FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs <p><strong>The <a href="http://www.fudutsinma.edu.ng" target="_blank" rel="noopener">FUDMA</a> Journal of Sciences (FJS) </strong>is a peer-reviewed publication of original research papers, review articles, technical reports and short communications in all aspects in the fields of science and technology such as Chemistry, Earth and atmospheric sciences, Biology in general, Agriculture, Biochemistry, Botany, Microbiology, Environmental Science,&nbsp; Computer Science, Engineering, Physics, Materials Science, Mechanics, Mathematics, Statistics, Nutrition and Food Science, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Polymer and Textile Sciences, Process Modeling and Computational Analysis, Renewable Energy and waste to resource processes.</p> Faculties of Physical Science and Life Science, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State - Nigeria en-US FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES 2645-2944 <p>FUDMA Journal of Sciences</p> STATISTICAL MODELLING OF COVID-19 CASES IN NIGERIA WITH A NEGATIVE BINOMIAL AUTOREGRESSIVE MODEL https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1008 <p>Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a deadly global pandemic caused by a virus of the family <em>coronaviridae</em>. It is an infectious disease which affects respiratory systems and causes people to experience mild to moderate symptoms and sometimes severe cases of the disease which usually resulted into death especially among those patients with other comorbidity conditions and elderly with immunosenescence effects. Nigeria registered its index case of COVID-19 on 27<sup>th</sup> February 2020. Subsequently, the number of reported cases were on increasing trend. Numerous studies on modelling the sporadic increase cases or spread of SARS-COV-2 using different methodologies were documented in literature. However, issues relating to over-dispersed problem and the presence of autocorrelation were not well handled in such methods. In this present study, the modelling of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Nigeria was done using a Negative Binomial Autoregressive model. Study data were collected on a daily basis from the update released by the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control from 1<sup>st</sup> April, 2020 to 29<sup>th</sup> May, 2021. The results showed that the number of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases increased comparatively between April-2020 to June-2020. However, the number of reported cases dropped steadily between July-2020 to Nov-2020. The data were over-dispersed and the presence of autocorrelation was observed. The results revealed that among the four NBAR estimated candidate models, NBAR (1) returned the lowest Akaike Information Criterion. Thus, NBAR (1) is the most parsimonious NBAR model for the data. Therefore, NBAR (1) can be used in predicting daily cases of SARS-CoV-2 in Nigeria</p> A. O. Atigbi E. S. Oguntade D. M. Oladimeji Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 6 4 1 5 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1008 DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS (Co, Cu,Cd,Fe, Pb, Zn) IN SOME EDIBLE INSECTS AND FINGERLINGS IN DUTSIN-MA TOWN https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1035 <p>Assessment of some carcinogenic (Cd and Pb) and non-carcenogenic (Co, Cu, Fe and Zn) heavy metals elements was carried out on fingerling, grasshopper, locust and termite. These organisms were selected for this study because they are regarded as alternative source of protein and recently as traditional medicine. Hence it became imperative to assess their human health risk. The result analyzed show that cobalt level ranges from 1.85±0.16 mg/kg to 9.03±0.54 mg/kg, copper from 18.56±0.01 mg/kg to 78.02±2.35 mg/kg, iron from is 176±12.55 mg/kg to 390.37±10.95 mg/kg, cadmium1 from74±0.00 mg/kg to 7.11±0.89 mg/kg, lead from 0.04±0.08 mg/kg to 1.14±0.49 mg/kg and zinc 244.15± 10.30 mg/kg to 281.48 ± 45.52 mg/kg. These were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and were compared with FAO/WHO standards. And all were above the recommended level except lead (Pb). Fingerling which is the only aquatic organism among the samples was found to contain higher amount of Co, Cu, Fe and Pb. It could be attributed to more interaction with its habitat and usually improper disposal of waste, use of fertlizers and manure among other things may be responsible for that.&nbsp; Hazard indices (HI) were all high and ranges from 5 to 9 and 16 to 31 for adults and children respectively. Cancer risk (TR) assessments of Cd and Pb were categorized as moderate and low respectively according NYSDOH. Public should therefore avoid eating these organisms because the heavy metals in them may bioaccumulate and manifest adversely.</p> Abdullahi Muhammad Y. Auwal A. H. Usman Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-15 2022-08-15 6 4 6 11 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1035 EFFECT OF DIFFERENT RATES OF BIOCHAR ON NODULATION AND YEILD OF SOYBEAN (Glycine max.L.merill) https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1036 <p>The experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Nasarawa State University, Shabu-Lafia Campus during 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons to evaluate the effect of different rates of biochar on nodulation and yield of soybean in Lafia, Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. The experiments were laid in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Biochar at the rates of 0, 4, 8 and 12 tons/ha was incorporated into ridges at planting. Four seeds of soybean were planted per hole at a spacing of 5cm between plants on four manually prepared ridges of 2 m long spaced at approximately 75cm. The seedlings were thinned to two plants after two weeks of planting (WAP). All data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using GENSTAT statistical package while least significant difference was used to separate treatment means at 5% level of probability. The results obtained showed that biochar at the rate of 8 tons/ha significantly (p&lt;0.05) produced the highest number of nodules (20.8 and 16.4), recorded the heaviest weight per 100 seeds (16.9 and 14.9g) and grain yield of soybean (1304.0 and 1316.7 kg/ha) in both cropping seasons. The results further revealed that the highest dose of biochar (12 tons/ha) in this study did not necessarily influence and increase any parameter tested except over the control (0.0 tons/ha) in both cropping seasons. Therefore biochar at the rate of 8 tons/ha is hereby considered to be the optimum rate for sustainable soybean production in the study area.</p> MUHAMMAD GWAM SODAH O. J. Jayeoba S. M. Amana I. M. Jibrin Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-15 2022-08-15 6 4 12 16 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1036 ON THE SEMIGROUP OF DIFUNCTIONAL BINARY RELATIONS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1026 <p>In this paper, we have examine some properties of elements of the semigroup , where D<em><sub>X</sub></em>, is the set of all binary relations <em>α </em>⊆ <em>X </em>× <em>X </em>satisfying , (), and is a binary operation on D<em><sub>X </sub></em>defined by () , with <em>xα </em>denoting set of images of <em>x </em>under <em>α</em>, and <em>yβ</em><sup>−1 </sup>denoting set of pre-images of <em>y </em>under <em>β</em>. In particular, we showed that in the semigroup &nbsp;there is no distinction between the concepts of reflexive and symmetric relations. We also presented a characterization of idempotent elements in &nbsp;in term of equivalence relations.</p> Muhammad Jamilu Ibrahim Ibrahim Mamman Sawudi Abdussamad Tanko Imam Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-15 2022-08-15 6 4 17 19 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1026 COMPARATIVE LETHAL IMPACT OF GLYPHOSATE AND PARAQUAT ON AFRICAN MOUND-BUILDING TERMITES (Macrotermes bellicosus Smeathman) https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1053 <p>In Nigeria, glyphosate and paraquat are common herbicides employed for weed control because they are cost-effective in controlling weeds. It has been shown that, herbicides released into the environment can indirectly affect non-target species, often in harmful ways. We thus investigated the lethal effects of Force up<sup>®</sup> (glyphosate) and ParaQ<sup>®</sup> (paraquat) on workers of African mound-building termites (<em>Macrotermes bellicosus </em>Smeathman). The worker termites were treated with 30µl of glyphosate and paraquat at different concentrations viz; 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.13 and 1.56 ml per 500 ml of water, while distilled water was used as control. Mortality of termites was recorded for 12 and 24 hrs after exposure. Data collected were subjected to variance analysis and probit regression. Results showed that glyphosate caused 48 - 88% mortality, while paraquat caused 36 - 96% mortality after 24 hrs exposure. The mortality was not dose-dependent as 12.5ml of glyphosate and paraquat exerted higher percentage of mortality than 25ml concentration. Conversely, the mortality increased after 24 hrs indicating time-dependent mortality. The toxicity index, i.e. (LC<sub>50 </sub>and LC<sub>90</sub>), was 16.82ml and 14.87ml for glyphosate and 2.63ml and 2.196ml for paraquat after 24 hrs of exposure. This apparently shows that paraquat is highly toxic to <em>M. bellicosus</em> at concentrations lower than the recommended rate. These findings calls for the re-evaluation of the use of paraquat-based herbicides in weed control as it negatively impacts termites populations which are key beneficial non-targets</p> Itohan J. Otabor Emmanuel Okrikata Shalom Bulus Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 6 4 20 24 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1053 TRANSPORT SERVICE SYSTEM DESIGN USING MODIFIED APRIORI ALGORITHM https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/845 <p>This research is carried-out to evaluate the effectiveness of data mining in determining viability of routes, efficient scheduling and assigning of vehicles to commuters. The study was guided by the following objectives: modification of Apriori algorithm, implementation using C programming language, analyses and deductions from the results to determine if a given route is feasible. Data Mining (association rule) technique has been used to identify geographical locations where accidents have occurred and their characteristics, in road management to develop effective accident preventive measures, to determine estimated travel time and in market basket analysis applied in grocery stores. Data was collected from three transport companies for each route. The data was inputted into the program implemented using modified Apriori algorithm. The study findings revealed the volume of commuters per route and how vehicles can be assigned and scheduled. Using the above findings, effective transport service system is designed using routes viability</p> Godwin A. Otu Philip Achimugu Adeyemi Owolabi Ugbe U. Raphael Monday J. Abdullahi Oyebanji Modupeola Shukurah Nachamada Vachaku Blamah Sakinate L. Usman Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 6 4 25 36 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-845 NEW CALIBRATION OF FINITE POPULATION MEAN OF COMBINED RATIO ESTIMATORS IN STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/920 <p>This study deals with using calibration estimation approaches to modified the combined ratio estimator in stratified random sampling. Calibration distance measures with their associate constraints were used to modify combined ratio estimator. In stratified random sampling, new sets of optimum calibration weights are created and used to obtain new calibration estimators of population mean.&nbsp; Empirical study through simulation was conducted to look into the efficiency of the suggested estimators obtained. The suggested calibration estimators are more efficient than other existing estimators investigated in the study, according to the findings.</p> Jamiu Olasunkanmi Muili R. V. K. Singh G. I. Onwuka A. Audu Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 6 4 37 44 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-920 THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF Phyllanthus niruri AGAINST Plasmodium falciparum https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1042 A. T. Dantala K. Naman L. Sanda Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 6 4 45 48 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1042 EFFECT OF VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTATION ON SPERM MORPHOLOGY AND SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS OF RABBIT BUCKS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/979 <p>Twenty mixed breed rabbit bucks aged between 6–8 weeks with an average weight of 861g were randomly assigned to four (4) dietary treatments with five (5) bucks per treatment in a Completely Randomized Design to determine the effect of feeding graded levels of Vitamin E on sperm morphology and semen characteristics of rabbit bucks. The rabbits received graded levels of vitamin E/kg feed (0mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Feed and water were given to the rabbit bucks <em>ad libitum </em>during the experiment. The semen collected was taken to laboratory for sperm morphology and semen characteristics and the data collected were analysed using general linear model procedure of statistical analysis system (SAS). The results revealed that the mean number of normal cells, detached head and mid piece defect were not significantly (P&gt;0.05) different across the treatments. However, the percent abnormal defects percent of free tail and coiled tail were significantly (P&lt;0.05) lower for rabbits fed 20 and 60 mg/kg and the least bent tail was obtained in 60 mg/kg diet. The results for semen characteristics had significant (P&lt;0.05) differences in all the parameters except for semen volume and pH. The results showed that those fed 60 mg/kg of vitamin E diet gave significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher sperm motility, sperm concentration, live ratio and low dead ratio (87.50 %, 232x10<sup>6</sup>, 87.50 % and 12.00 %) respectively. Therefore, supplementation of vitamin E at 60mg/kg in the diet of rabbit bucks is recommended</p> B. A. Onoja O. M. Daudu Iliya Mallam Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 6 4 49 53 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-979 THE ROLE OF TRANSPORTATION NETWORK IN THE INTEGRATION OF HAUSA AND YORUBA ETHNIC NATIONALITIES IN FUNTUA TOWN OF KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1043 <p>The paper examined the role of transportation network in the integration of Yoruba-Hausa ethnic nationalities in Funtua Town of Katsina State. The study was inspired by agitations being made by some notable Nigerians about the possibilities of disintegration of Nigeria as corporate national entity along the lines of ethnic nationalities. This notion is often propelled by sporadic ethnic and tribal disturbances that occur in the country.&nbsp; However, the cordial relationship that exists in Funtua town between the Yorubas from southwestern axis of Nigeria and the indigenous Hausas cast doubt to such divisive agitations. The data obtained for this study was principally from primary source, which included discussions, in-depth face-to-face interviews, key informant and physical observational techniques. Reasons for the mixing of the two distinct ethnic groups have been investigated and discussed. The study found out that Yorubas migrated during the pre-colonial, from majorly Ogbomosho, Saki and Lagos areas, and founded Funtua at <em>Ile Amodu</em> and <em>Ile Akile </em>clans. The process continued, where <em>Ile Ogbomoso,</em> <em>Ile Amodu and Ile Akile</em> clan were established during the pre-colonial period, when the creation of rail and road networks facilitated the migration and acculturation processes, as Funtua town was linked with the Yorubaland. While, other factors related to costume and beliefs play vital role in strengthening the mutual bond between the two distinct ethnic groups into indivisible one</p> Abubakar Lawal Dangiwa B. A. Ndawayo Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 6 4 54 59 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1043 NUMERICAL SOLUTIONS OF COVID-19 SIRD MODEL IN NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/989 <p>A mathematical model of the Susceptible, Infectious, Recovery and Death (SIRD) for the spread of the COVID-19 disease in Nigeria was considered in this paper. The model values and parameters were obtained from Nigeria Centre for Disease Control Coronavirus COVID-19. The model was solved using Heun's method and Runge-Kutta's method of orders four and five to obtain an approximated solution for the model with the help of the Matlab Program.&nbsp; The result obtained was illustrated in plots to show the progression of the disease in the various classes. The comparisons of the three numerical methods used correspond well with each other by showing the same behavior pattern</p> Blessing O. Akogwu J. O. Fatoba Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 6 4 60 67 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-989 NON - PARAMETRIC MULTIPLE INPUTS PREDICTION MODEL FOR QUANTITY OF INFANT-FORMULA DEMANDED FOR CHILDREN AGED 0 - 24 MONTHS IN ILORIN-SOUTH, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1007 <p>Infant-formula is recommended by the World Health Organisation as the safest form of complementary food to human breast milk. Breastfeeding duration and other imperative input-factors that govern quantity of infant-formula demanded (a modulus variable) is difficult to model and predict with high precision. However, infants based on their conventional rights have to be given good nutrition. This study is necessitated by the challenging process of complex modulus prediction of quantity of infant-formula demanded to complement human breast milk, which may be attributed to differences in maternal characteristics at various maternal geographical settlement areas. Owning to complex nature of the differences, we propose a data-driven approach for handling larger-scale scenarios which may be limited in the conventional parametric modelling methods. This study aims at investigating the association of maternal characteristics with quantity of infant -formula demanded among breastfeeding mothers who have children aged 0 – 24 months in Ilorin-South Local Government Area, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 744 breastfeeding mothers. We adopted appropriate non-parametric tests to determine the impact of different independent groups of maternal covariate factors considered on quantity of infant -formula demanded. Multi-associations were assessed and negative binomial model was formulated to predict estimated quantity of infant-formula demanded for various breastfeeding durations. The results show that increase in breastfeeding duration leads to increase in quantity of infant-formula demanded. In future intervention studies, factors that have significant effect on demand for infant-formula might be considered for proper monitoring of infant feeding.</p> Jumoke Popoola Olusola Samuel Makinde Adagba Victor Ukerchia Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-02 2022-09-02 6 4 68 74 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1007 COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF FEEDING COWPEA HAY AND GROUNDNUT HAULMS AS SUPPLEMENTS TO BASAL RICE STRAW IN YANKASA RAMS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1045 Yusuf Dan Abba Umar S. A. Maigandi R. M. Ashiru A. Y. Abdullahi M. G. Garba S. Nura Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-18 2022-08-18 6 4 75 79 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1045 UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS AND USE OF CAMPUS GREEN SPACES AT GOMBE STATE UNIVERSITY, GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1047 <p>Green spaces are essential areas in the university campuses. Attractive green space areas are considered as features which contribute positively not only to the student experience but the image of the university. The study generated data from undergraduate students at Gombe State University, it reveals understandings about students’ perceptions and use of campus green spaces (CGS). The quantitative data collected via the questionnaires were digitalized and analyzed using MS Excel statistic package. Descriptive statistics, including measures of percentage and frequency to analyze the associations between perceptions and use of CGS and students’ well-being on campus. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data generated.&nbsp; The study results indicate that majority of respondents (94%) both use and aware of campus green spaces, and CGS are important for the image of the university and also an integral component of the campus environment. The campus aesthetic quality and its design and management style have impact on the perception and use of its green spaces.&nbsp; The students (73%) preferred areas with manicured gardens, seats, and lawns over those areas without these facilities. The study recommends that a university campus needs manifold forms of green spaces to satisfy the needs of increasing number of student users</p> Bala Wunubo Jafun Adamu Mohammed Usman Audu Yina Paul Idah Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 6 4 80 87 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1047 QUALITY EVALUATION OF CAKE FROM WHEAT, BAMBARA GROUNDNUT (Vigna subterranean) and VELVET TAMARIND (Dalium guineense) FLOUR BLENDS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1055 <p>The increasing nutritional awareness of consumers has necessitated investigations into the incorporation of nutrient dense underutilized crops such as Bambara groundnut and velvet tamarind into baked products. This study was aimed at assessing the suitability of different proportions (80:15:5, 75:20:5. 70:25:5, 65:30:5) of wheat, bambara groundnut, velvet tamarind composite flours for cake production with 100% wheat flour as the control. The functional properties of the composite flours were evaluated and the cakes were analyzed for physical, proximate, mineral and sensory properties using standard methods. There was no significant difference (p&gt;0.05) in the bulk densities and swelling index between the composite flours (up to 25% substitution) and the control. The water absorption capacity (WAC), gelatinization temperature and time of the flour samples increased (0.85 to 1.10 %, 69.50 to 80<sup>o</sup>C and 1.47 to 12.41s respectively) with increase in bambara groundnut flour substitution. Likewise the weight of the cake samples while the height and oven spring reduced with increase in bambara groundnut flour. The protein, ash, calcium, sodium and potassium content of the cake samples increased (7.69 to 12.70%, 1.99 to 2.36%, 20.50 to 31.30 mg/100g, 216.79 to 278.36 mg/100g and 548.55 to 836.92 mg/100g respectively) with inclusion of bambara groundnut and tamarind flour. The sensory properties of the cake samples were adversely affected by inclusion of bambara groundnut and velvet tamarind however they were still acceptable. The study concludes that production of cake from wheat/bambara groundnut/ velvet tamarind composite flour enhanced the nutrient content of the product and hence should be&nbsp;</p> V. C. Ezeocha D. C. Arukwe M. U. Nnamani Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 6 4 88 94 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1055 INTESTINAL PARASITIC FAUNA AND PREVALENCE IN AFRICAN GIANT RAT (Cricetomys gambianus) IN NSUKKA METROPOLIS SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1016 <p>to combat food insecurity and malnutrition among the local populace. However, the giant rat has been reported to harbour many parasites thus, its close association with man in raising them as mini-livestock and the consumption of the meat could be a public health risk to individuals handling them. This study was conducted to investigate the gut parasites and their prevalence on African giant rat in Nsukka metropolis. A total of 21 giant rats comprising 13 males and 8 females were trapped for the study. The giant rats were dissected, and the guts were removed and searched for parasites. A total of 506 parasites where recovered. Four different parasites <em>Trichostrongylus </em>sp<em>.</em>, <em>Trichuris muris</em> (nematodes) and <em>Hymenolepis diminuta</em> and <em>Taenia </em>sp<em>. </em>(Platyhelminthes) were identified in the gastrointestinal tract of the giant rats. <em>Hymenolepis diminuta </em>was the most prevalent (100%) while <em>Taenia </em>sp<em>.</em> had the highest mean intensity of 10.15 (7.46 – 12.85, 95% CI) followed by <em>Trichostrongylus</em> sp. <em>Taenia </em>sp<em>.</em> is significantly higher in the caecum of males than the females (p&lt; 0.05). The weight of African giant rat has positive correlation with the prevalence and intensity of the parasites. Given the parasitic load of African giant rats it is recommended that the giant rat should be reared to reduce the intensity of parasitic infection and increase the market value since the farmed ones will be regularly dewormed.</p> Ikechukwu E. Onah E. C. Umeike Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 6 4 101 106 10.33003/6fjs-2022-0504-1016 ADOPTION AND UTILIZATION OF CLIMATE SMART AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES BY CASSAVA FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN IDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, OYO STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1021 <p>The study examined the adoption and utilization of Climate Smart Agricultural Practices (CSAP) by cassava farming households in Ido Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to purposively select one hundred and twenty (120) registered farmers engaged in cassava crop production for questionnaire administration. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that cassava farming activities in the study area is at a small scale level owing to the size of farmland cultivated by majority (70.0%) of the respondents’. It was also observed that majority (76.7%) of the respondents’ in the study area generally have adequate knowledge of climate smart agricultural practices though their mean adoption score (4.38) is critically low. This may be linked to the respondents’ low level of literacy and the barriers affecting the adoption and utilization of climate agricultural practices. The study inferred that there is probably need for more awareness about the potentials of these practices in increasing agricultural productivity in the study area. Variables such as education, farming experience, size of farmland, access to credit and access to extension services were all significant at 0.05 level of significance. It is therefore recommended that extension officers, relevant agencies/associations should develop suitable policies that will encourage farmers’ especially rural farmers’ to adopt and utilize Climate Smart Agricultural Practices (CSAP). This will, in the mid and long term, help in boosting farmers’ income and enhancing sustainable food security</p> GBADEBO OLUBUKOLA VICTORY A. L. Oyewole T. O. Anifowose F. Iselobhor Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 6 4 107 111 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1016 SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS AND RISK FACTORS OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG WOMEN IN NIGERIA USING STRUCTURED GEO-ADDITIVE REGRESSION MODELS: ANALYSIS OF 2018 NIGERIA DEMOGRAPHIC HEALTH SURVEY https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1056 <p>Overweight and obesity which are known to pose serious health problems are becoming increasingly prevalent in Nigeria which is a sub-Saharan African country. This study utilized the 2018 Nigeria Demographic Health Survey to examine demographic and socio-economic risk factors of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women aged 15-49 years. Exploratory analysis was used to provide basic description of the data while a semiparametric structured additive models was used to describe the relationship between the presumed factors and overweight and obesity status while also accounting for spatial effects at state level. The national prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women was found to be 27.4%. Increased risk of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women was found to be strongly associated with being older, high educational level, being rich, living in an urban area, having many children, being pregnant, and residing in southern part of Nigeria. In respect to ethnicity and religion, the Fulani tribe and Islamic religion were associated with lower prevalence of overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity were found to be significantly more prevalent in the Southern parts compared to the Northern parts of Nigeria. The highest and lowest prevalence of overweight and obesity were observed in Anambra and Yobe states respectively. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among Muslim women compared to Christian women since most Northern women are Muslims and most Southern women are Christians. Random (unstructured) spatial effects were significant indicating that overweigh/obesity was influenced by unobserved state specific factors</p> Chinenye Pauline Ezenweke Isaac Adeola Adeniyi Helen Olaronke Edogbanya Waheed Babatunde Yahya Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 6 4 112 124 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1056 DERIVATION OF THE DYNAMICAL EQUATIONS OF MOTION OF THE R3BP WITH VARIABLE MASSES AND DISK https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1025 <p>This paper explores the dynamical equations of the restricted three-body problem with variable masses of the primaries which are enclosed by a disk, when the masses of the primary and the disk vary with time in accordance with the unified Mestschersky law and motion of the primaries is determined by the Gylden-Mestschersky equation. It is seen that the equations of motion differ from those of the restricted three-body problem with variable masses due to the disk mass</p> Joel John Taura Oni Leke Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 6 4 125 133 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1025 B-CAROTENE EXTRACTION FROM Daucus carota (CARROT) UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS OF TEMPERATURE AND SOLVENTS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1057 <p>create</p> Maimuna Zubairu Karima Mohammed Rabiu Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 6 4 134 136 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1057 ASSESSMENT OF LANDFILL SITES USING REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1058 <p>This study assessed the location of landfills in Zaria LGA of Kaduna State by the use of GIS and RS. Increase in population has brought rapid urbanization, which in turn accelerates the rate of waste generation. This caused indiscriminate disposal of waste in landfills within residential centers, which are not properly located; these are source of disease, pollution, and unaesthetic. Hence, all the landfills in the study area were identified (27 landfills) and their locations or spatial data recorded using a GPS. GIS was employed for mapping and spatial analysis using buffering of 500 meters’ proximity to residential houses in order to designate the proper and improperly located landfills. Results of the GIS analyses indicated 2 landfills were properly located, while the remaining 25 were not. Based on the results of this study it is recommended that all the improper landfills should be abandoned and banned by the government; new landfills should be designated at outskirts of the town at distances of few kilometers from the residential houses; pickup points should replace the abandoned landfills, and new ones also be designated for efficient waste management.</p> Sani Badamasi Ishaya M. Goje Zainab Dalhatu Muhammed Maimuna Aboki Zainab Mohammed Zakari Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 6 4 137 143 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1058 PHYTO CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND In vitro ANTIPLASMODIAL POTENTIAL OF STEM BARK AND LEAF EXTRACTS OF Ficus gnaphalocarpa AND Ipomea fistulos USED IN YAURI AND ARGUNGU EMIRATES, KEBBI STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1050 <p>Malaria is the world’s most parasitic disease endemic in about 100 developing countries. The search for new antimalarial drugs from natural products is necessitated by resistance of the parasites to known antimalarial agents. This study&nbsp; evaluated&nbsp; phytocmical composition and the <em>in vitro </em>antiplasmodial potentials of <em>Ficus gnaphalocarpa</em> stem bark and <em>Ipomea fistulos</em> leaf methanolic extracts&nbsp; obtained from two&nbsp; areas (one each from Argungu and Yauri emirates of Kebbi State, Nigeria ) . The air dried samples of <em>Ficus gnaphalocarpa</em> (miq) C.C. Beng (stem bark) and <em>Ipomea fistulos L. </em>(leaves) were extracted with methanol for seventy two hours. The crude extracts were tested against chloroquine resistant strain of <em>Plasmodium berghei berghei </em>(NK-65) <em>in vitro </em>in 96 well microplates under anaerobic condition. The data obtained were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Duncan multiple comparison test with SPSS version 20.0. There was significant (P&lt;0.05) reduction in the number of parasitized cells relative to control. <em>F. gnaphalocarpa </em>exhibited higher activity of 92.81% and IC<sub>50 </sub>(11.85 mg) while <em>I. fistulos </em>recorded an activity of 66.70% and IC<sub>50 </sub>(36mg). The plant extracts used in this study presented antiplasmodial activity. Further studies on <em>in vivo</em> assay, toxicity, histopathology, isolation and purification is recommended for possible development of their bio-constituents into antiplasmodial agents.</p> E. A. Sylvester Y. K. Danladi D. D. Attah A. N. Ukwani-Kwaja Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 6 4 144 149 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1050 THE BACKGROUND CONCENTRATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS AT NYSC ORIENTATION CAMP LAYOUT, KATSINA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1051 <p>An anthropogenic activities leads to the presence of heavy metals in an environment which lead to environmental pollution. The area has become gradually engage with various waste such as animal waste, refused dump, spilling of petrol, kerosene, engine oil etc which can introduces the trace heavy metals. The research of background concentration of various heavy metals in soil samples taken from the NYSC orientation camp layout, which is situated in Katsina state, Nigeria, at latitudes of 643.7 m to 798.5 m and longitudes of 18 21I32IIE to 18 28I37II, was conducted. At intervals of 100 m, soil samples were taken from the locations, and each 100 m was divided into 10 m. (A1A10). In order to determine the concentration of the five examined heavy metals, a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) was used (Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, Cu). The locations have an average heavy metal concentration of:- 0.16009, 0.55449, 0.02804, 0.00231, and 0.10406 ppm&nbsp; Respectively. Significant differences were observed by comparing the mean concentration of the heavy metals in the study areas with world health organization (W.H.O) threshold limit, national and international studies and it was suggested that the samples were not contaminated with the&nbsp; heavy metals.&nbsp; But the metals were detected and there is no need for immediate implementation and remediation measures by the relevant authority. It was and recommended that industries, factories and filling station should not be located at the area in order to minimize human activities so as to maintain stable environment free from pollutants</p> Aminu Samaila S. Bello S. R. Iliyasu M. Sani Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 6 4 150 155 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1051 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM AGAINST CLINICAL ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIA FROM URINARY TRACT INFECTION PATIENTS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1052 <p>The emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacteria to routinely used antibiotics has made it imperative to continuously search for alternatives that can be used to cure infections, so as not to return to pre-antibiotic era. Plants are known to contain bioactive compounds that can be explored and used in the treatment of infection. The study investigated the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of dried leaf extracts of <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em> against clinical isolates of <em>Escherichia coli </em>and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> from urinary tract infection patients attending Shehu Muhammad Kangiwa Medical Centre. The photochemical screening of the crude extracts of <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em> (leaf of life) carried out using standard procedures described by Trens and Jens 2002, revealed the presence of Saponins, Flavonoid, Terpenoids, Alkaloids, Phenol and Tannins . The antibacterial activity of the extracts was carried out using agar cup diffusion method. Four concentrations (200,100, 50 and 25mg/ml) of the extract were tested against <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>. The zones of inhibition measured at 200,100, 50 and 25mg/ml were: 00,00,00 and 00 mm respectively. The extracts&nbsp; therefore showed no antibacterial activity against the isolates at all the four concentrations tested. The results of this study proofs that the ethanolic extract of&nbsp; <em>B. pinnatum</em> leaves has no effect on <em>E. coli</em> and <em>K. pneumoniae </em>isolated from patients with Urinary Tract Infection, and hence cannot be used to treat infections caused by these bacteria.</p> M. B. Moroof S. S. Sani O. L. Nwoko Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 6 4 156 159 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1052 INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE INDICES ON VEGETATION DYNAMICS IN KAMUKU NATIONAL PARK, NIGERIA USING COUPLED MODEL INTERCOMPARISON PROJECT PHASE 6 (CMIP6) https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1059 <p>This study examined the influence of climate indices on vegetation dynamics in Kamuku national park, Nigeria. MODIS NDVI dataset was obtained from 2000 – 2021, while temperature and rainfall data were obtained from NiMet Kaduna international airport from 1980 - 2015. Downscale climate indices from Six-generation (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP 6)) global climate model was obtained from Copernicus from 1850 - 2099. Coefficient of variability, Mann Kendall and correlation were used to examine the variability, trend and relationship. Subsequently, multiple linear regression was used to assess the influence of climate indices on vegetation dynamics. The result revealed that rainfall indices have moderate variability and temperature indices show a low variability, while the normalized vegetation index revealed a low variability of vegetation vigour in the study area.&nbsp; In addition, there is a weak positive relationship between the rainfall indices and vegetation and a negative relationship between temperature indices and the vegetation vigour. The climate indices were able to explain 47 % (R2 = 0.47) variance of the vegetation vigour in Kamuku national park. While the remaining 53% might be a result of other factors such as human activities and other environmental factors. In conclusion, the vegetation vigour regulates the distribution of the climate extreme indices and might likely be more influenced by the human activities</p> Bashariya Mustapha Baba zaharaddeen isa Auwal Faruq Abdussalam Abu-Hanifa Babati Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-03 2022-09-03 6 4 160 173 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1059 GEOPHYSICAL AND HYDROCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY: A CASE STUDY OF GASHUA, NORTHEAST NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1062 Livinus Emeka Agada Habu Tela Abba Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 6 4 181 190 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1062 QUEUEING THEORY IN SOLVING TELE-TRAFFIC PROBLEM https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1063 <p>Information technology has made the world a global village and tele communication plays an indispensible role in this. Queues are predominant features in information processing and transfer. This work examines queue model in relation to telecommunication transfer/ processing problems. Some of the prevalent questions in tele-traffic are “how do we minimize time wastage (how long do I wait?) in the system and what will be the effect on waiting time if the number of operations are altered. In this work, tele-traffic problem was formulated and solution established through a model. Focasting ideas were also suggested. The queue theory has been applied to answer the above questions. The model has shown increased service satisfaction and in turn minimizes cost.</p> E. C. Emenonye s. O. Nwakego J. C. Ehiwario Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 6 4 191 194 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1063 SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF SEASONAL DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY AMONG KIBAKU PEOPLE, CHIBOK LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1065 <p>Water is an essential commodity which affects life and livelihoods in the universe. This study examined the socioeconomic effects of seasonal domestic water supply among Kibaku People, Chibok Local Government Area, and Borno State, Nigeria. Random sampling was used to select 165 rural households and water samples for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The significant water sources were hand dug well. The average trekking time to the water source was 10-101 minutes (24.8%). And the households require an average of 162 liters of water per day. The major causes of water scarcity include insufficient rainfall, increased sunlight intensity, pollution of water sources and increased population from the oral interview. About 60% of them stated water scarcity harms their socioeconomic activities as its time consuming (36.1%), causes long queues (48%) and causes conflicts at the point of collection (15.8%). However focus group discussions, interviews and personal observation, respondents believed drinking water is inadequate in Chibok. It was concluded that water available for household use is not sufficient. However, it is safe but contains some elements, not of the World Health Organization standard for good potable water. It is recommended that the community build a hub for water collection and distribution close to the village center. The government should provide water infrastructures to increase the potable water supply</p> Musa Maiva Isa Muhammed Bukar Maina Babakura Muhammed Abba Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-03 2022-09-03 6 4 195 202 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1065 COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF PARTICULATE MATTER USING LOW COST SENSOR: A CASE STUDY OF ABUJA AND KANO, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1066 <p>Inhaling excessive amounts of Particulate Matter (PM) which can be blown over great distances by the wind and then settle in the ground, water, or in the air we breathe, can be hazardous to both sensitive and non-sensitive persons. The study investigates the mass concentration of particulate matter (PM) in Kano and Abuja. Utilizing a purple air sensor, PM<sub>1.0</sub>, PM<sub>2.5</sub>, and PM<sub>10.0</sub> were all examined along with some climatic variables including temperature and relative humidity. In Kano and Abuja, monitoring took place between January 2021 and December 2021. Results indicate that the monthly PM exceeds the WHO 24-hour limit for the two locations. When the standard limit of the Air Quality Index (AQI) is taken into consideration, the mean value of PM<sub>2.5</sub> shows that the air quality in both locations is dangerous for sensitive persons, such as those who have respiratory ailments while the mean value of PM<sub>10.0 </sub>shows that the air quality in both locations was moderate for both sensitive and non- sensitive person. The results in this study suggests that government should enhance its current air quality regulations and install new air quality sensors in sufficient locations in Nigeria so that additional research may be done on such regions. The results of a Pearson correlation analysis show that PMs and relative humidity have substantial negative correlations indicating that as relative humidity rises in either locations, PMs mass concentration would decrease as well. A relatively high correlation existed between PMs and temperature for both locations.</p> N. O. Meseke D. O. Akpootu O. A. Falaiye T. V. Targema Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-03 2022-09-03 6 4 203 211 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1066 GEOSPATIAL MAPPING OF AGRICULTURAL LAND SUITABILITY IN ZARIA, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1067 <p>This study mapped out the agricultural land suitability in Zaria using Geospatial Techniques (GT) with a view to highlight areas of improvement in production to enhance food security. The Agricultural Land Suitability (ALS) is the fitness of a land to a specific crop. ALS selects the land that best suits and supports a crop optimal yield, by matching the land qualities with the crop’s requirements; hence increasing productivity per unit land at minimum inputs and cost. The agricultural lands in the study area were identified and mapped as well as the biophysical land qualities that influence rice cropping. The prevalent biophysical land qualities were matched with the rice requirements; and evaluation of the agricultural land suitability was done using GT and Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) modelling approach. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) method to land suitability evaluation was adopted via GT; which entails delineating the study area into highly suitable (S1), moderately suitable (S2), marginally suitable (S3), temporarily not suitable (N1), and permanently not suitable (N2). The study findings were that about 5% of the area is highly suitable, 9% very suitable, 18% moderately suitable, 55% is marginally suitable, and 13% not suitable. The results of this study can be used by individuals, private organizations, and government to increase agricultural productivity in the study area for sustainable rice farming in order to optimize yield as well as mitigate degradation and erosion</p> Sani Badamasi T. O. Adewuyi L. M. Ojigi S. L. Ya'u Ahmed Mohammed Zainab Mohammed Zakari Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-03 2022-09-03 6 4 212 221 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1067 ACUTE AND SUB-CHRONIC EFFECTS OF SOME SELECTED SYNTHETIC FOOD COLORANTS ON LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN ALBINO RATS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1068 <p>Synthetic food colorants are widely added to food in order to attract the consumer. Many researchers have incriminated these additives for causing some problems to human health. This research was conducted to determinate the toxic effects of some selected synthetic food dyes (A, B and C) in some biochemical parameters of male albino rats in the acute test. The limit test dose of 5000 mg/kg was administered to four albino rats and then observed individually 1hour post-dosing, and at least once daily for 14 days. Sub-chronic toxicity was evaluated after administering daily oral doses of 1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 mg/kg body weight, for 28 days to the albino rats. Results of the acute toxicity study indicated that the LD<sub>50</sub> of the three different standard synthetic color additives (A), (B) and (C) is more than 5000 mg/kg. While in sub-chronic toxicity studies administration of synthetic food colorants, showed significant increases (P&lt;0.05), in aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum urea (SUR) and serum creatinine (SCR) values of rats treated with synthetic dyes when compared to those of the control group. The study showed that it takes more than 5000 mg/kg dose of the dye to kill the tested albino rats and also indicated that the colorants affect the liver and kidney functions</p> Muhammad Manir L. Y. Buhari U. Bilal H. J. Bala A. M. Usman Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-03 2022-09-03 6 4 222 225 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1068 LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL OF PRODUCTION, INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION PROBLEM BASED ON RANDOM SAMPLING https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/933 <p>A linear programming model using the random sampling technique was used for the optimization of the products in the production line of Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC), Lagos, which has many production facilities and multi-products systems. Products from the company are distributed to a number of depots across the country of which the demand for each product is known. The problem of interest involves determining what product/s should be made, how much of each product should be produced and where production should take place. The objectives of the company are to minimize the total cost as well as maximize the total sales revenue based on the set of decisions including demands, capacity restriction and budget constraints. Linear Programming software solver (LiPs) was used to solve large linear programming problems based on the mathematical model developed. The model improved the profit of the company under study by 5%.</p> C. O. Njoku Anthony Victor Gambo Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-03 2022-09-03 6 4 226 231 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-933 INFLUENCE OF SEED HYDRO PRIMING DURATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN (Glycine max. L. Merr) IN THE SUDAN SAVANNAH https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1069 <p>Rapid germination and emergence is an important factor of successful establishment in soybean. Response of soybean varieties to hydro priming duration were investigated under field condition at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil located at Bagauda, and at Gaya fields respectively in 2018 rainy season. The treatment consisted of four improved soybean varieties (TGX-1835, TGX-1904, TGX-1951 and TGX-1955) and four priming duration (0hour (dry seed or control), 4hours, 6hours and 8hours) respectively, they were combined and laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The result showed that priming duration has significant effect on stand count and plant height at Gaya alone, there were no significant effects on the number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, number seeds per plant, grain yield (t/ha). The highest value was obtained at 8 hour priming duration at both locations. The varieties tested also differed significantly, where TGX-1904 and TGX-1951 recorded superior growth and yield parameters compared to TGX-1835 and TGX-1955 at Gaya. At Bagauda TGX-1904 and TGX-1955 proved superior in terms of stand counts, plant heights at eight weeks after sowing compared to others. From the foregoing, therefore, it is recommended that, priming duration of 8 hours in both locations and varieties TGX-1904 and TGX-1951 could be cultivated by soybean farmers in Gaya while varieties TGX-1904 and TGX-1955 is recommended for farmers in Bagauda for good crop yield.</p> M. S. Aminu A. A. Ahmed M. A. Bukar Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-03 2022-09-03 6 4 232 237 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1069 COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE OF BOKO HARAM REPENTANT TERRORIST IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLITANS COUNCIL BORNO, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1070 <p>The study assessed people's willingness to accept repentant Boko Haram and the role of Government and Non-Governmental organizations toward public risk-free coexistence campaigns. Primary and secondary roots of data were used for this study. First, a structured questionnaire was used to source data from 382 sampled respondents. The results revealed that most respondents were affected by Boko haram, 74%, while 26% were not. Furthermore, the study also showed that most respondents are not ready to accept Boko Haram Repentance, with 79% because they killed their relatives, burned their social environments, caused hardship, and migrated. Also, they fear that when the Government fails to fulfil their promise, they can rejoin the group because they are not to be trusted. At the same time, with few people, 21% are ready to accept the Boko Haram repentance because they believe peace will be restored. Some of the reasons are some were forced to join the group, some were their relatives, and lastly, some were brainwashed. Finally, the following recommendations were proffered. Firstly Government and NGOs should increase their efforts to enlighten the people to accept Boko Haram because, based on the findings, enlightenment camping is not enough. Secondly, the Government should ensure they fulfilled their promise to Boko Haram repentance after they were integrated because if they fail, they can rejoin the group again.</p> Muhammed Bukar Maina Babakura Muhammed Abba Musa Maiva Isa Nura Khalil Umar Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-03 2022-09-03 6 4 238 244 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1070 PRODUCTION AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF READY TO EAT EXTRUDED SNACKS FROM FLOUR BLENDS OF ACHA-COWPEA AND SWEET POTATO STARCH https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1071 <p>Acha is a potential food security crop that contributes significantly to people’s diet, especially in developing countries such as Nigeria. The suitability of acha-cowpea composite flour and sweet potato starch in the production of extruded snacks was investigated. Acha flour (ACF), cowpea flour (CPF)and sweet potato starch (SPS),were mixed in various proportions of percentage weights (ACF:CPF:SPS)and were used to produce extruded snacks totaling 7 samples: 100:0:0, 90:5:5, 85:5:10, 75:5:20, 70:5:25:, 65:5:30 and50:0:50.The flour blends and starch mixes were analyzed for functional properties while the extruded snacks were evaluated for proximate, physicochemical and sensory properties. There was significant differences (p&lt;0.05) in the functional properties of the flour and starch blends. Oil and water absorption capacity reduced as the proportion of SPS increased while the wettability followed the same trend. Foam capacity and foam stability were higher in all the blends containing cowpea flour. Gelatinization temperature was highest in blends with equal proportions of acha and sweet potato starch.The proximate composition of the extruded snacks were significantly difference (p&lt;0.05) amongst the samples. The result showed that all the samples with cowpea flour had higher protein and ash contents than the control. Samples with 90% AF, 5% SPS and 5% CF performed best in sensory scores particularly in terms of appearance, taste, texture and general acceptability. However, all the samples were generally accepted. It was concluded that nutritious extruded snacks with acceptable sensory qualities can be produced from blends of <em>acha</em>-cowpea flour and sweet potato starch.</p> S. C. Ubbor D. C. Arukwe V. C. Ezeocha O. N. Nwoso B. N. Iguh O. G. Nwibo Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-03 2022-09-03 6 4 245 153 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1071 EVALUATION OF BISCUITS PRODUCED FROM WHEAT (Triticum aestivum), TIGER NUT (Cyperus esculentus) AND ORANGE FLESHED SWEET POTATO (Ipomea batatas) FLOURS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1072 <p>Biscuits are ready-to-eat nutritious baked snacks that are available in different shapes and sizes. One of the problems that militate against food security in developing countries such as Nigeria is postharvest loss and underutilization of locally cultivated food crops. This study aimed at evaluating the quality of biscuits produced from wheat, tiger nut and orange fleshed sweet potato flours. Wheat flour was substituted with tiger nut and orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) flours for the production of biscuits. While constant 10% tiger nut flour was used in each of the six formulations, the OFSP flour portions were increased from 5 to 30%. A 100% wheat flour served as control. The functional properties of the flours, proximate composition, energy value, vitamin contents, physical and sensory properties of the biscuits were determined using standard methods. The result of the functional properties showed no significant differences (p&gt;0.05) in the bulk densities and gelatinization temperatures of the flour blends. There was significant (p&lt;0.05) reduction in the moisture content of the biscuit samples made from the composite flours compared to the control biscuit sample. Inclusion of tiger nut and sweet potato flour led to increase in the fat, fibre, carbohydrate content and energy values of the biscuit samples. The pro-vitamin A and vitamin C increased as the proportion of orange sweet potato increased and in all the composite biscuits containing tiger nut flour. There were no significant differences (p&gt;0.05) in the thickness, spread ratio and volume of the biscuits. The results of the sensory properties</p> S. C. Ubbor V. C. Ezeocha J. N. Okoli O. E. Agwo O. A. Olaoye I. E. Agbai Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-03 2022-09-03 6 4 254 261 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1072 USE OF GEOMETRIC SEQUENCE IN PRODUCTION CONTROL AND MACHINE LIFE MAINTENANCE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1075 <p>The usefulness of machine in industries and other areas of life cannot be overemphasized. This work considers the effect of wears and tears of machines as a result of usage and the value of depreciation with their effect on productivity on the long run of an industrial machine. A consideration of machine whose life depends on the rate of depreciation with time and magnitude of usage in production process has been identified to exhibit some functional expression. The life span of a machine with effect from the date of acquisition in conjunction with its capacity at book value is modeled as a geometric sequence a, ar, ,…, ,... . This model is used to demonstrate some managerial decisions to maintain optimal production from machine usage with less break down time. The practical application of these expressions is illustrated and the method proves effective in machine life management. The method also proves helpful in production control for optimal yield for the industry.</p> E. C. Emenonye C. R. Chikwendu Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 6 4 262 265 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1075 EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL OF ONION PEEL COMPOSITE AS AN ADSORBENT FOR THE REMOVAL OF CATIONS IN FISH POND WASTEWATER https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1077 <p>Toxic metals in wastewater when discharge in to the environment can accumulate in vital organs when ingested, and get concentrated through the food chain causing poisonous effects to living organisms. Alumina modified onion peel composite was used in this study as an adsorbent for the removal of lead, nickel, chromium, copper and zinc ions from Fish pond wastewater via adsorption process.&nbsp; Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to examine the effect of adsorbent dosage, pH, adsorbate concentration, and contact time on the adsorption of the cations. The optimum adsorbent dosage was 0.3g, pH was 2, contact time was 60 mins and initial concentration was found to be 10 mg/l. The concentration of metal ions present were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The characterization by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) showed absorbance peaks that correspond to hydroxyl, aldehyde, alkyl, amide and carboxylic acid functional groups. These functional groups helped in enhancing the adsorption of the metal ions. Scanning Electron microscope (SEM) analysis was carried out for the morphological characteristics of the adsorbent, before and after adsorption. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using linear form of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm provided the best fit for the sorption of Zn<sup>2+, </sup>Cu<sup>2+,</sup> Cr<sup>3+</sup> and Pb<sup>2+</sup> ions with the correlation coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) as 0.981, 0.994, 0.9192 and 0.9478 respectively while the Freundlich isotherm had a best fit for the sorption of Ni<sup>2+</sup> with the correlation coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) of 0.9574. The maximum monolayer adsorption (q<sub>m</sub>) for copper was found to be the highest&nbsp;</p> A. O. Aliyu Musa Faiza Kallamu M. D. Faruruwa O. J. Okunola Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-09-18 2022-09-18 6 4 267 273 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1077 NON-FARM LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION AND SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA’S RURAL STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION: A REVIEW https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1018 <p>In the past, rural households’ were generally regarded as farmers, foresters or fisher-folk that participate only marginally in non-farm activities, except when they migrate out of rural areas. Nevertheless, despite the common generalization of the rural populace, especially in the developing world, as subsistence farmers, in certain cases a substantial portion of the income that accrue to rural households’ emanates from the rural non-farm sector. Hence, while agriculture has traditionally played a key role in the economy of developing countries, of late an increasing participation of farm households in the non-farm sector has been reported. Accordingly, one phenomenon that is gaining traction in the rural development parlance is the promotion of, and support for, non-farm livelihood diversification. A pertinent question to ask is whether this rising interest in the rural non-farm sector suggests that structural transformation away from agriculture has been taking place in Sub-Saharan Africa?</p> Magaji B. Lawi Olawamiwa Reuben ADENIYI Raphael OMOLEHIN Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-23 2022-08-23 6 4 95 100 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1018 ORGANOCHLORINE AND ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN GRAINS, VEGETABLES AND FRUITS: A REVIEW https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/1061 <p>Organochlorin and organophosphorus pesticides are broadly applied in agriculture, primarily to boost crop yields and protect crops from pests to reach the needs of a growing global population. This review aims to assess levels of pesticide residues in grains, fruits, and vegetables from already established secondary data from different authors or journals. The data obtained adequately confirmed the presence of concentrations of Organochlorin and organophosphorus residues in vegetables, grains and fruits. Both high and low concentration levels of pesticide residue were documented based on data obtained which showed application of the synthetic pesticides by farmers.&nbsp; The high or minute concentration of synthetic pesticides poses adverse health effect on human. This review suggest that consumers of these type of pesticides contaminated food are liable to contact diseases associated with pesticides. Pesticides have been related to damage to the kidneys, liver, and nervous system, birth defects, cancer, immunodeficiency, reproductive process disruption, and altering or interfering with normal endocrine system function. Thereby, the use of natural pesticides as an alternative to synthetic pesticides for pest control is highly recommended for food security and sustainable environmental practices.</p> Stella Okereafor S. Garba O. J. Okunola H. I. Adamu Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-08-30 2022-08-30 6 4 174 180 10.33003/fjs-2022-0604-1061