FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs <p><strong>The <a href="http://www.fudutsinma.edu.ng" target="_blank" rel="noopener">FUDMA</a> Journal of Sciences (FJS) </strong>is a peer-reviewed publication of original research papers, review articles, technical reports and short communications in all aspects in the fields of science and technology such as Chemistry, Earth and atmospheric sciences, Biology in general, Agriculture, Biochemistry, Botany, Microbiology, Environmental Science,&nbsp; Computer Science, Engineering, Physics, Materials Science, Mechanics, Mathematics, Statistics, Nutrition and Food Science, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Polymer and Textile Sciences, Process Modeling and Computational Analysis, Renewable Energy and waste to resource processes.</p> Faculties of Physical Science and Life Science, Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State - Nigeria en-US FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES 2645-2944 <p>FUDMA Journal of Sciences</p> IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF BACKGROUND RADIATION ON HABITANT AND THE MINING ENVIRONMENT AT LAPAI, AREA NIGER STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/922 <p>The anticipated implication of increase in background radiation levels at mineral exploitation sites and consequence on human and environment suggested investigating the Background Ionization Radiation (BIR) levels at a mining site located at closed to the communities of Lapai LGA of Niger State, Nigeria. An in-situ method of BIR measurement at thirty points within the study area was carried out using portable GQ GMC-320 Plus radiation meter at 1.0 m elevation above ground level with GPS for geographical location. The results indicated peak BIR levels of 0.22 mR/h at some points which is abnormal compared to recommendations by International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) for normal environment, while BIR at some other points it was low-ranging, with lowest at 0.0010 mR/h which is in tandem with ICRP recommendation. The absorbed doses in all the points are far below the world average value. The values for the Annual Effective Dose for the entire site agreed with the permissible limits (1.00 mSv/yr) for the general public by the ICRP for non-occupational population exposure. The study therefore revealed that the BIR levels and the doses for the mineral exploitation site does not yet constitute any negative radiological health effect at this moment on the Artesian Miners and the environs. However, there is possibility of continued increase in the BIR level due to mining activities and so continued monitoring is recommended to avert possible health hazards.</p> Yusuf Tanko Usman S. Bello A. J. Yabagi I. K. Suleiman Y. Ishaq U. M. Salisu Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 1 6 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-922 GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF FEEDING CRUSHED WHOLE COTTONSEED AND BAKER’S YEAST (SACCHROMYCES CEREVISIAE) INCLUSION IN THE RATIONS OF RED SOKOTO BUCKS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/840 <p>The study was conducted to evaluate growth rate and profitability of Red Sokoto bucks fed <em>Sacchromyces cerevisiae</em> inclusion in diets containing varied levels of Crushed Whole Cotton Seed (CWCS). A total of 20 bucks weighing an average of 12 kg±0.25 kg were randomly assigned to five experimental diets formulated to contain 14% crude protein in complete diets at varied levels of 10% CWCS without yeast inclusion and 10, 15, 20 and 25% CWCS with500 g yeast (Y) inclusion across these four (4) treatment groups. Bucks were fed at 3.5% of their body weights throughout the trial period that lasted for 90 days in a completely randomized design. Feed intake was highest at 15% CWCS +Yeast (26.11 kg) inclusion level likewise; Total weight gain (3.25 kg) and Average daily gain (290.13 g). Cost/kg of feed and cost of feeding increased as CWCS inclusion increased. Cost/kg gain (839.94 naira) and value of gain (2275.00 naira) were best at 15% CWCS. Yeast supplementation at 15% crushed whole cotton seed inclusion gave higher values of weight gain, cost per kilogram gain and value of gain of bucks thus yeast supplementation can be encouraged amongst goat farmers feeding whole cottonseed in diets.</p> Laraba Yakubu Salisu Bakura ABdu Owolabi S. Lamidi Hanwa Yusuf Adamu Suleiman Makama Yashim A. Musa Jacob Jafiya Millam Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 7 10 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-840 EFFECT OF GENDER ON FARMERS’ OWNERSHIP, CONTROL AND ACCESSIBILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION RESOURCES IN SOUTHWEST NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/923 <p>The ability to access, control and own adaptation resources is a critical factor in determining rural farmers’ adaptive potential and decision-making towards adaptation to climate change.&nbsp; This study investigated the effect of gender on farmers’ accessibility, control and ownership of climate change adaptation resources in Ogun and Ekiti States respectively, Nigeria. Three hundred and fifty eighty men (358) and (222) women farmers were randomly selected through a multi-stage sampling procedure. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain data and analysed with frequency counts, means, percentages, Chi-square.&nbsp; A positive and statistically significant association (P&lt;0.05)&nbsp; existed between the gender of the respondents and their accessibility to adaptation resources, like hoe (χ<sup>2</sup>= 10.137), wheelbarrow (χ<sup>2</sup>=5.647), digger (χ<sup>2</sup>=11.982), sprayers (χ<sup>2</sup>=11.792), head pan (χ<sup>2</sup>=9.5599), education (χ<sup>2</sup>=22.359), grass plant (χ<sup>2</sup>=9..912), health-care (χ<sup>2</sup>=13.764), pesticides (χ<sup>2</sup>=6.391)&nbsp; inorganic fertilizer (χ<sup>2</sup>=7.876), transportation means (χ<sup>2=</sup>10.897), average annual income (χ<sup>2</sup>= 8.026), labour (χ<sup>2</sup>=12 .557), information (χ<sup>2</sup>=12.557), and medicinal plants (χ<sup>2</sup>=11.296). There existed a positive and statistically significant association (P&lt;0.05) between the gender of the farmers and their control of adaptation resources like digger (χ<sup>2</sup>=14.630), sprayer (χ<sup>2</sup>=6.631), head pan (χ<sup>2</sup>=4.811), education (χ<sup>2</sup>=11.657) transportation (χ<sup>2</sup>=3.364) and average annual income (χ<sup>2</sup>=33.013). Also, there existed a positive and significant association (P&lt;0.05) between the gender of the farmers and their ownership of adaptation resources like land (χ<sup>2</sup>=6.815), water (χ<sup>2-</sup>4.491), health-care (χ<sup>2</sup>= 2.088), labour (χ<sup>2</sup>= 5.992) and sources of information of climate change (χ<sup>2</sup>=3.595).&nbsp; As a result, gender-responsive intervention is necessary to strengthen men and women farmers' climate resilience and improve their adaptation capabilities through access to</p> kehinde Oluwaseye Ogunjinmi Emmanuel Olugbenga Fakoya Tajudeen Oyekunle Amoo Banmeke Oluwakemi Enitan Fapojuwo Anthony Adenkule Ogunjinmi Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 11 17 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-923 PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND PERIPHYTIC ALGAE OF IKOT EBAK RIVER, ESSIEN UDIM LGA, AKWA IBOM STATE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/924 <p>Periphyton constitutes one of the primary sources of energy in the aquatic food chain in streams, rivers and lakes. They play important role in regulating carbon and nutrient cycling. They are also used in many studies as pollution index organisms. A survey of Periphytic algae in Ikot Ebak River was investigated between October 2019 and February 2020. Samples were collected monthly for physicochemical analysis and periphyton studies. Water samples for physical and chemical parameters were collected directly into transparent plastic containers, while periphyton samples were scraped from the surface of leaves, stems, and roots of aquatic macrophytes, dead and felled logs submerged on the banks of rivers, including the rocks embedded in the substratum. The physicochemical parameters such as pH, temperature, conductivity, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS) and dissolved oxygen (DO) showed seasonal patterns and qualitative variations in all the stations. A total of 106 taxa of periphytic algae were identified and grouped into four (4) divisions namely; Chlorophyta (64%), Bacillariophyta (19%), Cyanophyta (8%) and Euglenophyta (9%). There was no significant variation between the algal divisions and across the locations (p &lt; 0.05). The Periphytic green algae compositions were dominated by desmids which play a significanct role in pollution monitoring along the coast of the river. The presence of diatoms (Bacillariophyta) and <em>Euglena </em>serves as an indicator that the river is perturbed with organic materials, also <em>Oscillatoria</em> (Cyanobacteria) denotes nutrient enrichment of the river</p> E. M. Denise Osagie Okhator G. P. Affah M. C. Anyadike Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 18 23 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-924 ASSESSING WATER QUALITY AND THE NON-CARCINOGENIC HEALTH RISKS OF SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER IN IBI – TARABA STATE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/875 <p>The high concentration of chemical and biological contaminants in rural water is known to cause waterborne and water-related diseases. This study provides insights into the quality of surface and groundwater used for consumption and other domestic uses in Ibi environs. It further assesses the association between water quality variables and evaluates the chronic non-carcinogenic health risk using hazard quotient and hazard index. Thirty water samples each from the river and hand-dug wells were collected and the values of 17 variables were measured. The results showed that 58.8% and 35.3% of surface and groundwater failed to conform to national drinking water guidelines. The result for correlation between measured variables indicates both positive and negative correlation between variables across both water sources with pH negatively correlating with turbidity (r = -0.832) and TDS (r = -0.714) while temperature correlated positively with turbidity (r = 0.925), TDS (r = 0.793) and TH (r = 0.847). The results of human health risk show NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> as the most dominant variable in inducing non-carcinogenic health risk in surface water while F<sup>-</sup> was the most inducing variable for groundwater. Based on the THI values, all the water sources showed long-term health risks above the safe limit even though some of the variables were within the national standards. There is therefore the need to address agricultural activities which is likely the major cause of nitrate in drinking water within the study region.</p> Benjamin Ojimma Williams Joshua Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 24 34 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-875 MULTI-CRITERIA OPTIMIZATION FOR KNOWLEDGE EXTENSIONISTS IN INTERNAL KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/866 <p>The demand for high education in an environment of an insufficient number of experts requires efficient knowledge management. The introduction of knowledge extensionists in higher learning institutions remains relevant to bridge the gap created by this imbalance. In this work, we developed a new multi-objective mathematical model for optimizing the knowledge transfer capability of extensionists and knowledge management in higher learning institutions in Nigeria. The Model provides the information needed for a detailed analysis of the design trade-off between conflicting objectives that are most interesting to a decision-maker. The binary Integer MultiObjective Model is a suitable model for a population of potential solutions. The Model focused on practical factors for effective knowledge transfer. Several indices were considered, such as number of task types, number of clusters (groups), number of employees, etc., as the knowledge transfer (KT) assessment factors. Some parameters are adequate to recognize the KT potential in an employee, such as whether task type can be handled by an employee, whether the employee is interested in cooperating with another employee, used the minimum size of the cluster in terms of the number of employees. The concept of “interest to work with each other” is a novel aspect considered in the recommended algorithm. Therefore, for illustration, an intelligent algorithm based on matrix and clustering concepts to evaluate data collected via a questionnaire from Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria was developed. The model is suitable for any given set of data to be applied elsewhere</p> Modu Barma Yakubu Musa Yeldu Saidu Sauta Abdulkadir Mohammed Mijinyawa Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 35 42 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-866 SALT TOLERANCE CAPACITY OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM IRRIGATED SOIL IN KANO, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/872 <h1><a name="_Toc65411976"></a>Abstract</h1> <p>This study characterized and screened NaCl tolerance in some bacterial isolates from irrigated soil of Bagwai, Kano State, Nigeria. The soil used for the study was sampled from Irrigation sites using random sampling method. The physicochemical properties and bacteriological characteristics of the soil sample were determined using culture, morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. The soil pH and electrical conductivity were 7.33 and 8.02 dSm<sup>-1</sup> respectively. The total nitrogen and available phosphorus from the study area were 0.118% and 3.96 mgkg<sup>-1</sup> respectively. The organic carbon recorded a very low content of 0.183%. Moisture content was 080% while temperature was found to be 29<sup>o</sup>C respectively. Bacteria isolated were identified as <em>B subtilis</em>, <em>S rhizophilia</em> and <em>K pneumoniae</em>. Further comfirmation using 16s rRNA sequencing showed the occurrence of <em>Stenotrophomonas rhizophilia</em> SBANHCu 14 (99.55%) and <em>Klebisella pneumoniae</em> GX 14 (98.68%). All the two bacterial isolates were able to tolerate salt concentration up to 20% but optimum tolerance was observed at 5%.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Muhammad Ibrahim and Hassan Abdullahi Kawo A. H. Kawo Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 43 48 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-872 BOUNDARY LAYER ANALYSIS FLOW PAST A POROUS ROTATING DISK WITH DUFOUR AND SORET EFFECTS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/916 <p>Analysis of a boundary layer flow past a porous rotating disk with Dufour and Soret effects are carried out mathematically with the formulated problem presented in its rectangular form. These problems correspond to the continuity, momentum, energy and concentration equations. The formulated equations (PDE) are contracted to a reduced nonlinear coupled equation (ODE) via some variables. The ODEs were solve using the decomposition method and the results obtained agreed with those in the literatures. The physical quantities that occur are presented and varied graphically on the fluid radial, tangential, axial velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. It seens that both ferro hydro dynamic (FHD) interactive parameter and rotational parameter enhances the radial, axial, temperature and concentration while they lead to decrease in tangential velocity of the fluid.</p> Abdulhakeem Yusuf Abdulrahman Bima Nasiru Omeiza Salihu Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 49 57 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-916 THE EFFECTS OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM ON MILK YIELD AND SOME LACTOGENIC HORMONES IN LACTATING WISTAR RATS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/771 <p>Proper and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended during the early infancy stage of a child. Lactation insufficiency serves as a hinderance to this. <em>Gongronema latifolium</em> is an important medicinal plant known for its various therapeutic effects. The lactogenic effects of <em>Gongronema latifolium</em> used locally to boost lactation was investigated. Twenty Wistar dams were grouped into five groups (n=4); consisting of control group (1 ml/kg distilled water), standard drug group (metoclopramide 5 mg/kg), 200 mg /kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg <em>Gongronema latifolium</em> methanolic extract groups. The pups were weighed 18 hours after the administration of Gongronema latifolium orally, to assess milk yield while the serum was gotten from the dams on the ninth day of administration. Toxicity study showed that the plant extract was non-toxic (L<sub>D50</sub> &gt; 5000 mg/kg) when administered orally. The leaf extract significantly increased the serum prolactin (p&lt; 0.05). There was also significant increase in the milk yield in the group administered with <em>Gongronema latifolium</em> group versus the control group (7.28 ± 1.15 g/pup, 7.33 ± 1.08 g/pup and 9.68 ± 0.97 g/pup vs 5.5 ± 1.01 g/pup respectively). These lactogenic effects were also dose- dependent. The leaf extract had no significant effect on the oxytocin serum concentration of the lactating Wistar rats. The lactogenic effect <em>Gongronema latifolium</em> may be ascribed to the presence of phytochemicals such as Saponins (e.g., diosgenin, kaempferol, quercetin and silybin) that have phytoestrogenic effects that could promote milk synthesis, secretory differentiation and mammary epithelial cells proliferations.</p> Grace Ogbonna Rabiu Magaji Sherif Isa Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 58 62 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-771 EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER SUITABILITY FOR IRRIGATION PURPOSE USING GIS AND IRRIGATION WATER QUALITY INDICES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/925 <p>As a major source of water for irrigation, the evaluation and assessment of groundwater to ensure it meets the quality for sustainable agriculture is key. This research presents the findings of the quality of groundwater and its suitability for irrigation purposes. This was carried out using the irrigation water quality indices and the Geographic Information System (GIS). The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method of the GIS was used to study the spatial distribution of these indices. Indices considered include Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Percentage Sodium (%Na), Permeability Index (PI), Kelly Ratio (KR), Magnesium Hazard (MH), Total Hardness (TH), Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC) and Potential Salinity (PS). The values obtained were SAR (0.00 to 10.99, mean of 3.43), Percentage Sodium (26.00% to 94.42%, mean of 70.33%), Permeability Index (94.14% to 379.47%, mean of 161.45%), Kelly Ratio (0.00 to 8.62, mean of 3.19) and Magnesium Hazard (0.00% to 80.33 %, mean of 39.21%). Total Hardness (12.49 mg/L to 77.50 mg/L, mean of 31.35 mg/L), Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (-0.55 meq/L to 5.46 meq/L, mean of 1.41 meq/L), Potential Salinity (0.88 meq/L to 2.53 meq/L, mean of 1.69 meq/L) and Electrical Conductivity (110<em>µS/cm</em> to 910<em>µS/cm</em>, mean of 277.14<em>µS/cm)</em>. The computed water indices when compared with known standards show that the groundwater from the study area is generally fit and can be applied for irrigation purposes.</p> Terlumun Adagba Aliyu Ibrahim Kankara Musa Ado Idris Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 63 80 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-925 QUALITY ASSESSMENT FOR SOME SACHET WATER PRODUCED IN ENUGU METROPOLIS, ENUGU–NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/926 <p>This study investigated the quality of some sachet water brands produced in Enugu metropolis for drinking purpose. Five different brands of sachet water were collected from their production plant and their physical, chemical and bacteriological qualities were examined. The results obtained for physical parameters showed that turbidity was 0 NTU; total dissolved solid was between 86.19 – 140.12 mg/L; total suspended solid, 0 mg/L; total solid 86.19 - 140.12 mg/L; electrical conductivity, 60.80 – 150.30 ms/cm<sup>3</sup>; total hardness, 0 mg/L; pH, 6.90 – 7.00 and alkalinity 50 mg/L. The result of the physical and chemical parameters conformed to the standards established by World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigeria standard for drinking water quality (NSDWQ). Similarly, biological contamination was absence in all the tested water samples. Thus, the examined sachet water brands were considered safe for consumption</p> UCHE CHIWETALU Agatha Chidinma Nebechukwu Onyinye Henrietta Attah Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 81 87 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-926 WARTHOG-HUMAN CONFLICTS IN BORGU SECTOR OF KAINJI LAKE NATIONAL PARK, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/927 <p>This study assessed the impacts of common Warthogs (<em>Phacochoerus africanus</em>) on farm crops around Borgu sector of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria. Data was obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire in six communities which were purposively selected (Woro, Kemenji, Worumakoto, Maji, Venira and Kanikoko) and questionnaire was randomly administered to the identified farmers.&nbsp; The sample size was put at one hundred and twenty (120) respondents, of which eighty one (81) questionnaires were retrieved. The demographic characteristics of the respondents indicated that age group 31-40 years recorded the highest (39.5%). The finding further revealed that 64.2% of the respondents are Muslim and 65.4% are married. Also majority of the respondents (53.1%) had stay in the study area between 6-10 years. Majority of the respondents agrees that there is presence of Warthog around their farms. The types of crops cultivated by the respondents are Maize, Guinea corn, Rice etc. Majority of the respondents indicated that they have experience crop raiding by Warthog. Types of crops preferred by Common Warthogs showed that Maize is the most preferred. The season of intense crops raiding is the raining season. The various preventive method used by the respondents to prevent Warthogs crop raiding are watch guarding, scare crow and fire/smoke. The possible solution as suggested on how to prevent Warthog-farmers conflicts are compensation and employment. This study confirms that Warthog has an impact of farm lands in the study area by causing much damage on farmer’s crops.</p> A. J. Adeola O. A. Akande J. O. Onihunwa A. Sulyman O. A. Adeniji P. O. Alaifa Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 88 95 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-927 BREED EFFECT ON MILK AMINO ACIDS PROFILE OF SELECTED INDIGENOUS BREEDS OF CATTLE IN NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/886 <p>Milk from the indigenous breeds in Nigeria is the most consumed by the populace. The certainty of the quality of the milk produced from this traditional pastoralists in Nigeria are unknown to most consumers. This work aimed at investigating the differences caused by breeds on the amino acid constituents of the milk of four breeds of cattle (Red Bororo, Adamawa Gudali, White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali) in Mubi. A total of eighty (80) milk samples (20 each per breed) were collected and analyzed for amino acids profile. The result indicated a significant(P&lt;0.05) effect of breed on means of Lysine, Methionine, Isoleucine, phenylalanine, Valine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Aspartic acid&nbsp; and Glutamic acid while Threonine, Leucine, Histidine, Arginine, Serine, Cysteine, Alamine, Glycine and Proline were not significantly (P&gt;0.05) affected by the breed. White Fulani recorded the highest in Glutamic acid, Red Bororo recorded the highest in Isoleucine), Valine, Tryptophan while Adamawa Gudali had the highest in Phenylalanine. Principal component (PC) 1 and 2 in each of the breeds accounted for over 90% percent cumulative variance suggesting that most of the amino acids in the milk of cows studied are varied within PC1 and PC2. There is no significant (p&gt;0.05; r = -0.10 – 0.22) correlation between lysine with threonine, phenylalanine and serin and glutamic acid; valine with aspartic acid; threonine with valine and glutamic acid but a perfect correlation (p&lt;0.001: r = 1.00) exist between tryptophan with isoleucine; histidine with glycine and valine with cysteine. It is therefore concluded</p> Hassan Abbaya, Yohanna mamiso, B Jechoniah A. Dauda J. Adamu N. G. Dubagari Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 96 102 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-886 INVESTIGATING THE PROTECTIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SHIELDING PARAMETERS FOR DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY ROOMS IN SOME SELECTED HOSPITALS IN AGBOR METROPOLIS - DELTA STATE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/914 <p>Over exposure to x-rays is capable of producing serious health hazards and capable of causing death due to its ionizing nature. In the determination of effective primary and secondary shielding parameters of some hospitals in Agbor, a radiation detector, Geiger Muller Counter 320 plus was used for the measurement of radiation in the selected x-ray centers chosen in other to ascertain the degree of exposure of x-ray machines at exactly 1m from the primary source. The work was carried out for a period of 12 weeks in each of the selected hospitals simultaneously. A total of 145 patients were examined in central hospital Agbor, 110 in central hospital Abavo and 125 in Nkonye hospital Agbor. The patient’s examination records containing types of examination each day, peak tube voltage, tube current and exposure time including the actual number of films used were obtained. Results obtained from the three hospitals investigated were found to be inconformity with the recommendations of National Commission on Radiological and Protection (NCRP) (70) and (116) protocols. Protective shielding parameters’ results obtained in this study were lower than the standard recommended maximum values. The study showed that the walls of the x-ray rooms of these hospitals investigated have adequate shielding parameters and as such may not require any additional primary structural shielding barriers. It is therefore concluded that the X-ray shielding facilities for diagnostic x-ray rooms in the selected hospitals in Agbor metropolis were adequate and safe radiologically for patients and staff respectively.</p> KENNETH ESEKA COLLINS MOLUA Anthony Ossai Ukpene Anthony Egheneji Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 6 2 116 119 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-914 EVALUATING THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF INTERNAL DISPLACEMENT OF PERSONS IN KADUNA STATE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/929 <p>The constraints faced by IDPs were many ranging from inadequate housing, poor medical health care, hazardous work, vulnerability of women and children to trafficking and sexual exploitation, discrimination based on ethnicity, religion, class or gender as well as break in social relations. The aim of the study was to assess the nature of internal displacement in terms of causes and consequences of the internally displaced persons in Kaduna State. The sample population was drawn from the three senatorial zones. Purposive/availability sampling was used in selecting the settlements. The results had shown movement of internally displaced persons (IDPs) from one local government to another and from neighboring states into the study area. The study also revealed that the level of integration between the IDPs and the host communities is higher in rural areas as a result of the small size of the settlements which allows easier cohesion between the communities. The study recommended for public awareness on the large number of IDPs presence in the society and the need to empower them. The virtue of tolerance and forgiveness should be encouraged among the people to strengthen mutual co-existence in the society.</p> Aliyu H. Ibrahim Nura Alhaji Yaro Murjanatu Yahaya Ibrahim Yusuf Adama Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 120 126 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-929 ANALYSING THE PATTERN AND URBAN PLANNING IMPLICATIONS OF SPRAWL ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN KADUNA METROPOLIS - NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/930 <p>Various studies have highlighted different urban problems that have affected the quality of life of the urban dwellers in both developed and developing nations due to rapid socio - economic changes and increase in population. The aim of this study is to assess the perceived indicators of quality of life, so as to evolve strategy of upgrading the decayed urban communities. The multistage sampling method was adopted as a sampling technique. The following settlement were selected for the study, Down Quarters, Kurmin Gwari and Badarawa-Kwaru because of its slum like settlement. A total of 406 household’s heads/members were served with questionnaires, while 380 were returned and properly filled. Twelve (12) key informants were also interviewed in all the selected communities. The results show that more than three quarter of respondents get their water from hand dug well (M= 4.2151), and a little less than one quarter admitted to get water from Pipe borne, boreholes (M= 1.4272) and other sources. The study concluded that due to high population concentration of people, government could not provide the necessary amenities and services required by the teeming population therefore, the available ones were over stretched and became dilapidated and decay set in. The study recommends that the government of Kaduna state should embark on urban renewal which will prevent decay, clear areas bad areas, upgrade building, facilities and expand metropolis roads.</p> Aliyu H. Ibrahim Wisdom Chibuzor Odunze Ndamadu Musa Farouk Abubakar Adamu Liman Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 127 137 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-930 MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CARDIAC TISSUE MEMBRANE MODELS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/931 <p>This paper presents some cardiac electrophysiological models. Proper mathematical analysis was done on the proposed models. In the cause of the analysis, several assumptions were made which helped in providing a parallel platform for making qualitative solutions so as to reduce any form of bias. Graphical analysis was adopted in solving the cardiac electrophysiological models using conservation and dispersions equations. The results obtained were derived from computer simulation by observing ring lengths on a valid restitution curve. The restitution curves helps us to subject three different turns of ring lengths and certain observations were made on the behavior of the three ring lengths. An increase in ring length will cause a corresponding increase in blood circulation and vice versa. It was suggested that 2D or 3D computer simulation should be adopted for better performance and yield of the models</p> U. H. Ojimadu A. O. Oluwole A. O. Olasupo M. A. Usman T. J. Odule O. O. Olubanwo O. Oyewole M. A. Ayodele Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 138 143 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-931 ADSORPTION AND ANTICORROSION PROPERTIES OF MILD-STEEL TREATED 2-[(3-HYDROXYLPYRIDIN-2-YL) AMINO]NAPHTHALENE-1,4-DIONE SCHIFF BASE IN 1M-HCL SOLUTION: SYNTHESIS, EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/718 <p>The title Schiff base LH obtained by the reflux condensation of 2-hydroxy-1,4-napthoquinone and 2-amino-3-hydroxypyridine has been characterized via conventional procedures. Adsorption and corrosion inhibition potentials of LH were examined by considering its inhibitory efficiency on mild steel in 1M HCl via weight loss assessment, scanning electron microscopy and density functional theory. Analytical and spectroscopic methods corroborate the bidendate ketoimine-tautomeric assemblage of LH and its stability at ambient temperature. The weight loss measurement was performed at mixt temperatures of 303-343 K and inhibitor concentrations of 1x10<sup>-5 </sup>M- 9x10<sup>-5 </sup>M with immersion period of 5 h. Higher efficiency of 94.6% was attained with an inhibitor concentration of 9x10<sup>-5 </sup>M at 303 K. The adsorption of LH on mild steel (ms) was found to conform with Langmuir absorption isotherm model, while free energy of adsorption showed a spontaneous physiosorption. The computed activation energy (E<sub>a</sub>) along other thermodynamic parameters (ΔS and ΔH) was consistent with the latter. The SEM results revealed that the ms superficial was smooth with the inhibitor compared to the ms superficial without the inhibitor indicating inhibition of corrosion of the ms by establishing a layer of protection on the surface. The density functional theory result was in agreement with experimental results.</p> Nnenna Odozi Chioma Festus Keerabana Sorbari Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 144 155 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-718 SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM DETECTION AND SEQUENCE CHARACTERIZATION OF BETA CASEIN GENE IN BUNAJI AND FRIESIAN-BUNAJI CROSSBRED COW https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/917 <p>Milk is an important food constituent in diet. This study was undertaken to detect the presence of SNP in βcasein gene of Bunaji and Friesian X Bunaji crossbred cows using sequencing. 60 animal comprising of 30 Bunaji and 30 friesian X Bunaji cows were understudy.&nbsp; DNA was extracted from 200 μl of the blood using high salt method. The electrophoresis revealed molecular DNA with a single band. The exon 7 of βcasein gene was amplified by PCR using published primer. 20 amplicon were sent for sequencing, 10 each for Bunaji and Friesian X Bunaji crossbred. The DNA sequence of exon 7 of beta casein gene were aligned using the MAFFT online sequence alignment tools. The results revealed, 6 polymorphic sites at exon 7 beta casein gene. The SNP were at positions; 221, 350, 381, 387, 510, 387 and 516. Four of the SNPs were nonsynonymous in nature while 2 were synonymous. A nucleotide substitution from C→A was observed in Bunaji and its crossbred counterpart resulted in substitution of amino acid proline → histidine; and C→G substitution resulting in a Serine → Arginine substitution implying that Bunaji and Friesian X Bunaji had the preponderance of A2, A1 and B variant, resulting in potentials release of bioactive peptide upon digestion of A1 and B variant. SNPs discovered in this study can be used as molecular genetic markers for marker assisted selection (MAS) to increase the rate of genetic improvement of milk production traits in Bunaji and Friesian Bunaji crossbred cows</p> Nkpusireufu Gambo Dubagari B. I. Mwagu O. A. Ojo Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 156 159 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-917 INFLUENCE OF MEAT TYPE ON PROCESSED MEAT (KILISHI) QUALITY https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/904 <p>Meat is a good source of quality protein but undergoes rapid deterioration due to physical, chemical and microbial influence. Hence, the need to develop a nutrient-dense product like kilishi with significant storage stability, increased cost efficiency, increased variety and promote food security. Kilishi was produced from different meat sources; beef (KB), chicken (KC), chevon (KV) and mutton (KM) and was assessed for proximate, physicochemical, mineral compositions, microbial quality and sensory properties using standard methods. The result showed proximate composition to range from 8.97 to 11.34%, 3.94 to 6.31%, 16.21 to 27.31%, 21.38 to 23.12% and 37.43 to 45.90% for moisture, ash, fat, protein and carbohydrate contents. Physicochemical properties ranged from&nbsp; 0.08 to 0.18 meg O<sub>2</sub>/kg for peroxide value, 0.06 - 0.41&nbsp;TBARS/g for thiobarbituric acid value, 6.91 to7.54 for colour, 6.65 to 7.30 for pH and 61.25 to 69.40 mg/ml for solubility. Mineral composition showed that mutton meat kilishi (KM) had higher calcium (51.14 mg/100 g), magnesium (40.04 mg/100 g) and sodium (132.75 mg/100 g) contents while beef kilishi (KB) had the highest iron (8.24 mg/100 g) contents. Microbiologically, the kilishi samples were fit and safe for consumption. The organoleptic study revealed consumers’ preference for beef samples. Kilishi production improved the nutrient density, stability and safety of meat from their respective meat sources, and will serve as a viable means of meat storage in low-income countries.</p> Uzochukwu Onwuzuruike Joel Ndife Innocent Okwunodulu Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 160 168 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-904 ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF DIARRHEAGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI (DEC) AMONG CHILDREN ATTENDING SOME SELECTED HOSPITALS WITHIN KADUNA METROPOLIS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/936 <p>Diarrhoea has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality, ranked the second cause of death in children aged 0 to 5 years. Bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths have all been implicated in diarrhoea, however rotavirus and diarrhoeagenic <em>E. coli</em> (DEC) are the most common cause. This study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of diarrheagenic <em>Escherichia coli</em> isolated from children 0-5 years attending selected hospitals in Kaduna metropolis. A total of 264 stool samples were collected from children attending four selected hospitals in Kaduna metropolis. Standard culture procedures and molecular techniques such as PCR and 16s rRNA were employed in isolation and characterization of diarrhoeagenic <em>E. coli</em> from the stool samples. The study established a prevalence of 24.2% for diarrheagenic <em>Escherichia coli</em>, and all the isolates demonstrated multiple antimicrobial resistance index (MARI) of 0.5 and above, and showed significant resistance against augmentin (100%), amoxacillin (100%), ampicillin-cloxacillin (ampiclox) (100%), erythromycin (100%), gentamycin (100%), cefoxitin (100%), cefuroxime (95%), ceftriazone (95%) and ceftaxidime (85%). The least (60%) resistance was observed against imipenem. The study concluded that antibiotics have not been very effective in the treatment of <em>E. coli</em>-related diarrhoea. The study, therefore, recommends the implementation of programmes geared towards good hygiene, good nutrition and good health</p> A. I. Alhaji Gospel Lelegha Mulade G. A. Ajibade Okoro Innocent Benjamin Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 6 2 169 174 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-936 MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF COHESIVE ENERGIES AND ITS CORRESPONDING LATTICE PARAMETER OF SOME NANOCRYSTALS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/937 <p>Bulk solids have a microstructure that differs significantly from nanoscale materials. In modern era, new devices are always produced at nano-scale level and existing ones are quantized to fit the global demand. To achieve this, there is a need to understand the behaviour of materials at atomic level. As a result, examining the properties of nanoparticles can help in understanding the nature of small-scale material behavior. The cohesive energy and lattice constant are essential physical quantities that can be used to predict other material properties. In this research, the equilibrium cohesive energies and its corresponding lattice constants of three nanosized crystals (Al, Cu and Ni), were investigated using molecular dynamics simulation method with a semi-empirical embedded atom model (EAM) potential function. The simulated results reveal that the three nanocrystals’ lattice constant match the experimental data. Besides, Al, Cu and Ni have cohesive energies of -3.40 eV, -3.55 eV, -4.44 eV respectively. Cu’s cohesive energy differs from experimental data unlike Al and Ni. The findings in the current research are in good agreement with those obtained utilizing the First principle calculation method.</p> Yusuf Tajuddeen Batsari Isaiah Eze Igwe Ahmed Hamisu Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 6 2 175 179 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-937 CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIOACTIVITY FROM PRIMORDIAL RADIONUCLIDES IN THE SOIL OF IKA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/913 <p>This study presents the characterization of the soil in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State. It presents radiometric (<sup>40</sup>K, <sup>238</sup>U and <sup>232</sup>Th) survey of soil samples collected from some selected towns in Ika South Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria using gamma-ray&nbsp; [NaI(TI)] spectroscopy.Twenty five representative soil samples from five communities (five soil samples each per community) were collected for the study. The average activity concentration of <sup>40</sup>K, <sup>238</sup>U and <sup>232</sup>Th in soil samples from the selected communities was 510.87 ± 3.068 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup>, 31.092±2.638 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup> and 64.662 ± 2.842 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup> respectively. By comparing the obtained average result of soil samples of <sup>40</sup>K, <sup>238</sup>U and <sup>232</sup>Th with UNSCEAR standard, it was observed that the obtained average results of&nbsp; <sup>40</sup>K and <sup>232</sup>Th exceeded the standard value limit of 400 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup> and 30 Bqkg<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp; respectively while <sup>238</sup>U was less than the standard value limit of 35 Bq/kg<sup>-1</sup>. The calculated radiological hazard values were lower than the world allowable average standard, except for the annual gonadal dose equivalent and the excess lifetime cancer risk which were above than the world recommended average standard value of 300 mSv/yr and 0.29 x10<sup>-3</sup>Sv/yr standard in some communities. However, contactwith the soils in these communities will not pose much health hazard problem to man and the environment</p> KENNETH ESEKA Chukwuka MOKOBIA COLLINS MOLUA Anthony Ossai Ukpene Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 6 2 180 184 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-913 ASSESSMENT OF FOOD SECURITY AND DIETARY DIVERSITY OF FONIO (Digitaria spp.) FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/938 <p>The study assessed the food security and dietary diversity among Fonio farming households in Jos-South LGA, Plateau state, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 157respondents for the study. Primary data was used for this study through the administration of a well-structured questionnaire aided by interview schedule. The analytical techniques used include descriptive statistics, USDA Food Security model, Dietary Diversity score and Logit Regression model.&nbsp; The results of the socioeconomic characteristics; age, marital status, household size, education, farming experience, farm size, membership of cooperative societies, access to credit and access to extension services were identified and described. The result of household food dietary diversity indicates that 64% of the respondents’ households had high food dietary diversity while 36% accounted for low household food dietary diversity. The result further indicates that 14% of the households consumed cereals, followed by legumes (14.49%), milk had 1.75%, and eggs had 2.47%. Oil/fats, Meats, Vegetables and Roots and Tubers accounted for 13.13%, 9.99%, 7.66% and 6.59% of the respondents’ households respectively. The result of logit regression indicated that the coefficients of age, household size, farm size, cooperative membership, and access to credit were significant. The study recommend that government should make credit accessible through the anchor borrower’s scheme, inputs heavily subsidized easily through the anchor borrower’s scheme and there should be education of farming households on different classes of food for healthy living through the National Orientation Agency</p> Solomon Folorunso F. M. Makwin Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 6 2 185 194 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-938 AIR POLLUTION ASSESSMENT OF BOKO HARAM AFFECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF ADAMAWA STATE, NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/939 <p>This study is aimed at assessing the ambient air quality of Local Government Areas affected by Boko Haram insurgency. The study was conducted in both the rainy and dry seasons. Gasman portable gas monitor was used for the monitoring of CO, NO<sub>2</sub>, SO<sub>2</sub>, H<sub>2</sub>S, and Cl<sub>2. </sub>CO and H<sub>2</sub>S were found to be within acceptable limits set by FEPA (10.00 ppm and 8.00 ppm) respectively in both seasons in all locations except Hong LGA, where CO was 11.11 ppm. NO<sub>2</sub>, SO<sub>2</sub> and Cl<sub>2</sub> were all above acceptable limits of 0.06 ppm, 0.1 ppm and 0.01 ppm respectively. The Air Pollution Index rating indicated that all the locationswere severely contaminated, except for Michika, Madagali and the control locations which were below 100 in the rainy season. The rainy season concentrations of these pollutants are lower than the dry season due to dissolution of the pollutants by the rains. The result of the pollution level is very poor and is a threat to the health of the populace. Thus this research recommends appropriate measures to be taken to enhance a safe environment for the people in these locations for healthy human living</p> B. L. Penuel N. O. Maitera H. M. Maina M. E. Khan Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 6 2 195 199 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-939 EFFECTS OF NPK FERTILIZER AND SPACING ON THE GROWTH PARAMETERS OF OKRO (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/953 <p>Field trials were conducted during rainy seasons in 2018 and 2019&nbsp;&nbsp; at Federal, University Dutse Teaching and Research Farm in the Northern Sudan Savanna ecological zone of Nigeria. To evaluate effect of NPK fertilizer and spacing on the growth and yield of okro. The experiment consists of three levels of NPK fertilizer (30, 60 and 120 kg/ha) and three spacing (10, 15 and 20 cm). The treatments combination was laid out in randomized complete block design replicated three times. The results revealed that significant effect of NPK fertilizer on plant height, number of branches, more number of primary branches plant fruit length and number of pod per plant. The various spacing resulted in significant taller plant, more number of leaves, longer length of fruit and higher number of seed per pod. In conclusion, application of 120 kg/ha and spacing at 20 cm gave the best result.</p> O. Danmaigoro A. S. Bilyaminu T. Abduljalal M. M. Umar Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-11 2022-06-11 6 2 200 202 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-953 SERPENT CODE POINT KINETIC PARAMETERS ANALYSIS: A NEXUS FOR NIGERIA RESEARCH REACTOR – 1 CORE CONVERSION USING ENRICHED URANIUM DIOXIDE FUEL https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/954 <p>The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requires that all test and research reactors operating on Higher Enriched Uranium (HEU) should be converted to Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) for safety and security purposes. Nigeria having a Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) has been long interested in fuel technological research not just to develop the area but also to meet with resolution on the nuclear treaty set out by the global nuclear regulatory body. In this study, reactor kinetic parameters such as effective delayed neutron fractions, prompt neutron lifetime as well as mean neutron generation time were analysed for Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1). Serpent Monte Carlo code 1.17 is used in the analysis. For delayed neutron parameters determination, we used fission probability iteration under one averaged generation time and neutron population rate.The calculated values for delayed neutron were recorded as analogue prompt and implicit prompt neutron lifetime, reproduction time and emission time are in the order of 3×10<sup>-7</sup> (s), in agreement with the calculated data from the nuclear data libraries and some literature.The result for delay neutron fraction and other time-based parameters support the fuel core conversion for NIRR-1.The computational and pictorial results obtained from Serpent code simulation described well the transient behavior of the delayed neutron in this reactor.The analytical results also spelled out the relevance and compatibility of low enriched uranium dioxide fuel over higher enriched type.The result of this study conforms with other results obtained from similar reactors but with different Monte Carlo codes and with higher enriched uranium</p> Aliyu Umar Abubakar Aminu Ismaila Yamusa Abdullahi Yamusa Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-11 2022-06-11 6 2 203 207 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-954 NICKEL ADSORPTION ONTO SWEET DATTOCK SHELL: STATISTICAL ERROR FUNCTION MODELS AS PARAMETRIC ISOTHERM PREDICTORS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/962 <p>The speedy increase in the pollution of water bodies due to heavy metals discharged from tannery effluents is becoming a serious issue, calling for important measures to be taken to order to curtail water contamination. In this study, a low-cost adsorbent was prepared by carbonizing sweet dattock shell (Sd) for the removal of nickel (Ni) from tannery effluent. The two (Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin) and three (Redlich Peterson, Sips, Toths) parameter isotherm models were used to fit the equilibrium data using linear regression methods by applying error functions in determine the best adsorption isotherm model. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were used to characterize the adsorbents. Sips and Langmuir were the best-fitted isotherm models for the process based on error functions. Chi-square error function predicted well for two-and three-parameter isotherm study having the lowest errors values. The FTIR showed a shift functional groups present at certain vibrations. The SEM affirmed irregular surface texture for the Sd with pore openings and whitish spots on the adsorbent. Also, Sd shell adsorption capacity proved efficient as an adsorbent for Ni removal from tannery effluents.</p> SALISU ALIYU ALSAS Zaharaddeen N. Garba M. S. Sallau Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 6 2 208 220 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-962 TIGERNUT: A NUTRIENT-RICH UNDERUTILIZED CROP WITH MANY POTENTIALS https://fjs.fudutsinma.edu.ng/index.php/fjs/article/view/928 <p>There is a need to explore the nutritional and medicinal potentials of underutilized crops such as tigernut. Most conventional foods that are rich and balanced are scarce and expensive, and cannot be afforded by consumers in developing countries. Promoting tigernut consumption will play an imperative role in the health, nutrition, and economy of many developing countries. This review was intended to provide an overview on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of various tigernut products. Also to provide information on the effects of various processing operations on the nutritional and functional properties of various tigernut products. Tigernut is rich in essential nutrients, numerous bioactive compounds with proven health benefits were found in all tigernut cultivars. Genetic variations, environmental and growing conditions make the yellow, brown, and black cultivars of tigernut to have different physicochemical, phytochemicals and functional properties. Tigernut and its products are recommended in the production of bakery goods and complementary foods. Tigernut extracts are potential candidates for the production of nutraceutical diets and drugs. Compounds with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-obesity, antimicrobial and antiseptic properties were found in tigernut. The oil can be used in cooking and frying, the oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols, and tocopherols. The fatty acids composition of the oil is affected by the extraction methods. In addition to industrial applications, wastes and by-products from tigernut processing can also be used as food and feed ingredients.</p> N. Abdullahi Mamudu Halidu Badau Nasiru Bilkisu Umar ALkasim Kabiru Yunusa Abdulrashid Rilwan Hassana Jibril Raliya Iliyasu Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 6 2 103 115 10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-928