzy logic approach for the change of programme of study by considering the student’s Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) result(s), UTME scores, and grades obtained in the various examined and related courses. The CGPA initiates the entire process. The simulation was done in MATLAB, inputs were supplied and the recommendation is generated. The strength values of each input is calibrated from, as &nbsp;&nbsp;from which the system recommends other faculties, Computer Science, Statistics, Physics and mathematics respectively. The system enhances the chance that a student may perform in their newly proposed programme.</p> Solomon Mathew Karma Babangida Zachariah Jibril Aminu Samson Isaac Luqman Yusuf Yusuf Kakangi Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 323 330 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2369 LARVAL ABUNDANCE, IDENTIFICATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THREE BREEDING HABITATS OF Aedes aegypti IN KANO METROPOLIS, KANO STATE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2255 <p><em>Aedes aegypti </em>is the primary vector for some arboviral diseases such as Yellow fever, dengue, zika and chikungunya. This specie of invasive mosquito has gained attention globally because of their fast-spreading trend and successful adaptation. This study was designed to determine the larval abundance and physic-chemical parameters of <em>Aedes</em> <em>aegypti</em> from three breeding sites within Kano metropolis. Determination of larval abundance was performed using ovitraps according to the protocol described by Wan-Norafikah <em>et al.,</em> 2012. Twenty ovitraps were placed BUK old site, BUK New site and SOT from April – September, 2023. Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, Temperature, Electrical conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen, Total Dissolved Solids, Turbidity and Total Suspended Solids were measured for all breeding habitats. A total of 2959 <em>Aedes</em> <em>aegypti</em> larvae were collected in the study areas within Kano metropolis which comprised of BUK old site 31.80%, BUK New Site 32.75% and School of Technology (Kano Poly) 35.45%. The study revealed that temperature ranges from 29.98<sup>o</sup>C to 31.05<sup>o</sup>C, pH range of 6.37 – 6.74, TDS level of 109.80 – 305.09 mg/L and Electrical Conductivity ranges from 270 – 390 µS/cm. It can be concluded from this study that <em>Aedes</em> <em>aegypti</em> are abundant in the study area and also physic-chemical parameters of the breeding habitats showed significant variations among the three breeding habitats. This data may help in management of <em>Aedes</em> <em>aegypti</em> especially in eliminating stagnant water which serves as the breeding habitat.</p> Umar Aliyu Zainab Tukur Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 331 337 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2255 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ADSORBENT FROM WASTE SHEA (Vitellaria paradoxa) NUT SHELL https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2370 <p>The activated carbons (adsorbents) prepared in this study, were from Vitellaria paradoxa nut shell following the two steps of carbonization and activation processes using H<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4 </sub>and KOH as activating agents and were labelled as HVP for H<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> modified adsorbent and KVP for KOH modified adsorbent. The activated carbons were characterized using standard methods of analysis. Bulk density (g/cm<sup>3</sup>) of the carbons (HVP and KVP) were 0.72±0.03 and 0.69±0.05, and attrition (%) values of 40.76±0.16 and 42.37±0.23 were obtained for HVP and KVP respectively. Results obtained also depict the presence of carboxyl O-H and C-O groups, and the N-H of amine on the surfaces of the activated carbons. The values of pH point of charge zero (pH<sub>zpc</sub>) obtained for HVP and KVP were 6.40 and 6.60 and were less than the pH values of 6.78±0.00 and 7.18±0.01 for HVP and KVP respectively. SEM results revealed surfaces with pores with different dimensions in both HVP and KVP. Results of the study suggest that the prepared adsorbents can be effectively applied in wastewater treatment.</p> M. Musah J. T. Matthew Y. Azeh U. M. Badeggi A. I. Muhammad L. M. Abu P. T. Okonkwo K. T. Muhammad Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 338 344 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2370 A SYSTEMATIC HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF THE EPANET SOFTWARE AND TECHNIQUES ON THE WATER NETWORK OF ELIZADE UNIVERSITY https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2306 <p>In this paper, the hydraulic analysis and evaluation of three head loss techniques (Hazen-Williams, HW, Chezy-Manning, CM and Darcy-Weisbach, DW) available for utilization at the EPANET platform were evaluated. The Elizade University (EU), Ilara- Mokin network was analysed using EPANET software. The hydraulic properties (flow rate, head-loss, Reynold’s number, friction factor and velocity of discharge) were determined using the three head-loss techniques available at the EPANENT software and Microsoft Excel Solver (MiExS) as the standard (based on previous studies). The friction factors (f<sub>f</sub>) obtained from these techniques were evaluated using relative and square errors. The study revealed that the elevations at the EU were between 339.1 m and 390 m, the diameters of the pipes were between 150 mm and 50 mm and water withdrawals were in the range of 480l/s to 30l/s. The discharges through the pipes were from 2.0 x 10<sup>1</sup> l/s to 3.545 x 10<sup>3</sup> l/s, the f<sub>f</sub> of these pipes ranged between 0.019 and 0.012 for MiExS and DW, between 0.0012 and 0.025 for HW and between 2.03 x 10 <sup>5</sup> and 3.21 x 10<sup>5 </sup>for CM. Effects of techniques on the f<sub>f</sub> were significant at 95 % confidence level (F<sub>3,160 </sub>= 803.06; p of 3.45 x 10<sup>-96</sup>, which was less than 0.05). It was concluded that DW performed better than HW and the least performed technique was CM. It was suggested that CM at EPANET should not be used for pressurised pipelines hydraulically and caution is required in its utilization for pressurised pipe network.</p> Oyeyemi Temitayo Oyewole Oluwaseun K Akinmusere Akintunde O. Fasuba Ebenezer O. Fakorede A. A. Daramola Ayotunde Oluyemisi Akanni Isaiah Adesola Oke Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 345 363 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2306 IS BISPHENOL A (BPA) A PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN? A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND RISK PERCEPTION IN SOUTHWESTERN PART OF NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2371 <p>Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical produced in large quantities for use primarily in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Exposure to BPA is a public health concern because studies since the last decade have consistently linked BPA with several physiological disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological, obesity, and some forms of cancers. Hence, this study assessed the level of BPA knowledge and awareness among randomly selected individuals in the Southwestern part of Nigeria. This study employed a mixed-methods approach, utilizing a survey specifically designed to collect data for the research. Different statistical methods were utilized including descriptive and inferential to analyze the data and to assess exploratory variables such as public knowledge, attitude, and risk perception. Findings revealed that though 96.2 % knew chemicals in plastics could cause adverse health effects, the level of knowledge on BPA and its attendant health risks among the sample population was abysmally low (only 35% knew this subject). However, most of our respondents interestingly expressed great attitude in terms of willingness to share information learned about BPA to others in the community. Based on the findings of this study, a massive awareness campaign about BPA and associated health risks would be required through effective scientific communication to improve public health outcomes.</p> Koleayo Omoyajowo Babatunde Agbaogun Amos Ogunyebi Manal Kanaan Busayo Omoyajowo Benjamin Mwadi Makengo Ayodele Alayemi Kolawole Omoyajowo Rebecca Alao Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 364 372 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2371 EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS' CONCENTRATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF GROUNDWATER WITHIN JOS METROPOLIS OF PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2373 <p>This paper studied the quality of drinking water from borehole sources in Jos and its environs. The level of heavy metal concentrations and some physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. The result of heavy metal concentrations analyzed within the ten (10) sampling points shows that JS1 sampling point had a significantly high (p&lt;0.05) concentration of copper (0.0064 mg/L) and lowest in JS1 sampling point (0.001 mg/L). Chromium had a significantly high (p&lt;0.05) concentration in JS10 sampling point (0.718 mg/L) and lowest in JS1 (0.153 mg/L).&nbsp; Manganese had significantly high (p&lt;0.05) concentration in JS4 sampling point (0.198 mg/L) and lowest in (JS6 0.020 mg/L). Iron was significantly high (p&lt;0.05) in JS4 sampling point with the concentration of 1.388 mg/L and lowest value of 0.020 mg/L in JS5. Zinc had a significantly high (p&lt;0.05) in JS4 sampling point with the concentration of 0.085 mg/L. Lead had significantly high (p&lt;0.05) in JS8 sampling point with a concentration of 0.005 mg/L. Cadmium and nickel were not detected in all ten (10) sampling points. The electrical conductivity and pH and were found to be in the range of (0.000 - 350 µSv/cm) and (4.81 – 6.70), respectively. This research findings suggest that continued water quality monitoring should be carried out to check the concentration levels of copper, zinc, manganese, cadmium, nickel, lead and physicochemical parameters electrical conductivity and pH in those ten (10) sampling points to prevent them from been above the limit of World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limit and also creating...</p> James Yusuf Aminu Kalip S. O. Aremu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 373 381 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2373 FIRE SAFETY DESIGN OF A 5 STOREY OFFICE BUILDING: FIRE SUPPRESSION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2374 <p>A design of fire suppression system for Asha Office Building was conducted.&nbsp;&nbsp; It is a proposed 5 storey administrative building with a width, length and height of 65m, 47m and 17m respectively as well as a ceiling heights of 3m throughout except ground floor which is 4m. A fire risk assessment of the building was conducted and the outcome revealed a restaurant as the most hazardous component of the building and hence a worst case scenario. A detailed design of a wet sprinkler system installation and operation in the restaurant showed that 15 sprinkler heads are required in 5 range pipes. The spacing between sprinkler heads (S) and sprinkler range pipes (D) are 3.67m and 3.0m respectively. However, only 6 sprinklers will be required to operate in a fire. A total water flow rate and the total pressure required for the operation of the six sprinklers are 444.49 lit/min and 1.7723 bar. Equally, a suction pump pressure of 7.7 bar is required to provide the necessary water volume and pressure to the sprinkler system. A CFAST simulation for a restaurant that is sprinklered revealed a peak temperature of about 400<sup>o</sup>C at 350 seconds and began to drop as a result of the effect of sprinklers. But, for an unsprinklered restaurant, a peak temperature of about 900<sup>o</sup>C at 700 seconds was attained. Therefore, it can be deduced that flashover will not occur in a sprinklered restaurant since it is less than the recommended temperature for...</p> A. M. Na’inna M. S. Lawal A. S. Bature Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 382 389 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2374 Intelligent Lighting Control Systems for Energy Savings in Hospital Buildings Using Artificial Neural Networks https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2320 <p>Lighting control systems are essential in modern building automation and smart homes, efficiently managing illumination to enhance energy conservation and user comfort. This project tackles energy consumption challenges in hospital buildings by introducing Intelligent Lighting Control Systems (ILCS) that take natural light and occupancy into account, driven by Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and diverse machine learning algorithms. In our study, we collected sensor data, processed it, and designed a lighting control system employing a feedforward neural network and various machine learning algorithms. Surprisingly, our research found that a linear regression algorithm surpassed the ANN-based system in this context. We implemented a prototype, tested it on hardware, and obtained the expected results. This research marks progress towards optimizing energy use in hospital buildings and contributing to sustainability endeavors. By combining ILCS and machine learning, it offers a promising approach for more efficient and eco-friendly lighting systems</p> Nnamdi Okomba Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 390 398 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2320 ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN FISH AND WATER SAMPLES FROM BABBAN WUYA MADACHI RIVER: IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2379 <p>This manuscript investigates the presence and concentration of heavy metals, namely zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd), in water and two commonly consumed fish species (Tilapia and Catfish) from the Babban Wuya Madachi River. Heavy metal contamination poses significant risks to both human health and environmental sustainability. The study employs Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) to analyze heavy metal concentrations in water and fish samples collected from ten different points along the river. The mean concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd in the Tilapia fish, Catfish and water are 50.85 ± 0.22, 2.84 ± 0.27, 7.89 ± 0.78, 0.80 ± 0.02 mg/kg; 33.87 ± 1.08, 1.49 ± 0.10, 3.74 ± 0.42, 0.33 ± 0.01mg/kg; and 0.07 ± 0.00, 0.09 ± 0.00, 0.05 ± 0.02, BDL mg/L respectively. Results indicate that water concentrations generally fall below World Health Organization (WHO) standards, while the concentrations of certain heavy metals in fish samples exceed WHO limits, notably Zn, Pb, and Cd. Moreover, concentration of Cu in fish samples is within the standard WHO limit of 2.25 mg/kg and in water its concentration is below the standard limit of 2mg/L. It has been reported that, heavy metals such as Zinc, Cd and Pb has a unique behavior that once absorbed by man it retained in the body system for long and accumulate to cause kidney problems and born demineralization through direct bone damage or indirect through renal dysfunction. The findings underscore the necessity of continued monitoring...</p> Lawan Musa Yalwa Sani Garba Durumin Iya Abubakar Ibrahim Balarabe Suleiman Bashir Adamu Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 399 403 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2379 MONETARY POLICY DYNAMICS IN NIGERIA: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCES FROM BAYESIAN VECTOR AUTOREGRESSION WITH STOCHASTIC VOLATILITY https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2309 <p>In this paper, we examine the dynamics of monetary policy in Nigeria with Bayesian approach to a vector autoregression (VAR). We construct and estimate Bayesian Vector Autoregression with Stochastic Volatility (BVAR-SV) model and extract important policy inputs from the model. Nigeria economy is unstable and it is a known fact that changes to monetary policy affects performance of some macroeconomic variables. The BVAR has the ability to capture sudden changes and nonlinearities arising from the interaction among macroeconomic variables and associated shocks. The study uses monthly data during the period 2003M01 till 2023M12 with three macroeconomic variables namely; inflation rate, money supply, and interest rate. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm that allows for Bayesian estimation and prediction is employed. Results show that there is strong evidence of monetary policy playing a significant role in explaining the dynamics of interest rate while the impulse responses for the variables to a monetary policy shock do change significantly over time. Also, the monetary policy exert less significant influence in terms of money supply and inflation than interest rate in explaining the dynamics in of monetary policy. It is recommended that BVAR should be also be extended to other macroeconomic variables to examine the effects on monetary policy dynamics.</p> Oluwadare O. Ojo Oluremi R. Owonipa Copyright (c) 2024 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-30 2024-04-30 8 2 404 410 10.33003/fjs-2024-0802-2309