FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs <p><strong>The <a href="http://www.fudutsinma.edu.ng" target="_blank" rel="noopener">FUDMA</a> Journal of Sciences (FJS) </strong>is a peer-reviewed publication of original research papers, review articles, technical reports and short communications in all aspects in the fields of science and technology such as Chemistry, Earth and atmospheric sciences, Biology in general, Agriculture, Biochemistry, Botany, Microbiology, Environmental Science,&nbsp; Computer Science, Engineering, Physics, Materials Science, Mechanics, Mathematics, Statistics, Nutrition and Food Science, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Polymer and Textile Sciences, Process Modeling and Computational Analysis, Renewable Energy and waste to resource processes.</p> Faculties of Physical Science and Life Science, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State - Nigeria en-US FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES 2645-2944 <p>FUDMA Journal of Sciences</p> MODELING OF STORM WATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM FOR OBUBRA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, CROSS RIVER STATE OF NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2157 <p>A model was developed for the Obubra catchment and subsequently applied in the study of the catchment basin. The model developed gave a multiple regression correlation of 0.994 at a significance level of 0.05. The model was calibrated using the first ten (10) set of values and a correction of 0.995 was obtained and was further verified using the second set of ten (10) values which gave a correlation of 0.995. the model was also validated using velocity- area method for water flow measurement having a relationship as Q= AV with a correlation of 1.0. Although, studies conducted in different areas have shown that a hundred percent (100%) success may not always be achieved in the urban environment yet, their damaging effects can be mitigated through management measures that can carefully designed by government or affected communities. Adequate constitution and routine maintenance of drainage channels be made, ensuring that the velocity satisfies the minimum requirement.</p> E. A. Obio I. E. Ahaneku U. N. Onwuka Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-17 2024-01-17 7 6 1 5 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2157 ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE WATER CONTAMINATION IN SHALLOW WELLS OF SULEJA AND ITS ENVIRON NORTH CENTRAL, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2162 <p>This research work aimed at assessing the waste dump impacts on shallow groundwater physico-chemical and biological constituents of Suleja area. Groundwater samples were collected monthly at different locations within the study area. Forty-three (43) samples were collected during the dry season while forty-two (42) samples were collected for the wet season at the same samples locations for standard water quality laboratory analysis. The data sets obtained from the laboratory were subjected to descriptive statistics and Anova test to establish their relationship, including water quality index were calculated. The hydrochemical results revealed mean concentrations of physical parameters in the following order: Conductivity &gt; TH &gt; TDS &gt; Alk &gt; T &gt; pH for the dry season while total dissolve solids range higher to that of total hardness concentrations during the wet season (Conductivity &gt; TDS &gt; TH &gt; Alk &gt; Temp. &gt; pH). The minor ionic distributions revealed higher mean concentration of Sulphate ion followed by chloride, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide, and nitrate ions (SO<sub>4</sub> &gt; Cl<sup>-</sup> &gt; HCO<sub>3</sub> &gt; CO<sub>2</sub> &gt; NO<sub>3</sub>) for the both seasons. The major ionic enrichment is in the following order: Ca<sup>2+</sup> &gt; Mg<sup>2+</sup> &gt; Na<sup>+</sup> &gt; K<sup>+</sup>) for the both seasons. The heavy metals ions revealed high mean concentration of iron followed by zinc, manganese, and copper during the dry season while concentration of manganese preceded that of zinc during the wet season. Both chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand indicated similar concentrations trends through-out the seasons. Hydrochemical result depict average degree of temperature,...</p> Shuaibu Ahmed Mahi A. S. Bello A. A. Usman Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-18 2024-01-18 7 6 6 13 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2162 PRODUCTION OF BIOLUBRICANT BLEND FROM JATROPHA CURCAS OIL https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2168 <p>Biolubricants derived from vegetable oils are environmentally compatible products due to their low toxicity and good biodegradability. Synthetic esters based on polyols and fatty acids possess suitable properties for lubricant applications, even at extreme temperatures. The current work investigates the oligomerization of fatty acid esters into biolubricant. The jatropha oil was esterified using recinoloeic acid and isobutyric acid over activated carbon from kaolin as a catalyst to produce biolubricant. Also, the carbon was prepared from kaolin through impregnation and activated with copper nitrate solution. The generated activated carbon was characterized using FTIR and XRF. The biolubricant (triesters) were produced via oligomeric fatty acid esters with recinoloeic acid under reflux at different reaction conditions and characterized using FTIR and GC-MS. Optimization of process parameters for oligomerization of jatropha oil with response surface based on Box-Beinkhen design. The process variables gave 90 min, 60<sup>o</sup>C and 1%, values corresponding to reaction time, reaction temperature and catalyst concentration as the optimal condition. A validation experiment was conducted to compare the optimal predicted value (93.07%) and experimental validated value (81.19%). The physicochemical properties of the jatropha oil and biolubricant produced were analyzed using ASTM methods. The quality parameters like kinematic viscosity, pour point, flash point viscosity index and blends of oil with that of commercial mineral oil were all in conformity with ASTM standard for biolubricant. The formulated oils also show the ability to significantly improve the kinematic viscosity, cold flow properties and possible potential as the replacement for the mineral-based lubricating oil</p> Mohammed Alhassan M. N. Almustapha M. L. Mohammed A. M. Lawal M. Adamu U. Shamsideen Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-26 2024-01-26 7 6 14 22 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2168 MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME MEMBERS OF Ocimum L. (Lamiaceae) IN THE SOUTHWEST STATES OF NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2053 <p>The genus <em>Ocimum</em> (Lamiaceae) is made up of aromatic plants that have economic and medicinal benefits but their taxonomy has been difficult. In tandem with this, are other plants with emission of strong fragrance, but not of the <em>Ocimum</em> group.&nbsp;Morphological studies were conducted on certain <em>Ocimum</em> <em>species</em> in the southwest states of Nigeria to hdelimit some members of the genus. From the six states in the Southwest Nigeria, the seeds of one hundred and twenty accessions belonging to <em>Ocimum</em> <em>basilicum</em> L. (B-accessions), <em>O.</em> <em>canum</em> L. (C- accessions) and <em>O. gratissimum</em> L. (G-accessions) were collected. In three replicates in a single row, the seeds of each accession were planted in plastic pots of 10 litre capacity, filled with topsoil. Forty-five accessions were purposively selected based on the rate of germination. Data was collected on the qualitative and quantitative characters from vegetative, floral and fruit (nutlets) features. Statistical analyses of the quantitative data were performed using SAS/PC1 version 9.01. The results separated the B-accessions early on and confirmed that they were not part of the <em>Ocimum</em> group. The B-accessions, however, belonged to another genus <em>Hy­ptis</em> in the family. Based on leaf shapes, leaf colour, leaf apices, leaf pubescence, inflorescence arrangement and flower colours, five distinct morpho-types of <em>Ocimum,</em> were observed. This study revealed the existence of morphological variations among the C-accessions. These characteristics may be explored by plant breeders and taxonomists for sustainable utilization of the <em>Ocimum</em> germplasm.</p> Oluwaseun Faith Akinyemi Muyiwa Segun Ayodele Emily I. Ayo-John Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 7 6 23 36 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2053 EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER AND INTRA ROW SPACING ON THE GROWTH COMPONENTS AND GRAIN YIELD OF LABLAB (Lablab purpureus) VARIETIES IN THE SUDAN SAVANNA, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2170 A. Umar Y. M. Zubairu Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-27 2024-01-27 7 6 37 41 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2170 HOUSEHOLDS’ COOKING ENERGY TRANSITION IN GOMBE METROPOLIS, NIGERIA: A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH APPROACH https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2171 <p>Sustainable energy transition has the potentials to providing a lasting solution to the contending problem of climate change globally. This study investigated the current energy transition situation in Gombe Metropolis, Nigeria. The study used qualitative research method where data was obtained through two (2) sessions of focus group discussions (FGDs) and 5 key informant interviews (KIIs) with different households as well as energy vendors around the study area respectively. The data were analyzed using thematic method of analysis involving manual coding and themes generations. Result revealed on one hand that some of the households have started to adopt modern energy services for cooking while on the other hand some households have been using energy mix consisting solid forms of energy and modern energy services concurrently while some still rely heavily on solid forms of energy for their cooking energy requirements. It was found that energy access, affordability, cost, family size, income and education are the main factors influencing energy transition in the area. The study suggests that the government should provide easy access via feasible subsidies and also engage in public awareness campaigns on the dangers associated with reckless deforestation as well as environmental and health benefits of modern energy consumption for domestic cooking.</p> A. Ahmed J. H. Umar H. Mohammed A. W. Hassan A. S. Umar A. A. Salim J. H. Umar Y. Halliru Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 7 6 42 48 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2171 ASSESSMENT OF INADEQUATE DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY ON HUMAN HEALTH IN SELECTED NEIGHBOURHOODS OF LOKOJA METROPOLIS, KOGI STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2172 J. O. Folorunsho M. A. Umar Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 7 6 49 56 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2172 A STUDY OF THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY MATURITY OF THE NIGERIAN NAVY FORCE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2144 <p>The rate of ICT growth in the Nigerian Navy Forces is still appallingly low. Given the aforementioned factor, assessing the Nigerian Navy Force's ICT maturity level is critical as this could offer helpful insight into how to successfully integrate ICT into the Nigerian Navy Force. This research work adopted the Small-size and Medium-size Enterprises ICT Maturity model&nbsp;in examining and measuring the optimal utilization of technology in Nigeria Navy Force. A questionnaire designed after ICT Maturity Model of SMEs containing forty-five research questions guided this project work. The questionnaires were afterward sorted and coded according to the responses from the 30 Senior Commissioned Officers, 30 Junior Commissioned Officer and 30 Non-Commissioned Officers that participated in this research survey using the indicator stage value in the coding process. &nbsp;The required ICT Maturity Indexes were extracted from the respective commands and were subsequently calculated using the Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet. Nigerian Navy Commands and unit were carefully selected and their ICT calculated to be significantly substantial with ICT maturity level at 0.58. This result analysis shows that ICT’s innovations and capacities are yet to be effectually and efficiently exploited within the Nigerian Navy Force.&nbsp; The research offers helpful insight into how to successfully integrate and measure the utilization of ICT potentials in the Nigerian Navy Force for its training and operations. The knowledge acquired would also be very beneficial for planning, budgeting, and setting funding priorities that will be specifically focused on the requirements area.</p> McKlintz Macaulay Godspower O. Ekuobase Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 7 6 57 65 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2144 HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT FROM THE CONSUMPTION OF Moringa oleifera LEAVES CULTIVATED ALONG RIVER GINZO, KATSINA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2173 <p>Heavy metals have a relatively high density and occur naturally in the environment or introduced by anthropogenic activities. They may be essential or non-essential to living organisms causing toxicity, environmental pollution or contaminate food chain. This research determined the hazard from ingestion of Moringa Oleifera leaves cultivated along River Ginzo, Katsina through the Estimation of Daily Intake of Metals (EDIM), Target Hazard Quotient/Hazard Index (THQ/HI) and Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) from exposure to Co, Cu Pb and Ni in the leave samples obtained by random sampling. Heavy metals in samples were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and analysed using Social Package for Social Science. The Result showed that levels of Co in all samples exceeded the 0.05ppm permissible limit in irrigation water. Values of Pb, Ni, and Cu and Ni in all soil samples exceeded the 0.05ppm, 0.30ppm and 0.05ppm USEPA, 2000 acceptable limits. Concentration of metals in leave samples are within the WHO/FAO 2014 acceptable limits. EDIM in M. oliefera were below tolerable daily intake, implying no health risk. THQ/HI for both essential and non-essential elements in leave samples were &gt;1, implying no health hazard. ILCR showed potential risk of contracting cancer from the consumption of M. oleifera leaves grown in the study areas as Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk values exceed the acceptable and negligible range of 10<sup>-4</sup>-10<sup>-6</sup>particularly of Ni (2.23E-2). As a result, measures should be put in place to prevent disposal of wastes containing heavy metals into River Ginzo used for irrigation purposes.</p> Usain Shamsuddeen Alhassan Jonathan Sylvanus Dajal Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 7 6 66 74 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2173 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE SPREAD OF VECTOR BORNE DISEASES WITH INFLUENCE OF VERTICAL TRANSMISSION AND PREVENTIVE STRATEGIES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2174 <p>This work is aimed at formulating a mathematical model of the spread of vector-borne diseases with influence of vertical transmission and preventive strategies. Vector borne diseases are caused by viruses, bacteria, and parasites typically conveyed by mosquitoes<strong>. </strong>Certain illnesses transmitted by vectors include West Nile Virus, Malaria, Zika virus, Dengue fever, Rift valley fever, and Viral encephalitis induced by pathogens like bacteria, viruses, and parasites. The positive solutions of the model are presented and the theory of basic reproduction number &nbsp;was used to study the model dynamical behaviour. When&nbsp;reduces; the diseases are wiped out of the population with time and vice versa. The disease free and endemic equilibria states of the model were determined and investigated to be locally and globally stable.We incorporated the use of Insecticide –Treated Nets (ITN), Indoor Residual Sprayings (IRS) and condom usage as preventive measures in the presence of treatment. Numerical simulations show that complete intervention measures, that is, the use of ITN, IRS and condom usage while placing the infected on treatment have valuable impact on the spread of vector-borne diseases.</p> William Atokolo Remigius Okeke Aja David Omale Rose Veronica Paul Jeremiah Amos Shedrach Onu Ocha Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 7 6 75 91 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2174 MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF COVID-19 INFECTION MODEL WITH DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2176 <p>This study developed a deterministic mathematical model of COVID-19 infection by incorporating asymptomatically and symptomatically infectious individuals, the vital dynamics such as birth rate and mortality rate. Face mask use, diagnosis of asymptomatic infectious individuals, and isolation of infected individuals as control strategies are also incorporated. The model is shown to have two unique equilibrium states, namely: the disease-free equilibrium points and the endemic equilibrium point. The result from the stability analysis of the critical points is shown to be local asymptotic stable and also, globally asymptotically stable provided the basic reproduction number is less than one (, and the endemic equilibrium state is local asymptotic stable and also, globally asymptotically stable provided . Furthermore, results of the sensitivity index on &nbsp; for the different parameters of the model show that the recruitment rate and the effective contact rate are the most sensitive parameters and thus critical in disease management and eradication. Thus, efforts geared at reducing the recruitment of susceptible individuals and infection transmission rate will significantly eliminate the disease burden.</p> Rose Uwanassara Danjuma Patrick Noah Okolo Muhammad Kabir Dauda Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 7 6 92 103 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2176 INVITRO MEMBRANE PROTECTION EFFECT OF AGERATUM CONYZOIDES METHANOLIC EXTRACT ON HUMAN SICKLED CELLS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2175 <p>Hemolytic anemia caused by membrane damage is the major objective of treating sickle cell anemia in both mainstream and alternative medicine, which is a characteristic hallmark of the disease.One plant that is reportedly utilized in traditional medicine to treat sickle cell anemia is ageratum conyzoides.&nbsp; Prelimnary phytochemical investigation were carried out&nbsp; according to the standard protocols. In vitro spectrophotometric analysis was used to assess the methanolic extract of A. conyzoides' capacity to shield sickle red blood cells from lysis<em>. </em><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Preliminary phytochemical screening of crude extracts of leaf, stem and root of <em>Ageratum conyzoides</em> tested positive for the presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, saponins, steroids and triterpenes. The leaf extract caused significant (P&lt;0.05) membrane protection with the value of 24.13±0.47% at 2.5<em>mg/ml</em> concentration, while the stem extract produced a significant (P&lt;0.05) protective effect with the value of &nbsp;29.13±0.47% at 2.5<em>mg/ml</em>.The root also gave a significant (P&lt;0.05) &nbsp;membrane protective effect&nbsp; of 40.73±1.04%&nbsp; at 2.5<em>mg/ml</em>. These finding clearly support the traditional usage of A. conyzoides in the management of sickle cell anemia by demonstrating the functions that the plant's leaves, stem, and roots play in membrane protection.</p> M. D. Ibrahim S. E. Atawodi A. B. Sallau Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 7 6 104 109 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2175 ESTIMATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN SILVER CATFISH (Chrysicthys nigrodigitatus) USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2177 <p>The Silver catfish (<em>Chrysicthys nigrodigitatus</em>) is widely distributed along River Niger.This study was carried out to characterize Silver Catfish found along River Niger, with the help of morphometric and random amplified polymorphic DNA for genetic analysis to determine variation in strain that can be used for identification of the strains and possible allocation. Samples were collected from three stations, namely; Illushi, Illah and Onitsha and total of 1 50 samples (50 each) of silver catfish was collected from landing station. Where 12% of the total sampled fish was used for genetic analysis and 100% of the sample was used for morphometric analysis. Result obtain from the morphometric analysis along River Niger show that dorsal fin length and head length with a value of 0.749 and 0.230 respectively are significantly different (p&lt;0.05) in the sample fish can be used for identification. Result obtained for genetic analysis indicate that samples from the three locations are positively correlated. Value between Illah and Illushi is 0.8991 with a percentage variation of 80%; Onitsha and Illah with a correlated value of 0.79045, a variation of 63% and Onitsha and Illushi with a correlated value of 0.76354 a percentage variation of 50%. Dendogram, Darwin’s hierarchy and Darwin’s radii graph from the study also show that species are from one ancestry. Identification of species for domestication purpose can use morphometric features. Inline breeding between strains in these locations may be necessary to improve strains because of correlation of samples.</p> Emuesiri Akpomughe O. K. Awhefeada O. F. Nwachi Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-30 2024-01-30 7 6 110 119 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2177 ASSESSING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF WATER BALANCE IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2178 <p>The purpose of this paper is to examine the spatial distribution of water balance components for Kaduna State. One of the most important outcomes in the water balance equation for any natural area or water body is Evapotranspiration and it is also a crucial component of the hydrologic cycle. In attaining this, monthly data on temperature (T) and rainfall (P) were obtained from NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) twelve remotely sensed stations around Kaduna State for thirty-seven years from 1984 to 2021. Thornthwaite and Mather Water Balance (WB) model was used to estimate WB components i.e., soil moisture (SM), actual evapotranspiration (AET), Water surplus (S) and Runoff (R). Kaduna State was divided into three sub-basins and the result shown peak of R generally occurs during the wet season (i.e., June through November across the three catchment areas) most especially at Kaduna central catchment area in the month of July (1003.85mm).&nbsp; The study further reveals that the bulk of the rains still occur between these months with the peak being reached in July having the peak of rainy season for the three catchment areas with Galma-1378.21mm, Kaduna Central-1443.82mm and Mada- 814.05mm respectively. The area is relatively dry in the months of November–April and has water deficit while Soil moisture recharge takes place from early May to August and mid-May to December is the period of water surplus across the catchment areas. The result of this study provides a reference information on water balance distribution in Kaduna State and utilization for...</p> Danbaba Goma Shaibu M. Hassan Ishaya Sunday Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 120 132 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2178 FACTORS INFLUENCING UNHOLY PRACTICES OF INDISCRIMINATE DUMP SITE IN WARRI-SOUTH, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2148 <p>The increasing number of indiscriminate dump sites in Warri-south in Delta state is worrisome and adversely affecting the living standard and health conditions of its growing populace. This study seeks to investigate the factors that influence unholy practices of indiscriminate waste disposal and to seek appropriate measures for mitigating or curbing this menace. It employs the cross-sectional research methodology. A sample size of 100 respondents from households living in Warri is used while a structured questionnaire with a three Likert scale is the research instrument for data collection.&nbsp;&nbsp; Exploratory Data analysis is employed to extract insights to explain the menace of dump site increase and the factors that significantly influence it. The results show that domestic waste such as food, paper, glass, and plastic waste is on the increase due to key influencing factors such as poor waste management laws, lack of waste facilities, poor training of waste collectors, and household attitudes towards waste disposal. Waste segregation and recycling were countermeasures to address waste disposal.</p> Ese Agbe Obaro Dominic Oghenejabor Susan Konyeha Chukwuemeka Chibueze Okolie Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 133 139 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2148 PREDICTION ACCURACY OF NIGERIAN MILITARY EXPENDITURE: MLR, ARIMAX, AND ANN MODELS IN STATISTICAL AND MACHINE LEARNING FRAMEWORKS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2180 <p>Accurately predicting military expenditure is crucial for budgetary planning and national security. However, traditional forecasting methods often struggle to capture the complex dynamics of military spending. This study investigates the potential of statistical methods and machine learning to improve the accuracy of Nigerian military expenditure prediction. We compare the performance of three widely used models: multiple linear regression (MLR), autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous variables (ARIMAX), and artificial neural networks (ANN). Using historical data on Nigerian military expenditure, GDP, and relevant economic indicators, we train and evaluate each model's prediction accuracy. We also employ statistical tests to assess the normality of residuals in the two distinct models of MLR and ARIMAX. Our findings indicate that the machine learning model, particularly ANN, significantly outperforms MLR in terms of prediction accuracy. ARIMAX shows promising results but lags behind ANN. We attribute the superior performance of the ANN to its ability to capture non-linear relationships and complex patterns in the data. This study adds to the body of knowledge by highlighting how machine learning methods can be used to increase the accuracy of military expenditure forecasts. Furthermore, the specific focus on Nigeria provides valuable insights into the unique dynamics of military spending in a developing country.</p> Christopher Awariefe Simon A. Ogumeyo Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 149 156 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2180 BARRIERS TO SUSTAINABLE GREEN BUILDING PRACTICE IN NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2114 <p>Green building approaches are becoming increasingly essential in the construction business. Green building entails designing buildings and employing methods that are ecologically responsible and efficient with resources throughout the life cycle of the building. It is viewed as a substitute to reducing or eliminating the negative environmental and climate change impacts of construction activities. Despite its benefits, green building uptake is hampered by a number of impediments. The study was conducted in the states of Abuja and Lagos, focusing on professionals, freelancers, and clients. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS 25.0, and the study's findings revealed that lack of understanding of Green Building Technologies was ranked first among the obstacles to green building acceptance with a RII of 0.79, followed by a lack of institutions to develop policies and set guidelines with a RII of 0.77, ambiguity with green equipment and materials with a RII of 0.76, lack of interest and interaction among project team members with 0.76, and lack of interest as well as communication among project team members with RII of 0.76.However, there are various hurdles to the implementation of ecologically conscious building in Nigeria. Long design and approval procedures for new technologies, a shortage of sustainable materials and goods, a proclivity to stick with present practices, a lack of building norms and regulations, and a lack of awareness about green products and powerful building systems are all examples. To guarantee a smooth transition to green building, industry players should investigate and apply sustainable solutions, particularly throughout...</p> Shamsudeen Abdulazeez Agboola Faruq Ayobami Idowu Faruq Mustapha Yusuf Abdulhakeem Kolawole Musa Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 157 163 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2114 TOWARDS REUSE OF AQUACULTURE EFFLUENTS FOR SUSTAINABLE CROP PRODUCTION IN THE DRYLANDS: A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2112 <p>The aquaculture industry generates substantial amounts of effluents that may cause environmental pollution if not properly handled. However, since it may contain nutrients, aquaculture effluents could offer a sustainable source of irrigation water in the drylands, which are characterized by water scarcity. This paper provides preliminary findings on aquaculture effluent generation and management in Kano State which is located in Nigerian drylands. Surveys were conducted to obtain information related to the production size, sources of water, and effluent handling. 87% of the surveyed farms are small-scale and medium-scale enterprises, with capacities below 5000 fish. Catfish and Tilapia are the commonly produced fish, with 67% of the farms producing the former. Groundwater is the common source of water utilized by farms, accounting for about 72% of the total. Our findings indicate that there are no established criteria for changing the pond water, with the farms considering either the color of the water or its duration in the pond. Most of the farms change the water every 1 to 2 weeks while considering the change in color as the major criterion. The majority of the farms discharge the effluents directly without any treatment. Although some of the farms claimed to be treating their effluents, we could not establish the presence of treatment technologies on the farms. Unfortunately, most of the farmers are unaware of the environmental implications of discharging the effluents without treatment. Further studies are needed to characterize these effluents and to evaluate their suitability as irrigation water.</p> Lawan Aliyu Abubakar Mustapha M. Bello Nura Jafar Shanono Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 164 170 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2112 ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE ON EMPLOYEES’ COMMITMENT: IMPLICATIONS FROM FEDERAL COLLEGES OF AGRICULTURE IN SOUTHWEST, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2181 B. Grace Abiona F. O. Olaoye A. F. O. Ayinde T. O. Oyekale O. A. Adeyeye R. O. Sodipe E. O. Fakoya Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 171 177 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2181 BIOMASS ASSESSMENT OF Adansonia digitata SEEDLINGS AS INFLUENCED BY VARYING DEGREES OF MOISTURE APPLICATION UNDER SCREENHOUSE CONDITION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2182 C. A. Henry O. S. Ogunsola L. A. Akomolede B. C. Akinbayo A. A. Ogundoyin Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 178 181 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2182 CONSTRAINTS FACING AGROSILVOPASTORAL PRACTICES AMONG HOUSEHOLDS IN OGUN STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2183 <p>Agrosilvopastoral practices are recognized as a link between agriculture, forestry and a sustainable strategy for land management, particularly in tropical and subtropical developing nations. This study examined the limitations of agrosilvopastoral practices among households in Ogun State. A well thought out questionnaire was used to gather information from 240 respondents in total. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data collected. Findings revealed that agrosilvopastoral practices were dominated by men, with a mean age and family size of 54 years and 6 persons respectively. More over half (62.25%) of the farmers were literate with mean years of experience in farming being 26years. Result revealed that inadequate capital (1<sup>st</sup>) is the most serious challenge facing the agrosilvopastoral households, followed by insect infestation (2<sup>nd</sup>), instability in market price (3<sup>rd</sup>), inadequate access to land for farming (4<sup>th</sup>), high cost of transportation (5<sup>th</sup>), insufficient market centers (6<sup>th</sup>), source of inputs (7<sup>th</sup>), technical knowledge (8<sup>th</sup>), mode of land acquisition (9<sup>th</sup>) and animal destruction of crops (10<sup>th</sup>). The study thereby recommends that extension workers from different organizations should educate farmers about agrosilvopastoral practices through seminars, and backing being offered to farmers in the terms of loans, hybrid seeds and credit provision for increased production.</p> O. S. Ogunsola C. A. Henry B. C. Akinbayo O. A. Akeredolu Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 182 184 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2183 FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR POOR COMPLIANCE TO DIETARY REGIMEN AMONG DIABETES PATIENTS AT SIR YAHAYA MEMORIAL HOSPITAL BIRNIN KEBBI NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2184 <p>Diabetes mellitus is a maturing cause of disease burden globally. Its management is complex; adherence to dietary regimen is known to play a major role in Glycaemia control. A study on factors responsible for the poor compliance to dietary regimens by diabetic clients has been conducted. In this study, the level of devotion and factors that persuade non-adherence to non-pharmaceutical control among patients with type-2 diabetes were assessed. A study was conducted at the Sir Yahaya Memorial Hospital Birnin Kebbi in Kebbi State, which involved adult patients receiving care at the diabetic clinics. This was a cross-sectional study carried out within the hospital premises. A structured Questionnaire was used to assess the dietary regiment adherence. A total of 120 patients with diabetes were recruited via non random sampling method, 78 (65%) patients are males while 42 (35%) are females. The data were analyzed using proportion. About 45% were not-adherent to their dietary regimen (forgot), 25% took their regimen regularly while 30% took their diet in response to the sign and symptom of the disease. Factors responsible for poor compliance to diet were: diet not palatable 58.3%, diet so expensive 40% while 1.7% reported diet does not improve their condition. The quantity of participants’ advocate to dietary regimen was suboptimal. Diet not palatable and expensive nature of the diet was the key predictors of poor devotion. Therefore, strategies for increasing dietary devotion are considered to be essential.</p> Daniel Danbaki Tukurah Yusuf Abubakar Mukhtar Salihu Anka Isma’ila Tukur Shamsudeen Yahaya Yusuf Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 185 190 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2184 COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF PAVEMENT BLOCKS MADE FROM DIFFERENT GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS WITH PLASTIC WASTE ADDITIVES AND CEMENT PAVEMENTS FOR USE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2185 O. W. Folorunsho T. M. Suleiman A. N. Amadi A. Hassan O. A. Hakeem Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 191 199 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2185 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, CYTOTOXICITY AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF SCHIFF BASE DERIVED FROM 2-BENZOYLBENZOIC ACID AND 4-NITRO ANILINE AND ITS METAL(II) COMPLEXES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2104 <p>Schiff base derived from 4-nitro aniline and 2-benzoylbenzoic acid, and its Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized based on their melting/decomposition temperature, solubility, magnetic and infrared analysis. Gravimetric analysis and Job’s method of continuous variation reveal that all metal complexes are in 1:2 metal-ligand ratios. All complexes have low conductance value (13.6-20.6 ohm<sup>-1</sup>cm<sup>-1</sup>mol<sup>-1</sup>), indicating that they are non-electrolyte. However the cytotoxic analysis indicates that Co(II) complex was more toxic with the LC<sub>50 </sub>value of 181.72 ug/ml than the other complexes. The Schiff base and its respective metal complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activities and the results revealed that the compounds showed significant activity against all isolates.</p> Aminu Zarewa Abdulkarim Umar Sani Safiyanu Lame Adamu Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 200 205 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2104 SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTION OF OKRA PRODUCTION AMONG RURAL FARMERS IN IGABI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2186 B. O. Oni C. O. Akure S. Adamu F. I. Agbomaka O. S. Balogun Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 206 210 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2186 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTIVITY AND CONSTRAINTS OF RAIN-FED AND IRRIGATED SUGARCANE PRODUCTION FARMING SYSTEMS IN BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2187 T. O. Ademola O. S. Balogun S. Adamu Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 211 221 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2187 UV-VIS, FTIR AND XRD CHARACTERIZATION OF SYNTHESIZED MAGNETIC COBALT (Co3O4) NANOPARTICLE USED IN CATALYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2105 W. L. Danbature M. Sani Isyaka Muhammad Abdullahi Abdullahi A. A. Gambo S. S. Abdulmalik Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 222 227 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2105 NUTRIENT CHARACTERIZATION, BIOGAS AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION POTENTIALS OF ROOT AND TUBER WASTES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2188 <p>Rapid population growth and increasing food demand have led to a significant rise in organic waste generation, which has had a negative impact on the environment. However, these wastes can be utilized as substrates for anaerobic digestion (AD) biogas production, providing a sustainable and environmentally friendly waste management solution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrient composition, biogas potential, and electricity generation capacity of root and tuber waste as a feedstock for biogas production. Waste samples were collected from various restaurants in Malumfashi. The nutrient composition of the waste samples was analyzed using standardized AOAC methods, and the biogas potential was estimated using the Baserga model equations. The results revealed that the waste samples had a total solid content of 94.70%, a volatile solid content of 87.60%, a crude protein content of 0.10%, a nitrogen-free extract of 5.1%, a crude fiber content of 5.04%, a crude fat content of 7.1%, and an ash content of 5.3%. The estimated biogas yield from complete degradation of fresh organic matter from roots and tubers was 501m<sup>3</sup>/ton, with a methane content of 52%. Based on the calorific value of biogas and the efficiency of electrical conversion, the estimated electrical potential was determined to be 1072 <em>kWh/ton</em>. The study recommends the utilization of root and tuber waste as a valuable resource for biogas generation and renewable energy production. Additionally, further research should be conducted to determine the specific biogas production outputs of root and tuber wastes.</p> A. A. Salim A. Ahmed A. W. Hassan J. Abdulkadir R. Abdullahi B. I. Ityonum A. I. Bashir Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 228 233 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2188 EFFECTS OF Azadirachta indica, Parkia biglobosa AND SYNTHETIC INSECTICIDES ON Sesamia calamistis (HAMPSON) ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF MAIZE (Zea Mays L.) IN MAKURDI https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2146 <p><em>Zea mays</em>, plays a crucial role in the dietary habits of numerous individuals residing in Nigeria. Several factors, including the presence of <em>Sesamia calmistis</em> and the effects of synthetic insecticides on beneficial insects and hazards to humans, contribute to the limitation of maize output. The study evaluated the effect of <em>Azadirachta indica</em> and <em>Parkia biglobosa</em> extracts on the control of <em>S. calamistis </em>and this experiment was carried out in two planting seasons of 2021 and 2022. The experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, Makurdi. Three treatments; <em>A. indica</em>, <em>P. biglobosa</em>, Karate 5 EC (Lambda cyhalothrin 5 EC) and control were used. From the study, <em>A. indica </em>extract had a significant effect at p&lt;0.05 on the insect population resulting in a significant increase in the yield parameters which includes the number 100 seed weight of the plant, yield in both 2021 and 2022 planting season with the mean value of 5298.21 and 5428.98 kg/ha respectively. The use of <em>A. indica</em> extract was observed to be effective in the control of insect population and leading to maximum productivity of maize low infestation by observing the maize plant with borers tunnels to be lower in <em>A. indica </em>extracts and Karate 5 EC plots with the mean value of 3.00 and 3.00 in 2021 planting season respectively at p&lt;0.05. The percentage of dead hearts at 60 days after treatment in 2021 and 2022 cropping seasons was significant at p&lt;0.05%, with the control plot having the highest...</p> L. I. Gambari Samuel F. Babatunde Ojonimi A. John Raymond U. Akor S. Ojomola Ogbaje Stephanie N. Ajuu Terver S. Tyoapine Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 234 239 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2146 EXPLORING THE POTENTIALS OF CEREAL FOOD WASTE IN ANAEROBIC DIGESTION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2189 <p>Cereal food waste makes up a significant part of municipal solid waste, and its proper treatment has become an urgent issue due to its increasing generation. In Nigeria, where around 50% of municipal waste is organic, this study focuses on the need for effective waste management. It highlights the negative environmental and economic impacts of improper disposal methods. The study examines the potential of using cereal food waste in anaerobic digestion for biogas production. Cereal food waste was collected from student hostels at the College of Nursing and Midwifery Malumfashi, sorted, and converted into a composite for anaerobic digestion. An anaerobic digester was constructed using a 25-litre plastic container designed for batch loading. The anaerobic digestion process was carried out for 30 days. The results show that a total biogas volume of 14,634 mL was produced during this time. The daily biogas yields varied, reaching its highest point on the 5th day. This finding underscores the importance of addressing food waste in the cereal supply chain to ensure sustainable food production and consumption. The results demonstrate that cereal food waste has significant potential for biogas production, which can contribute to sustainable waste management and help address environmental challenges linked to food waste. Based on these findings, the study recommends promoting the use of biogas technology to improve food waste management, thus enhancing environmental sustainability and supporting economic development.</p> A. A. Salim S. M. Zubairu M. Isma’il A. Ahmed A. W. Hassan J. Abdulkadir B. I. Ityonum Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 240 243 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2189 INCIDENCE OF Listeria monocytogenes FROM DIFFERENT FOOD SAMPLES IN YOLA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2190 <p><em>Listeria monocytogenes </em>causes food-borne listeriosis in humans. Vegetables and animal-based foods facilitate transmission and contamination if mishandled. The research aims to isolate and identify <em>L. monocytogenes</em> from different food samples in the study area. The Food and Drug Administration, Bacteriology and Analytical Methods (FDA, BAM) were utilized to isolate <em>L. monocytogenes</em>. A total of 120 food samples were examined, consisting of 10 samples each of cabbage and fruit salads, as well as 20 samples each of fresh fish, meat, frozen chicken, ice cream, and yoghurt. These samples were purchased at random from various shops and markets in Yola at different times. The identification of isolates was performed using macroscopy, microscopy, biochemical tests, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Out of the 120 food samples analyzed, 7 (5.8%) yielded growth of<em> L. monocytogenes</em> alongside other Listeria spp., with a high rate of <em>L. monocytogene</em> isolation from frozen chicken (3.5%) and cabbage (2.7%). Raw meat and yoghurt samples also yielded 1 (0.8%) growth of <em>L. monocytogenes </em>each. Through the examination of various food samples, it was identified that <em>L. monocytogenes</em> were present. This can be seen as an opportunity to take proactive measures to ensure the safety of consumers, particularly the elderly, immunocompromised individuals, and pregnant women in the study area<strong>. </strong>Minimizing the potential risk of L. monocytogenes can promote a healthier community.</p> Halima Isa Musa Sale Pukuma Joel U. Ewansiha Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 244 249 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2190 LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND FERMENTED MAIZE SUPERNATANT (Omidun) HAVE ANTI-BIOFILM PROPERTIES AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCI AND ENTEROAGGREGATIVE Escherichia coli STRAINS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2134 <p>Bacterial infections caused by biofilm forming organisms are of public health concern due to their propensity to contribute to persistent chronic diseases, chiefly because of their ability to resist antibiotics and host immune functions. Probiotics are considered useful therapeutic option in combating pathogenic biofilms. This study evaluates the anti-biofilm properties of potential probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and fermented maize supernatant (<em>Omidun)</em> against selected biofilm-forming pathogens. Crystal violet biofilm assay was used to determine LAB and <em>Omidun</em> biofilm inhibition and dispersion in selected pathogens (<em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa, </em>Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), <em>S. aureu</em> and Enteroaggregative<em> Escherichia coli</em>) at different concentration (1%, 10%, 50%, 100%) of neutralized and non-neutralized cell free supernatant (CFS). Percentage biofilm inhibitions and dispersions were evaluated, and data were analysed with ANOVA. <em>Omidun </em>and LAB showed promising biofilm inhibitory and dispersive effect against the selected pathogens. <em>L. plantarum</em> showed the greatest biofilm inhibitory effect (<em>P. aeruginosa</em>: 7.85%, CoNS: 27.75%, <em>S. aureus</em>: 66.90%, EAEC: 39.73%) and dispersive effect (<em>P. aeruginosa</em>: 15.94%, CoNS: 23.27%, <em>S. aureus</em>: 24.90%, EAEC: 32.09%) against the selected pathogens while <em>Omidun</em> showed the least biofilm inhibitory and dispersive effect against the selected pathogens. There was no significance difference in the percentage of biofilm inhibition and dispersion produced under different concentrations, neutralized and non-neutralized state. <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> was the most resistant pathogen while <em>Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli </em>(EAEC) was the most susceptible. Inhibition and dispersion of biofilm can be mediated by LAB and <em>Omidun</em>, these effects appear to be independent of the produced organic acids</p> Abdussalam Adeshina Sulaiman Adewale Ayodeji Adetoye Funmilola Abidemi Ayeni Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 250 260 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2134 MICROBIAL LOAD AND ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE PATTERNS OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM NIGERIA NAIRA NOTES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2033 <p>In our society today, exchange of goods and services usually involves exchange of currency notes by hand. This can serve as a means of transferring microorganisms and antibiotics resistant bacterial isolates. This study was aimed at assessing the contamination of Naira notes in Ungwan Rimi area of Kaduna State and to determine the antibiotics resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria. A total of 160 samples of naira notes, were collected randomly from staff and students, marketers, hospital and pharmacies, food vendors and transporters at strategic spots in Ungwan Rimi. Bacteria isolation and identification of samples were carried out using spread plate technique on medium and standard biochemical characterization, respectively. Antibiotics susceptibility testing were carried out using agar disc diffusion method. Isolates that were non-susceptible to at least one antimicrobial agent in three or more antimicrobial classes were classified as multidrug resistant (MDR), those that remain susceptible to agent(s) in only one or two classes as extended drug resistant (XDR) while pandrug resistant (PDR) isolates were classified as those isolates that were resistant to all antibiotics used. Highest bacterial load was observed with N100 notes with marketers (5.33 x 10<sup>5</sup>) while the least bacterial load was 1.2 x 10<sup>4</sup> in N50 notes from hospitals and pharmacies. The following bacteria were isolated <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> 70 (26.8%), <em>Bacillus</em> spp 60 (23.0%), <em>Clostridium</em> spp 31 (11.9%), <em>Escherichia coli</em> 30 (11.5%), <em>Streptococcus</em> species 25 (9.6%), <em>Klebsiella</em> spp 24 (9.2%), <em>Salmonella </em>15 (5.8%), <em>Shigella</em> species 4 (1.5%) and <em>Pseudomonas</em> species 2 (0.8%)...</p> A. F. Obajuluwa James Chibueze Igwe Moji T. Durowaiye Samira Garba D. Z. Bamai Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 261 265 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2033 TRANSMUTED NEW WEIGHTED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION: ITS DISTRIBUTIONAL PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS TO DATASETS FROM RAINFALL AND BREAST CANCER STUDIES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1106 <p>This research paper developed a new distribution referred as transmuted Newweighted exponential distribution. This is an extension of the popular Exponential distribution by using the transmutation map, the probability density function (<em>pdf</em>) and the cumulative distribution function (<em>cdf</em>) of the developed distribution were derived. Some distributional properties of the new distribution were extensively studied. The estimation of the distribution parameters was done using the method of maximum likelihood estimation. The performance of the TNWED has been evaluated using real life datasets from two (2) previous researches and the results show that our proposed distribution fits the datasets more better compared to the fits of the other two distributions (New Weighted Exponential distribution and Exponential distribution) considered in this study.</p> Umar Kabir Abdullahi Badawi Aminu Muhammed Ibrahim Yusuf Inuwa Jamilu Garba Saudat Ali Adamu Tasi’u Musa Jamilu Yunusa Falgore Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 266 274 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-1106 EFFECTS OF ACHA FARMING CHALLENGES ON FARMERS’ SOCIO-ECONOMIC WELLBEING IN PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2191 <p>Acha is widely planted in Plateau State, Nigeria where it provides food, income and employment for many farmers. However, there are challenges associated with its cultivation which have implications on their socio-economic wellbeing. This study examined the effects that acha farming challenges have on the socio-economic wellbeing of acha farmers in Plateau State. The study population comprised all the registered acha farmers in two of the three agricultural zones in the state which are Plateau North and Plateau Central.&nbsp; Of the estimated 3,143 registered acha farmers in the study area according to Plateau Agricultural Development Programme (PADP), 400 acha farmers were randomly selected. The study adopted semi-structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Data were analysed with frequencies and percentages while the assumption was analyzed with the use of Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). Findings showed that the main pre-harvest challenges facing the farmers were lack of knowledge in planting space (88.4%), fertilization (81.8%), insufficient labour force and discouragement due to poor yield (66.8%). Social and economic wellbeing of the farmers mainly affected were social interaction (76.5%), participation in social gathering, ability to get married and income (73.6%). PPMC shows that pre-harvest challenges had inverse significant relationship with Social (r = -0.788) and economic (r = -0.023) wellbeing of the farmers. The study concluded that pre-harvest challenges of the farmers had negative effect on the social and economic wellbeing of the farmers. Thus, extension intervention to tackle the pre-harvest challenges of the farmers is needed in the study area.</p> L. D. Demshakwa A. A. Ikwuba C. E. Ugbem-Onah F. O. Ilemaiye Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 275 281 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2191 DETERMINANTS IN NATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME AWARENESS AND PARTICIPATION IN KADUNA STATE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2192 <p>National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) is a social basic service offered by the Federal Government of Nigeria to its citizen, in order to achieve universal healthcare (UHC) coverage but its progress seems to be facilitated or hindered by some factors. This paper seeks to access the determinants of NHIS participation of Kaduna State. Adopt multiple stages sampling in the collection of data from 400 respondents. Frequencies, percentages and tables were used to present results obtained but applied Pearson product moment correlation coefficient to test for significant relationship at 0.01significant levels. The result shows that majority (80.1%) of NHIS participants in the study are within the productive and reproductive age group, married with children, have a minimum household size of five but enrolled 3-4 family members (28.8%), educated, 45% are income earners that obtain health services from mainly private HCFs with distance that is less than 5km, and awareness in NHIS had positive relationship with age, sex, number of children and household size. Positive relationship existed between age, household size, education, monthly income earned and immediate participation in NHIS while duration in NHIS participation had positive relationship with income and immediate participation in NHIS but employment status had a negative relationship. The paper recommends a comprehensive public awareness on NHIS participation that surpasses the office environment and encourages informal sectors to participate in NHIS is needful and avoids delay in participation after been informed about the scheme, for a successful UHC coverage.</p> Regina Ekpo M. Mamman B. I. Akpu Y. Arigbede Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 288 297 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2192 INVESTIGATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC POTENTIALS OF A SILVER IMPLANTED DIAMOND-LIKE CARBON THIN FILM https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2193 <p>This paper investigated the optical response of silver implanted carbon-based thin films (deposited on quartz substrates) due to varying fluence of energetic Ag ions in the range 2.5 - 3.4 x 10<sup>16</sup> ions/cm<sup>2</sup>. Raman spectroscopy was used to observe the microstructural specifics of the Ag:a-C composites. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed significant increase in particle grain size and surface roughness of the films at varying fluences. Optical absorption spectra showed that the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) of pristine Ag occurs at visible wavelength of about 428 nm but exhibited a blue shifting (~ 32 nm) in the implanted films. The blue shift in plasmonic wavelength occurs due to the fluence-induced increase in grain size and density of the Ag particles as confirmed by AFM. Optical band gap energy () and Urbach parameter () of the pristine carbon film increased, with fluence, from 2.89 eV to 1.60 eV and 3.60 eV to 4.22 eV respectively. The observed optically active parameters strongly indicate that the composites would make good candidates for photon retention towards the enhancement of solar cells’ efficiency.</p> I. G. Abdulsalam A. K. Abubakar M. Aliyu S. R. Naidoo A. Miller Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 298 303 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2193 PERCEIVED IMPACT OF SOOT POLLUTION ON RESIDENTS NEAR ARTISANAL CRUDE OIL REFINERIES IN TOMBIA COMMUNITY, RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2194 <p>Soot pollution arising from artisanal crude oil is on the increase in the Niger Delta. This development is worsening the already fragile ecosystem, occasioned by many years of oil and gas exploration. The implications are adverse environmental health outcomes. This study aimed to assess the perception of the impact of soot pollution among residents near artisanal oil refineries in Tombia Community, Rivers State, Nigeria. Four hundred and twenty (420) questionnaires were administered to residents to find out the perceived impact of soot. Obtained data was analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentages) and inferential statistics (chi-square). Respondents were highly knowledgeable on the impact of artisanal crude oil refineries, with 79.9% affirming to that, though only 54.6% attributed the occurrence of soot in the area to artisanal crude oil refineries. The majority (67.3%) felt discomfort when in the building or shortly after using the building. The predominant health complaints by respondents were cough, sneezing, nose irritation, eye irritation and breathing difficulties. The Chi-square result revealed that the age and gender of respondents are significantly associated with the effect of soot pollution (p &lt; 0.05). However, marital status, educational level and period of stay have no significant association with soot effect. During the period of soot pollution, the majority (65%) observed changes in plants. Soot pollution was more evident during the dry season, as reported by 95.4% of respondents. This study has shown that soot pollution adversely affects man and the environment. Artisanal crude oil refining should be fought to a...</p> D. B. Onwuna H. O. Stanley G. O. Abu O. M. Immanuel Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 304 308 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2194 INFLUENCE OF POSTHARVEST CHALLENGES FACED ON INCOME OF ACHA FARMERS IN PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2195 <p>Acha is widely grown in Plateau State where it provides food, income and employment for many farmers. However, there are postharvest challenges associated with its cultivation which have implications on their income. This study examined the effects that acha postharvest challenges have on the income of acha farmers in Plateau State. The population of this study comprised all the registered acha farmers in two of the three agricultural zones in Plateau State. The two zones are Plateau North and Plateau Central with an estimated 3,143 registered acha farmers according to Plateau Agricultural Development Programme (PADP). Of the population, 400 acha farmers were randomly selected. The study adopted semi-structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Data were analysed with frequencies and percentages while the assumption was analyzed with the use of Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). Findings showed that the main post-harvest challenges facing the farmers were high cost of transportation (95.7%), inadequate harvesting equipment and high cost of labour (93.6%), low quality packaging sacks and lack of access to improved processing equipment (90.5%). On income, 31.5% earned between 41,000 -60,000 while 30.5% earned 81,000 and above. PPMC analysis indicated that challenges faced during threshing and packaging had inverse significant relationship with income of the farmers. The study thus concluded that challenges faced during threshing and packaging adversely affected income of the farmers. Therefore, special extension intervention is needed to assist the farmers to overcome challenges facing acha farmers during threshing and packaging of acha in Plateau State.</p> L. D. Demshakwa A. A. Ikwuba C. E. Ugbem-Onah F. O. Ilemaiye Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 309 313 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2195 ANTIBIOGRAM OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) STRAINS FROM KINDIRMO IN NASARAWA, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2197 <p>Dairy products have been found to be a major vehicle for the transmission of multidrug-resistant MRSA strains to man. This study determined the antibiogram of methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus (</em>MRSA) strains from traditionally-pasteurized dairy product (<em>Kindirmo</em>) in selected parts of Nasarawa, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. One hundred and sixty <em>kindirmo</em> samples were collected from vendors using random sampling from the areas selected for the study. Sample collection was between January 2021 and April 2021. Each sample was collected into sterile screwed-capped plastic bottle and labeled appropriately. Standard microbiological procedures were used in isolating and identifying MRSA strains from the samples. Characterisation of the MRSA strains was carried out using Microgen<sup>®</sup> kits. The MRSA strains were evaluated for their susceptibility to cefoxitin (30µg), clindamycin (2µg), chloramphenicol (30µg), doxycycline (30µg), gentamicin (10µg), sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (25µg), tobramycin (30µg), and vancomycin (30µg), using the Kirby-Bauer technique. Of the 160 samples examined, eight MRSA strains were obtained, giving a prevalence of 5.0%. All of the MRSA strains were resistant to cefoxitin (0-1mm); 62.5% were resistant to tobramycin (7-11mm); and 25.0% were resistant to chloramphenicol (4-10mm). Five (5) antibiotic resistant phenotypes were recorded among the MRSA strains. The occurrence of MRSA in <em>Kindirmo</em> as recorded in this study, suggest that, the consumption of the product constitute a hazard to consumers. Basic hygiene requirements during production and selling of the product should be imposed by relevant authorities. This will go a long way in ensuring the safety of the product.</p> Yakubu Aliyu Christopher Reuben Rine Hammuel Chrinius Ojodale Paul Isaac Justina Adegba Abdullahi Muhammad Shamsuddeen Ladidi Maryam 1Abdulkarim Ahmed Nusaibah Musa Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-01 2024-02-01 7 6 314 320 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2197 REMOVAL OF OIL FROM PRODUCED WATER USING SUGARCANE BAGASSE: EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETIC STUDIES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2084 <p>The improper disposal of produced water poses a significant environmental challenge, necessitating effective treatment measures to mitigate its harmful impact. This study explores the potential of sugarcane bagasse (SB) as a biosorbent, both in its original form and modified state for removal of oil from produced water. The SB samples were collected, washed, dried, and characterized for functional groups, surface morphology, and elemental composition using FT-IR, SEM and EDS equipment respectively. The analysis identified various elements in both modified and unmodified SB. The impact of biosorbent dose, contact time, pH, and temperature on oil removal from produced water was investigated. The results showed a rapid increase in oil uptake by modified SB with increase in dosage, reaching a maximum of 97.80%. Unmodified SB exhibited a gradual increase in oil uptake, leveling off at 81.32%. Modified SB demonstrated a shorter contact time compared to unmodified one. Isotherm studies revealed that the Langmuir isotherm best fit the data for both modified and unmodified SB, with R2 value of 1 and 0.997, respectively. On the other hand, the equilibrium parameter R<sub>L</sub> were found to be 0.00001 and 0.0194 for modified and unmodified SB as biosorbent respectively. Biosorption kinetics were tested using pseudo-first order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results indicated that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model, with R<sup>2</sup> values of 0.998 and 0.999 for modified and unmodified SB, respectively. In conclusion, both modified and unmodified sugarcane bagasse demonstrate promising potential as effective materials for oil removal from produced water.</p> Ahmad Isah Kachako Idris Misau Muhammad Nura Makwashi Abdulwadud Y. Abdulkarim Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-07 2024-02-07 7 6 321 328 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2084 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF ZnO THIN FILMS DEPOSITED BY RF SPUTTERING METHOD https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2201 <p>Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited on corning glass substrates at 100ºC substrate temperature by radio frequency deposition were annealed the open air and icrowave oven at 150ºC. The influence of open-air annealing (OAA) and microwave annealing (MWA) were studied. The results obtained showed that MWA annealing can improve not only the crystal but also the optical properties of the ZnO thin films. A high transmittance is obtained in all the annealed samples (<strong>S<sub>1</sub></strong>, <strong>S<sub>2</sub></strong>, <strong>S<sub>4</sub></strong> and <strong>S<sub>5</sub></strong>) demonstrating &gt;90% at 650 nm wavelength. Reflectance in all the samples was &lt; 29% with a minimum standing at 23.78% as recorded for sample <strong>S<sub>5</sub></strong>. The band gap for the annealed samples (<strong>S<sub>1</sub></strong>, <strong>S<sub>2</sub></strong>, <strong>S<sub>4</sub></strong> and <strong>S<sub>5</sub>) </strong>was determined at 3.26 eV, 3.32 eV, 3.29 eV and 3.34 eV respectively. Absorption coefficient stood at 0.0225 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 0.0179 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 0.0180 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 0.0186 cm<sup>-1 </sup>and 0.0181 cm<sup>-1 </sup>for the as-deposited sample and the respectively. The optical and structural properties analysis showed that OAA and MWA annealing at suitable temperatures considered can significantly improve some properties of the ZnO thin films making the films suitable for applications in optoelectronics and photovoltaics.</p> Bilyaminu Abdullahi S. Abdullahi M. B. Abdullahi A. M. Wara Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-07 2024-02-07 7 6 329 338 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2201 AVIAN INFLUENZA A VIRUS SURVEILLANCE IN RESERVOIR DOMESTIC DUCKS (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLITAN COMMUNITY OF NORTH-EASTERN NIGERIA: A NEED FOR ONE-HEALTH APPROACH https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1800 <p>The domestic ducks (<em>Anas platyrhynchos domesticus</em>) are natural reservoir hosts of avian influenza A virus (AIV) and have since remained significant in the ecology and epidemiology of the virus globally.&nbsp; Continued local surveillance for AIV in this specie is critical to assessing the risks of potential spreading to domestic poultry, other animal species, and zoonotic transmission to humans. In this study, we investigate the status of AIV in domestic waterfowls in Maiduguri metropolis. Twenty-eight cloacal and oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from apparently healthy domestic ducks from November to December 2021 in Bulumkutu (n=2), Giwa Barracks (n=5), Kasuwan Shanu (n=4), Maimalari Barracks (n=5), Mairi (n=5), Premier (n=2) and Shehuri (n=4). Samples were screened for AIV using the real-time RT-PCR molecular assay. A total prevalence of 60.7% (CI: 41.99 –77.32) was recorded. Prevalence based on locations was higher in Bulumkutu 100% (CI:22.36 - 100), Kasuwan Shanu 100% (CI: 22.36 - 100), and Shehuri 100% (CI:47.29 - 100). In Maimalari Barracks and Mairi, prevalence of 60% (18.24 – 92.65) each was recorded respectively. While samples from Giwa Barracks and Gomari had a prevalence of 40% (CI: 7.346 – 81.76) and 33.3% (1.667 – 86.8). AIV was not detected in samples from premier (0%). The result of this study revealed the status of AIV in domestic ducks in Maiduguri metropolis. Thus, this early warning call the need &nbsp;for AIV prevention and control in the region and using the one-health approach to access the zoonotic potential of the virus in the domestic ducks...</p> Hambali Idris Umar Bitrus Inuwa Ibrahim Alamini Abdullahi Adamu Shittu Ismaila Clement Meseko Innocent Rwego Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-08 2024-02-08 7 6 339 342 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-1800 CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF POWDER FLOW BEHAVIOUR OF DIRECTLY COMPRESSIBLE COPROCESSED EXCIPIENTS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2080 <p>The aim of this pre-formulation study was to adopt simple linear regression modelling and correlation statistics to understand the associations between pharmacopoeial powder test methods using datasets generated from five commercial brands of directly compressible excipients with a specific focus to inferential implications in formulation design. Powder characterization was conducted using protocols defined in Chapter &lt;1174&gt; and &lt;616&gt; of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP41-NF36). The study adopted a linear regression modelling analytics and correlation statistics using the fitting algorithm of OriginPro® (OriginPro, Version&nbsp;<em>2021b</em>, OriginLab Corporation, Northampton, MA, USA). In the results, the modulus of Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient was used to measure the strength of the linear association between test variables and a correlation matrix generated. Strong positive correlation modulus of Hausner’s Ratio (HR) with Carr’s index (<em>r</em>=+0.999) and static angle of repose (<em>r</em>=+0.932) were evident. Bulk density strongly correlates with tap density in the positive direction (<em>r=</em>+0.911). Tap density also shows a slight negative correlation with HR (<em>r</em>=-0.230), Carr’s index (<em>r</em>=-0.228), and static angle of repose (<em>r</em>==-0.421), while Carr’s index strongly correlated with static angle of repose (<em>r</em>=+0.933). In conclusion, modelling bivariate powder flow datasets has provided a powerful but simplistic statistical relationship for characterizing the modulus of association between HR, Carr’s index, and static angle of repose of the model excipients useful in preformulation design of pharmaceutical formulations.</p> Ilyasu Salim Garba Mohammed Khalid Abubakar Sadiq Wada Suleiman Danladi Fatima Shuaibu Kurfi Umar Abdurrahman Yola Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-13 2024-02-13 7 6 343 354 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2080 EXPERIMENTAL DEMONSTRATION OF ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION USING STATIONARY EXERCISE BICYCLE COUPLED WITH WIND TURBINE REGULATOR https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2213 <p>The small power generation using exercise bicycle is one of the current areas patronized by researchers. This is due to the two major benefits obtainable from the exercise machine, the benefit of exercising one’s body and the utilization of electrical power generated. Wind turbine regulator is specifically designed to regulate the output voltage of a wind turbine generator, which is characterized by varying speed and hence varying output power. The exercise bicycle driven alternator has a similarity with wind turbine generator in terms of variable speed, especially when ridden by different personalities. This paper demonstrates how small power can be generated using exercise bicycle. Further, the paper analyzes the performance of the by regulating its output using small wind turbine regulator. The result shows that, a regulated output within the range of 12V is obtained for all the tested loads, which makes the system more compatible with all types of 12V DC loads. Also the excitation voltage of the machine is improved from 4.5V (1.22A) using the diodes rectifier to 2.5V (0.81A) when the wind turbine regulator is used. With the improved power generation in this work the exercise bicycle will be a better alternative source for small power generation which can be used in DC lightings, DC fans, charging batteries and laboratory experiments.</p> Isiyaku Abubakar Isaac B. Olaleke Nasiru B. Kadandani Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-13 2024-02-13 7 6 355 361 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2213 OPTIMAL SIZING OF SOLAR-WIND HYBRID MICROGRID USING IMPROVED GREY WOLF OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA - NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2214 <p>This paper presents an improved grey wolf optimization algorithm (IGWOA) for optimal sizing of an isolated photovoltaic (PV), wind turbine (WT), and battery energy storage (BES) hybrid microgrid. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, atmospheric data sets comprising of wind, solar, and temperature of Kaduna International Airport were collected from Nigerian Meteorological Agency while the load demand data was collected from Kaduna International Airport Electricity Distribution Center. The microgrid optimal sizing was formulated as a constrained single objective optimization problem. Constraints including, loss of power supply probability (LPSP), power balance, generation limits and battery state of charge (SOC) were imposed. Three simulation scenarios were considered. Firstly, the target allowable maximum LPSP was fixed at 25% and the algorithm was able to determine the optimal sizing of the hybrid microgrid components and minimize the initial cost from 169,880.00 USD to 112,356.40 USD per annum resulting in 34% savings in cost. Secondly, the effect of the target allowable maximum LPSP variation was investigated, and it was found that the total installed capacity of the system decreases with increase in LPSP thereby decreasing the total cost. Additionally, a novel electricity price index (EPI) was introduced in order to quantify the degree of optimality of the solution. The EPI was found to increase exponentially with increase in LPSP, resulting in an EPI of &lt; 0.05USD/kWh at 20% LPSP. Lastly, to validate the proposed approach, a comparative analysis between the IGWOA and other algorithms was carried out, and the proposed IGWOA proved applicable.</p> Bankole Samson Sesan Isiyaku Abubakar Nasiru B. Kadandani Isaac B. Olalekan Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-15 2024-02-15 7 6 362 372 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2214 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GROWTH MODELS ON NIGERIA POPULATION https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2215 <p>Growth models have been applied over time to track and forecast changes in variables such as population, body height, biomass, fungal growth, and other aspects of numerous fields of study. This research focuses on modelling the growth of Nigeria’s population from the year 1981 to 2021 and determining the best fit model to represent Nigeria’s population growth (male, female and total). Seven growth models were considered in this research which includes: the linear, the exponential (Malthusian), Logistic (Verhulst), Gompertz, Hyperbolic, Brody and the Von Bertalanffy growth models. The criteria used for comparison of best fitted model were the coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Mean Square Error (MSE), and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). The R<sup>2</sup> showed that the exponential, the logistic and the Gompertz growth models were all better fits for Nigeria’s population (male, female and total) having the highest R<sup>2</sup> (0.999). Further comparison with the MSE, AIC and BIC revealed that the exponential growth model best represented Nigeria’s population growth (male, female and total) having the least MSE, AIC and BIC. Hence the exponential growth model should be considered by researchers in Nigeria population projection.</p> Esosa G. Idemudia Oluwadare O. Ojo Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-15 2024-02-15 7 6 373 381 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2215 ANALYSIS OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES AND JOB SATISFACTION OF LIBRARIANS IN PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN SOUTH-WEST, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2218 <p>The study analyzed the professional competencies and job satisfaction of librarians in private university libraries in South-West, Nigeria. A survey research design was used for the study. The participants in this study were two hundred and forty-three (243) librarians from thirty-three private universities in Nigeria's South-West. Total enumeration was used to cover the two hundred and forty-three (243) librarians working in the thirty-three under study. The researcher adopted the instrumentation of the questionnaire method from Yaya (2019) for the collection of data on job satisfaction.The response rate was 61.7%. Descriptive statistics of frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the research question. Findings revealed that librarians in private university libraries in South-West, Nigeria experienced a high level of job satisfaction in overall relationship with fellow workers, carrying support from colleagues, information sharing and team spirit among colleagues. Despite &nbsp;high level of librarians’ job satisfaction; there was low satisfaction in the areas of salary and job security. Therefore, it is recommended that the management of private universities in the study areas improve satisfaction in these low areas. The librarians in the private university libraries in South-West, Nigeria possessed professional competence on the job. Professional competence was measured with three dimensions namely traits, knowledge and self-concept The study recommended that academic librarians’ professional competence on the job must be sustained.</p> S. A. Oguntayo V. E. Unegbu G. O. Alegbeleye, Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-19 2024-02-19 7 6 382 390 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2218 FOOD CONTACT SURFACE CONTAMINANTS: A REVIEW https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2179 <p>Food contact surfaces are major sources of food contamination. They harbour contaminants which are further transferred to the food that comes in contact with them. These contaminants could be of biological or chemical origin. The biological contaminants are microorganisms such as <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter </em>spp<em>, Escherichia coli, Shigella </em>spp<em>, Salmonella </em>spp<em>, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio cholerae, Bacillus cereus</em>, norovirus, hepatitis A virus, etc. The chemical contaminants are chemicals that may be transferred to the food through food contact materials such as packaging materials or residues of cleaning agents. These chemicals are hazardous to human health. Both the biological and chemical contaminants are harmful to humans when consumed. As such, food contact surfaces should be cleaned and sanitized properly to avoid contaminating food with such contaminants and also to ensure that safe food is supplied to the public.</p> Suwaiba Mohammed Rufai Joseph Reuben Wartu Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 140 148 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2179 INFLUENCE OF ENGAGEMENT OF FARM CHILDREN IN FARMING ACTIVITIES ON THEIR WILLINGNESS TO CHOOSE AGRICULTURE AS A PROSPECTIVE CAREER IN ODEDA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OGUN STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/2071 kehinde Oluwaseye Ogunjinmi O. E. Dada O. J. Soetan O. A. Adekola O. Adetarami S. A. Ogunyomi O. E. Fakoya F. V. Daniel F. V. Daniel Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 7 6 282 287 10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2071