FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES 2021-09-21T12:04:46+00:00 FUDMA Journal of Sciences Open Journal Systems <p><strong>The <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">FUDMA</a> Journal of Sciences (FJS) </strong>is a peer-reviewed publication of original research papers, review articles, technical reports and short communications in all aspects in the fields of science and technology such as Chemistry, Earth and atmospheric sciences, Biology in general, Agriculture, Biochemistry, Botany, Microbiology, Environmental Science,&nbsp; Computer Science, Engineering, Physics, Materials Science, Mechanics, Mathematics, Statistics, Nutrition and Food Science, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Polymer and Textile Sciences, Process Modeling and Computational Analysis, Renewable Energy and waste to resource processes.</p> ESTIMATION OF INTERIOR TEMPERATURE OF AN ELECTRIC OVEN 2021-06-21T10:53:48+00:00 Peter Ogwola Muhammad Bello Sullayman <p>This paper is aimed at estimating interior temperature of an electric oven with respect to the jacket temperature. A discrete dynamic model of first order difference equation is described for the system. Kalman filtering technique is applied to the discrete dynamic model for estimation of the interior temperature. A computer program is written to simulate the system. It was observed that the estimates of the interior temperatures are directly proportional to estimates of the Jacket temperatures with proportionality constant of 0.0009. With this method it is therefore possible to obtain the interior temperature of the electric oven at any given time.</p> 2021-06-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) ANTI-MALARIAL EFFECTS OF FIVE TRADITIONAL NIGERIAN MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON PLASMODIUM BERGHEI-INFECTED RATS 2021-07-17T15:37:29+00:00 Ugochukwu Vincent Igbokwe EJIKE DANIEL Eze Moses Dele Adams Karimah Mohammed Rabiu Iliya Ezekiel Prisca Ojochogu Ajeka Peace Ogechukwu Okpara <p>This work focusses on comparative determination of the effects of plant extracts: bitter leaf (BL), sour lime (SL), grape (G), pawpaw (PP) and unripe pineapple (UPA) in female rats induced into malaria with <em>Plasmodium</em> <em>berghei</em>. Thirty female rats weighing 120-160 g were allotted into five groups (n=6). Group A (negative control) were infected but not treated. Animals in Groups B–E which were infected were given 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) of malanter DS (reference antimalarial drug), 500 mg/kg BW of BL, 250 mg/kg BW each of SL and BL as well as 250 mg/kg BW each of G, PP and UPA. Treatment was done orally once daily for 14 days after which a few related analyses were carried out. Before treatment, parasitemia count of animals in groups B-E was substantially (p&lt;0.05) higher when juxtaposed with group A. AST and ALT activities was substantively (p&lt;0.05) elevated in group B-E when matched with group A. <em>Plasmodium berghei</em> induction notably (p&lt;0.05) lowered white blood cell (WBC) and monocyte (Mono) levels at all groups. After 7 days of treatment, the extracts and drug which appreciably (p&lt;0.05) lowered plasmodium count, RBC, WBC, PCV, Hb, Plat, Lymph, Mono, Granul levels did not meaningfully (p&gt;0.05) affect the activities of ALP, AST and ALT. After 14 days of treatment, the extracts and drug exceptionally (p&lt;0.05) reduced plasmodium count, WBC and ALP activity at all groups. These results give suggestive evidence that the plant extracts either singly or combined, could be a promising anti-plasmodial candidate.</p> 2021-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES A COMPREHENSIVE DATA ANALYSIS ON FUDMA ASUU WHATSAPP GROUP CHAT 2021-07-01T11:08:54+00:00 Abubakar Ahmad Abdulhafiz A. Nuhu Abdulkadir Abubakar <p>WhatsApp is an instant messaging application for information exchange in real time. It is a medium for communication and interaction among individuals, groups, institutions and business partners. Enormous amount of information is generated by WhatsApp in velocity, volume and variety which can serves as a source for various analyses, prediction and for other purposes. In this paper, dataset was collected from WhatsApp Group Chat, FUDMA ASUU MATTERS (FAM), a chat group of lecturers from Academic Staff Union of University (ASUU), Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina state Nigeria. The primary goal is to present detailed analysis of the WhatsApp group chat to ascertain the level of involvement and participation by members in the group. Detailed analysis of fact such as the number of messages sent in different format, the most active date and time as well as the most active user(s) is to be investigated. Text classification method with Python and Jupyter notebook was used. The Python libraries applied include, Numpy, Pandas, Matplotlib and Seaborn. The result has shown that the level of participation of members compared to top ten members is by far uneven as only the top ten members accounted for more than half of the cumulative messages sent over a period of fourteen months. The research encourages members to be actively involved instead of allowing few members to dominate the platform. It is better to be an active contributor rather than remaining as a passive onlooker</p> 2021-07-01T09:25:21+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES INVESTIGATIONS OF PEOPLE PERCEPTION ON DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY SITUATIONS IN KANO METROPOLIS NORTHWESTERN, NIGERIA 2021-06-21T10:51:33+00:00 Aminu Hamisu Auwal Nura Isyaku Bello Abdulkadir Bello Alabira S. Kabiru A. Muhammed M. Jaafar <p>The problem of portable water supply has become an issue of global concerned as governments all over the world are trying to make house-holds water accessible to all as easier as possible to meet the challenges for sustainable development goals. This research has been conducted to determine the people’s perception on domestic water supply situation in Kano metropolis, Northwestern Nigeria. A self-designed questionnaire developed and distributed to the subjects using stratified sampling technique, and the data obtained has been presented in frequency and percentage. The results obtained revealed that, there is a scarcity of portable water supply to households in Kano metropolis. The problem emanated from lack of pipe-borne water which necessitated the dependence of the house-holds water supply on vendors that obtained water from boreholes and some hand-dug wells lacking proper hygienic practices. More so, the respondents were willing to pay for pipe borne water delivery, yet, they depend on vendors as their major water suppliers as alternatives. The unhygienic practices of the vendors and water sources posed threat to public health concerned.</p> 2021-06-21T06:33:20+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EXPOSURE AND CONSEQUENCES OF NOISE POLLUTION AMONG RESIDENTS OF BICHI TOWN, KANO STATE, NIGERIA 2021-06-21T10:52:17+00:00 Muktar A. Gadanya Imrana A. Buhari <p>Environmental pollution is the most important public health problem densely in populated areas in the developing countries and often the underlying cause of many diseases of public health importance. Noise pollution is an undesirable sound that interferes with wellbeing in the environment with significant effects. With the current rapid growth and technological advancement, noise pollution is increasingly becoming environmental menace that deserves appropriate attention in order to mitigate its health effects. This paper aims to determine the sources, awareness and health effects of noise pollution in a typical Nigerian sub-urban population. Descriptive cross-sectional study using interviewer administered questionnaire and measurement of environmental noise using acoustic metre. Majority of the respondents (75.8%) were exposed to noise levels above the 55dB WHO safe noise level without health effects. Power generators, automobiles and grinding machines are the commonest sources of noise pollution in the studied environment amounted to a value of 55.8%, 40% and 35.8% respectively and to a lesser extent hawker (16.4%) and loudspeaker (9.6%) among others. Sleep disturbance, headache, and poor concentration were commonly reported effects of noise in the environment with magnitudes of 52.7%, 50.9%, 15.8% respectively. Anxiety (12.1%) and hearing disturbances (11.5%) were also common. Noise pollution associated health problems are common in the community with significant effects on the quality of life of the inhabitants. Stable power supply, effective legislation and improvement in living condition of the people are key to minimize noise pollution and avert its deleterious health effects.</p> 2021-06-20T21:49:03+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES CANDIDA DIAGNOSTIC PLATFORMS: ESSENTIAL IN EARLY MANAGEMENT OF CANDIDA INFECTIONS 2021-06-28T20:42:50+00:00 Yahaya Hassan Ibrahim Aminu Sharif Alhassan Abbdullahi <p>Invasive candidiasis (IC) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. <em>Candida</em> species have significant roles in invasive candidiasis andthe emergence of clinical strains that are difficult to treat due tovirulent and resistant properties. Expansion of fungal pathogen diversity necessitates the development and adoption of new methods for prompt diagnosis and management. The review aimed to highlight the relevance of different <em>Candida</em> diagnostic methods for prompt management of <em>Candida</em> infections. The conventional gold standard diagnostic phenotypic-based (culture)method is time-consuming, associated withlow specificity and subjective interpretation.The specificity and sensitivity performances for candidaemia or deep-seated candidiasis of biochemical-based methods, including VITEK, API 20C AUX, and latex agglutination, have higher resolution than the culture. Nucleic acid-basedpolymerase chain reaction diagnostic techniques have been rapidly evolving. PCR will improve the diagnostic performance and patient outcome. The PCR technique uses different ribosomal DNA gene complexes, including D1/D2, ITS1/ITS4, or IGS1/IGS2, ashelpful markersto delineate the main pathogenic fungal species belonging to different genera. Sensitive and specific diagnostic methods for <em>Candida</em> speciesare significant for clinical decision and effective clinical outcome.</p> 2021-06-21T05:40:03+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EFFECT OF THE DRYING METHOD ON THE QUALITY AND DRYING CHARACTERISTIC OF MINT LEAVES (Mentha spicata L.) 2021-06-22T10:54:57+00:00 S. K. Shittu M. I. Shehu J. Suleiman <p>Mint leaves are vegetables used for tea especially in the northern part of Nigerian because of their nutritional and medicinal values. Fresh mint leaves are perishable and to extend their shelf-life drying the leaves is a common practice among the people. The application of a proper drying method is essential to preserve its nutritional and medicinal values. Lack of information on the drying characteristic that could be used for the design of its dryers is a major bottleneck in its processing. This accounts for the poor colour, taste, flavour of dried mint leaves found in the market.In this study, three methods were used to dry mint leaves, sun, oven and shade drying methods. Proximate analyses were carried out on the samples dried with the three methods. Samples drying characteristics were investigated using an oven at 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. The results show that the drying method significantly affected all the proximate compositions at 5% level. Shade drying has the highest crude protein and ash contents of 7.74% and 8.48% respectively. Carbohydrates were more (30.13%) when open sun drying was employed. Oven drying favoured lowest moisture content of 7.20%, highest crude fiber of 49.34% and highest crude fat contents of 9.22%. To dry mint leaves to equilibrium moisture content, it took 140 min for samples at a drying temperature of 40 °C, 120 min at 50 °C, 90 min at 60 °C and 70 min for 70 °C. Drying of the leaves occurred in a falling rate period.</p> 2021-06-22T06:19:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES THE DETERMINANTS OF LIVELIHOOD INCOME DIVERSIFICATION AMONG RURAL FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA. 2021-06-23T10:56:58+00:00 M. Akinyemi J. A. Olayinka M. Junaidu D. Ekpa T. Bodaga U. M. Ibrahim <p>Rural economy in Nigeria is worst hit with the erratic and unpredictable factors that affect agricultural practice which is the main livelihood of the rural farm households. Consequently, farmers are left with the option of sourcing other means of survival to cope with the hard times due to in consistent and seasonal distribution of income which characterize small farm holders in sub-Saharan African countries. This study investigates the factor influencing the livelihood income diversification among rural farm households in Osun state, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling techniques was employed to sample120 structured and pre-tested questionnaires from 120 rural farm households. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The results of the descriptive statistics revealed that household heads of age range 50-60 years are 38.6% and about 40.70% had primary education while 26.30% had no education. About 98.31% of the rural households engaged in farming out of which 80.57% have farm size ranging between 1-3 hacters. Logit regression analysis shows that access to credit was positively significant (P&lt;0.05) which implies that farmers that have access to credit were more likelihood to have income diversification. Age of the farmers was negatively significant (P&lt;0.1). It connotes that the older the farmers the lesser the likelihood to income diversification. Income equivalent of household was positively significant (P&lt;0.1). Access to electricity was positively significant (P&lt;0.05). This implies that access to electricity increase farmer’s likelihood to income diversification. The off-farm income analysis shows that education and farm size were respectively negative and </p> 2021-06-22T18:58:24+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES APPLICATIONS OF INVERSE WEIBULL RAYLEIGH DISTRIBUTION TO FAILURE RATES AND VINYL CHLORIDE DATA SETS 2021-06-23T10:56:15+00:00 Aminu Adamu Abubakar Yahaya Hussaini Garba Dikko <p>In this work, a new three parameter distribution called the Inverse Weibull Rayleigh distribution is proposed. Some of its statistical properties were presented. The PDF plot of Inverse Weibull Rayleigh distribution showed that it is good for modeling positively skewed and symmetrical datasets. The plot of the hazard function showed that the proposed distribution can fit datasets with bathtub shape. Method of maximum likelihood estimation was employed to estimate the parameters of the distribution, the estimators of the parameters of Inverse Weibull Rayleigh distribution is asymptotically unbiased and asymptotically efficient from the result of the simulation carried out. Applying the new distribution to a positively skewed Vinyl Chloride data set shows that the distribution performs better than Rayleigh, Generalized Rayleigh, Weibull Rayleigh, Inverse Weibull, Inverse Weibull Weibull, Inverse Weibull Inverse Exponential and Inverse Weibull Pareto distribution in fitting the data as it has the smallest AIC value. Also, applying the new distribution to a negatively skewed bathtub shape failure rates data shows that the distribution is a competitive model after Weibull Rayleigh and Inverse Weibull Weibull distributions in fitting the data because it has the third least AIC value.</p> 2021-06-22T19:41:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES LARVICIDAL EFFICACY OF LEAF EXTRACTS FROM THREE ASTERACEOUS PLANT AGAINST MOSQUITO (Culex quinquefasciatus) 2021-07-28T07:14:14+00:00 C. C. Ojianwuna Ebele Martina Ilondu V. N. Enwemime <p>It is well known that the mosquito, <em>Culex quinquefasciatus</em>, badly affect individuals in endemic setting, causing filariasis. Intervention targeting the vector larva has not been given much priority. Therefore, the efficacy of ethanolic extract of <em>Ageratum conyzoides, Bidens pilosa L. and Spilanthes filicaulis </em>and a mixture of these plants in equal proportion was evaluated for larvicidal activities against filarial mosquito <em>Culex quinquefasciantus</em>. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was done by dissolving 5g each of plants in 30ml ethanol and water separately to obtain plant extracts. Samples were qualitatively screened following standard methodology for phytochemicals. Mortality of mosquito larva was examined after 12hrs, 24hr, 36hrs, and 48hrs treatment. Probit analysis for 50% Lethal Concentration was done using GraphPad Prism 9. Phytochemical screening of the plants revealed that <em>Bidens pilos, Spilanthes filicaulis </em>and <em>Ageratum conyzoides</em> contained moderated concentrations of Anthraquinones and Cardiac glycosids, Tannins, and Alkaloids respectively. Complete mortality was recorded with 0.60ml of <em>Bidens pilosa, </em>and <em>Spilanthes filicaulis </em>at 48hours and 36 hours respectively. More so, complete mortality was recorded with 0.40 and 0.60ml of the three plants in mixed proportion at 36 hours and 24 hours respectively. Larval mortality and time mortality were significantly (p&lt;0.05) different. 50%Lethal Concentration for <em>Ageratum conyzoides L, Bidens pilosa L, Spilanthes filicaulis, </em>and mixture of the three plants in equal proportion are 0.33ml, 0.25ml, 0.08ml, and 0.06ml respectively. Results showed that these plant materials exhibit significant activity and could be considered as potent natural larvicidal agent.</p> 2021-06-22T20:05:28+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANISOPUS MANNII AND LEPTADENIA HASTATA FOR ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL AGAINST BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM DIABETIC WOUND 2021-07-01T11:08:31+00:00 Sakina B. Sani B. M. Usman M. Hayatu A. Y. Hardiyya A. Bilkisu M. Umma M. M. Mamadina M. I. Hassan I. Safiyanu A. Jibril Y. S. Ajingi A. I. Sale <p><em>Leptadenia hastata</em> and <em>Anisopus mannii</em> – are perennial plants of family Asclepiadaceae. They are widely distributed in West Africa and are locally used as anti-diabetic agents in Northern Nigeria. This study was conducted to investigate the phytochemical constituent and antibacterial activity of the crude ethanol extract of the <em>Leptadenia hastata</em> and <em>Anisopus mannii</em> against some bacterial isolates from diabetic wound. The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol and antibacterial activity was determined by agar well diffusion method followed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) on the plant extract that showed activity. Result of phytochemical screening reveals the present of tannins, phenols, flavonols, saponins, and alkaloids in all the plants extract except in <em>Anisopus mannii</em> where alkaloid is absent. Also, result from antibacterial activity of <em>leptadenia hastata</em> demonstrated inhibition zones ranging from 11.5±0.71 to 20.0±0.00 at various concentrations (8mg/ml and 4mg/ml) against the tested organisms (<em>Citrobacter</em> specie, <em>E.coli</em>, <em>Proteus vulgaris.</em>) with MIC and MBC values ranging from 2mg/ml-8mg/ml. Hence, the ethanol extract of <em>Leptadenia hastata</em> can be considered as new therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetic wound infection. Further studies need to be carried out to investigate toxicological effect and diabetic wound healing property of the plant.</p> 2021-07-01T09:54:13+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES ASSESSMENT OF CARBON FOOT PRINT OF STUDENS IN CROSS RIVER UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, OBUBRA CAMPUS, NIGERIA 2021-07-01T11:08:07+00:00 Peter Ekpo Esor V. T. Ebu M. R. Igri N. E. Ogar <p>Natural events are believed to have contributed to an increased global temperature. This is caused primarily by increase in greenhouse gases effect, such as carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>). This study evaluated assessment of carbon foot prints in 3 out of the 5 Departments in the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Cross River University of Technology, Obubra Campus. Purposive sampling methods was adopted to involve students studying Animal Science, Agronomy and Forestry base disciplines within the Faculty. Carbon foot print online calculator developed by (WWF, 2016) was used for the assessment. The calculator had well-structured questions to monitor carbon foot print generated by each student activities through food, home, travel and stuff. The results were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Tables were used to compare with the global average planet of 3.06 tones for human existence on the earth surface. The Department of Animal Science recorded the highest carbon foot print of 614.18 tonnes requiring 6.53 tonnes planets to cohabit. The lowest carbon foot print of 469.0 tonnes was obtained in the Department of Forestry requiring 6.52 tonnes planets to exists. 500 level students generated the highest carbon foot print 356.48 tonnes requiring 7.22 tonnes of global average planets. While, the least foot print was observed in 200 level students 307.54 tonnes. The male and female students produced the same average carbon foot print of 625.3 tonnes. Investigation revealed high carbon foot print in food consumption, travel and home required more planets to sustain our lives in the</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-07-01T10:05:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES ENHANCED 3-POINT FULLY IMPLICIT SUPER CLASS OF BLOCK BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION FORMULA FOR SOLVING STIFF INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS 2021-07-01T11:07:44+00:00 Muhammad Abdullahi Hamisu Musa <p>This paper modified an existing 3–point block method for solving stiff initial value problems.&nbsp; The modification leads to the derivation of another 3 – point block method which is suitable for solving stiff initial value problems. &nbsp;The method approximates three solutions values per step and its order is 5. Different sets of formula can be generated from it by varying a parameter ρ ϵ (-1, 1) in the formula. It has been shown that the method is both Zero stable and A–Stable. Some linear and nonlinear stiff problems are solved and the result shows that the method outperformed an existing method and competes with others in terms of accuracy</p> 2021-07-01T10:16:16+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EXPLORING THE NUTRITIONAL AND MINERAL COMPOSITIONS OF BAOBAB (Adansonia digitata L) FRUIT PULP AND SEED 2021-07-01T11:07:21+00:00 S. Mamman B. S. Shuaibu J. A. Yusuf <p>This research presents the proximate and elemental compositions of Baobab fruit (<em>Adansonia digitata L</em>.) The proximate analysis gives the composition of the biomass in terms of gross components such as moisture, volatile matter, ash and fixed carbon. In this study, the proximate composition was determined using standard methods (AOAC) while the mineral content was analysed with the aid of an Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Flame Photometry. Minerals are micronutrients that occur in foods in minute amounts but are very essential for body metabolism. The results revealed that Baobab seed and pulp are rich in crude protein, fat, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (3.15 &nbsp;0.05 %) and (4.65 &nbsp;0.55 %) present in the seed and pulp respectively suggests that they both possess high level of inorganic matter; thus, having high amount of minerals. The study also shows that Baoba seed and pulp have high economic value and are good and cheap sources of mineral element such as calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, copper and zinc. For these reasons, they can be incorporated into food supplements for both humans and animals, also could have industrial applications</p> 2021-07-01T10:26:50+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES BLUE SCREEN VIDEO FORGERY DETECTION AND LOCALIZATION USING AN ENHANCED 3-STAGE FOREGROUND ALGORITHM 2021-07-02T11:07:31+00:00 Kasim Shafii Mustapha Aminu Bagiwa A. A. Obiniyi N. Sulaiman A. M. Usman C. M. Fatima S. Fatima <p>The availability of easy to use video editing software has made it easy for cyber criminals to combine different videos from different sources using blue screen composition technology. This, makes the authenticity of such digital videos questionable and needs to be verified especially in the court of law. Blue Screen Composition is one of the ways to carry out video forgery using simple to use and affordable video editing software. Detecting this type of video forgery aims at revealing and observing the facts about a video so as to conclude whether the contents of the video have undergone any unethical manipulation. In this work, we propose an enhanced 3-stage foreground algorithm to detect Blue Screen manipulation in digital video. The proposed enhanced detection technique contains three (3) phases, extraction, detection and tracking. In the extraction phase, a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is used to extract foreground element from a target video. Entropy function as a descriptive feature of image is extracted and calculated from the target video in the detection phase. The tracking phase seeks to use Minimum Output Sum of Squared Error (MOSSE) object tracking algorithm to fast track forged blocks of small sizes in a digital video. The result of the experiments demonstrates that the proposed detection technique can adequately detect Blue Screen video forgery when the forged region is small with a true positive detection rate of 98.02% and a false positive detection rate of 1.99%. The result of this our research can be used to</p> 2021-07-01T10:48:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF FLOW THROUGH TRAPEZOIDAL WEIR CONTROLLED UNDER A SEMI-CIRCULAR GATE 2021-07-12T11:01:01+00:00 Bashir Tanimu Bilal Abdullahi Be Muhammad Mujihad Muhammad Surajo Abubakar Wada <p>Different parameters of a weir model have a great effect on the discharge coefficient. In this experimental study the effect of varying angle of a trapezoidal weir coupled with a below semi-circular gate is determined. The result showed that the higher the value of &nbsp;the higher the coefficient of discharge. The respective average discharge coefficient &nbsp;of the block model and the trapezoidal weir models are; 0.48031,0.48880, 0.49565, 0.49647, 0.49892 and 0.49934. As such the trapezoidal weir with &nbsp; has the highest value of average discharge coefficient =0.49934. Hence the most efficient. Linear and nonlinear regression analysis were used to generate mathematical equations that can be used to predict the flow rate Q for the combined weir-gate structure and the discharge coefficient &nbsp;of the most efficient model with &nbsp;respectively. The discharge coefficient for the most efficient weir model was found to be 3.81% more than that of the block model (with rectangular weir). The predicted coefficient of discharge &nbsp; for the most efficient model was also found to be in good agreement with the observed discharge coefficient with a percentage error in the range of &nbsp;0.4%</p> 2021-07-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ENERGY DISSIPATION IN A SINGLE STEP CONDITION OVER A BROAD CRESTED WEIR 2021-07-11T11:17:26+00:00 Bashir Tanimu Aliyu Bamaiyi Usman Al-Amin Danladi Bello Sulaiman Jamilu Abdullahi <p>This research study the experimental performance of broad-crested weir with single-step by introducing U/S and D/S round-nose and&nbsp; analysing the parameters that have effect on the shape of the step and their effects on the flow characteristics and energy dissipation (<em>E</em>%) downstream (D/S) of the weir. Furthermore, empirical relations for <em>E% </em>and flow rate due to the influencing factors were derived. The results showed that the weir model with &nbsp;= 1.000 gives a higher <em>E</em>% in comparison with other weir models. Flow regimes were observed i.e nappe flow for small discharges, transition flow for intermediate discharges and skimming flow for higher discharges. Two model equations were obtained, the first to dteremine the flow rate over the weir models and the second relation to estimate <em>E</em>% in terms of<sub>, </sub>and Froude number. The model () can be used in the design of prototype weirs in terms of energy dissipation</p> 2021-07-10T17:40:10+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY ASSAY AND LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF N-HEPTADECYL-N-(8-OCTA-1, 3-DIENE-6-YNYL)AMINE (C25H44N) ISOLATED FROM COMBRETUM MOLLE R. 2021-07-11T11:17:04+00:00 Abdu Zakari Adoum Umar Al-Mubarak Sani Aliyu <p>The extracts of leaves of Combretum molle were tested against the larvae of <em>Artemia salina,</em> i.e. Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BST) and <em>Culexquinquefasciatus Say</em> (filaria disease vector) i.e. Larvicidal Test, using crude ethanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts. The methanolic extract proved to be the most effective in inducing complete lethality at minimum doses both in the BST and the Larvicidal activity test. The LC<sub>50</sub>­ values obtained are 24.85 µg/ml and 0.4µg/ml respectively. The Bioactivity result was used to guide the column chromatography which afforded the pure compound ACM 2 which was not active in the BST with LC<sub>50</sub> value of 1259 µg/ml but was active in the Larvicidal activity test with LC<sub>50</sub> value 15.14 µg/ml.&nbsp; ACM 2 was proposed to be <strong>N-heptadecyl-N-(8-octa-1, 3-diene-6-ynyl)amine (C<sub>25</sub>H<sub>44</sub>N)</strong>.</p> 2021-07-10T17:57:56+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES STREAMFLOW SIMULATION: COMPARISON BETWEEN SOIL WATER ASSESSMENT TOOL AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK MODELS 2021-07-11T11:16:20+00:00 Shehu Usman Haruna Aliyu Kasim Abba Rabi'u Aminu <p>The present study compared the performance of two different models for streamflow simulation namely: Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN). During the calibration periods, the Nash-Sutcliff (NS) and Coefficient of Determination (R2) for SWAT was 0.74 and 0.81 respectively, whereas for ANN, it was 0.99 and 0.85 respectively. The ANN performs better during the validation period as the result revealed with NS and R2 having 0.98 and 0.89 respectively, while for the SWAT model it was 0.71 and 0.74 respectively. Based on the recommended comparison of graphical and statistical evaluation performances of both models, the ANN model performed better in estimating peak flow events than the SWAT model in the Upper Betwa Basin. Furthermore, the rigorous time required and expertise for calibration of the SWAT is much less as compared with the ANN. Moreover, the results obtained from both models demonstrate the performances of the</p> 2021-07-10T20:39:02+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EFFECT OF SEASON ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF THREE BREEDS OF CATTLE RAISED IN SUDAN SAVANNA ZONE 2021-07-11T11:15:59+00:00 Ibrahim Bature A. M. Aliyu G. Dau <p>This study was conducted to test the effect of season and breed on thermoregulatory parameters of three Nigerian indigenous breeds of cattle raised in Sudan Savanna Zone. A total number of nine (9) cattle aged between 4-5 years were used for this study. Data were taken for sixteen weeks across two seasons; Cold and Hot Season from three indigenous breed of cattle. Rectal temperature was recorded using digital thermometer, pulse rate was determined using stethoscope and respiratory rate was determined by counting of the respiratory movements of flank area. Data of ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded on daily basis and temperature humidity index was calculated. All data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance using SAS software. Seasons significantly (P &lt; 0.05) affect all the thermoregulatory parameters of with hot seasons having the highest values. Breed influenced (p&lt;0.05) all the parameters measured. Red Bororo had the highest rectal temperature, while Sokoto has the least rectal temperature. Higher respiratory rate was recorded in SokotoGudali. Respiratory Rate of White Fulani are statistically similar with both Red Bororo and SokotoGudali, but Respiratory Rate of Red Bororo cattle has significantly difference (P&lt;0.05) with SokotoGudali breeds of cattle. Pulse rate differs significantly (P&lt;0.05), SokotoGudali recorded the highest rate and the least rate was observed in White Fulani cattle. It was concluded that Season affect all the thermoregulatory parameters and all the tested parameters were higher during hot season and SokotoGudali react more to thermal stress than Red Bororo and White Fulani</p> 2021-07-10T21:37:42+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF FUEL WOOD AND CHARCOAL IN ZARIA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA 2021-07-11T11:16:42+00:00 Samira Bello Adamu Usman Kibbon Akpu Benedine Akpu <p>Energy use is an essential requirement for socioeconomic development of any society. This research aimed at analyzing fuel wood and charcoal distribution pattern in Zaria Local Government Area Kaduna State Nigeria. The aim was achieved through the following objectives which are to: identify the distribution of fuel wood depots in the study area; analyse the distribution pattern of fuel wood in the study area and examine the seasonality, time and mode of fuel wood distribution in the study area. This research used both quantitative and qualitative method in data analysis. Findings from the research revealed two types of fuel wood vendor depots exists in the study area which are classified as either major or minor&nbsp; types which shows that fuel wood vendor depots are mostly concentrated around the residential areas especially within the built-up land, also, charcoal is mostly sourced around Kachia and Lokoja Abuja Express way. Results from in-depth interview with the fuel wood vendors indicates that there are two types of fuel wood vendors: the mobile and the stationary vendors. It has been recommended in this study that the Government should come up with a policy guidelines to regulate and sanitise the number of minor fuel wood depots in the study area for a cleaner, safer and regulated environment. The relevant authorities should promulgate penalties for violators of the policy guidelines in order to ensure that the environment is kept safe from soil degradation as a result of the activities of the fuel wood depots and environmental pollution.</p> 2021-07-10T18:34:55+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EFFECTS OF PARA-DICHLOROBENZENE AND SODIUM AZIDE ON GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH OF SESAME ( Sesamum indicum L.) 2021-07-02T11:09:37+00:00 KABIRU DALHA ABUBAKAR LAWAN SANI ABDU <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Sesame is an important source of income and edible oil particularly in sub-saharan Africa. Its cultivation is constrains by many factors including lack of improved varietiess, pests and disease and abiotic stresses. Creating genetic variability could provide a base upon which improvement could made. This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of Sodium Azide and Para-dichlorobenzene on Germination and Seedlings growth of three sesame varieties (Ex-sudan, E-8 and JAN-IRI). Pot experiments were conducted during 2017 and 2018 seasons using completely randomized design (CRD). The treated seeds were planted and resulting plants (M<sub>0</sub>) were allowed to produce seeds. The seeds of the M<sub>0</sub> were used in generating M<sub>1</sub> plants which were used to evaluate the effect of the mutagens. Few days to germination were recorded in seeds treated with 3.0 mM So dium azide (3.0 days) or 3.0 mM Para-dichlorobenzene (3.0 days) in EX-SUDAN as well as seeds treated with 3.0 mM Sodium azide (3.0 days) in E-8. Percentage germination was significantly increased The highest shoot length was obtained when EX-SUDAN was treated with 2.0 mM (19.3cm) or 3.0 mM Sodium azide (18.2cm while highest root length was obtained when JAN-IRI and EX-SUDAN were treated with either 1.0 mM Para-dichlorobenzene (4.2cm) or 3.0 mM Sodium azide (3.8cm). The mutagens (Sodium azide and Para-dichlorobenzene) could be used to create variability for genetic improvement of Sesame.</p> 2021-07-01T11:11:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES CORRELATION OF CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND TESTIS MEASUREMENTS OF THE INDIGENOUS COCKS IN THE SEMI ARID ZONE OF NIGERIA 2021-07-02T11:09:14+00:00 J. Adamu J. Aliyu S. M. Shettima B. Saleh A. Dauda A. A. Mohammed H. Y. Abbaya <p>The current study was conducted to evaluate the association between the body weight, carcass &nbsp;characteristics and the testis measurements of the three matured cocks of about one year to one and half months of age in the semi arid zone of Nigeria. Sixty matured cocks were used for the study with twenty from each of the genotype. The data collected on the carcass characteristics of the three genotypes of cocks were analyzed using SPSS Version 21 Statistical tool. Differences between treatments means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test of the same software. The correlations between the different variables were determined using Pearson correlation. The results showed a positive correlation (P&lt; 0.05) between live weight and the internal organs. Also positive significant (P&lt;0.01) relationship were observed between body weight and the slaughter weight (r =0.97). Significant relationship between live weight and the left testis was observed (r =0.67: P&lt;0.01). In conclusion, testis measurement with live weight showed that positive correlation translates into positive genetic correlation among the traits which will lead to improvement in the other traits. This variation may be due to close genetic background of the indigenous cocks</p> 2021-07-01T11:29:03+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF SURFACE WIND METHOD FOR ELECTRIFICATION IN KEBBI STATE, NIGERIA 2021-07-02T11:08:51+00:00 Muhammad Naziru Yahaya Ibrahim Adamu Usman Yahaya <p>Africa and Nigeria in particular is blessed with abundant and constant supplies of fine, clean and sustainable mean for rural and urban electricity generation (renewable energy). Renewable energy such as solar, Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass and surface wind etc., has been found very useful in power generation to many sub-Saharan African countries with attendant significant sustainability and reliability. This study was aimed at evaluating and assessing the potentiality of surface wind in Kebbi state for possible power generation thereby mitigating the challenge of energy crisis and demands for rapidly growing population. The suitable model used for the data analysis was ARIMA (1,1,2), and statistics were checked and stationarity of the data were observed and test using Kwiatkowski Phillips, Schmidt and Shin (KPSS) test. The study area from the analysis of surface wind at <strong>0.01%, 0.05% &amp; 0.1% </strong>level of significances depicts well for reliability and sustainability for electricity generation in the state. The study found that surface wind due to its abundance in significant amount throughout the year all over the state with highest recorded values obtained in 2009, 2010 and 2011, if well-harnesses and utilizes it could serve as a good prospect for power generation in Kebbi state and its environs.</p> 2021-07-01T11:38:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES AN INVENTORY OF TOMATO VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN KADAWA AREA, KANO STATE 2021-07-02T11:08:29+00:00 Abubakar Ibrahim Baju Shehu Yusuf <p>The study is on the inventory of the tomato varieties cultivated in Kadawa area of Kano State from (1997-2017) as well as to identify the current most preferred variety by farmers and the reason for that. A survey design method was employed using questionnaire as the research instrument. About two hundred and eighty (280) respondents were selected from nine hundred and twenty-five (925) farmers using purposive sampling. The data collected were analyzed using frequency and percentage table. The result revealed that about 24 different tomato varieties were identified. Griffaton happened to be the most preferred variety by farmers of Kadawa. In Kadawa one out of every three farmers is cultivating Griffaton. This is because of its qualities that include high yield, durability, attractive sizes among others. All the tomato varieties the research identified to be cultivated in Kadawa are imported from abroad except technisem. This can be seen as a challenge to the home industries producing tomato seeds to be producing the product that can compete with those imported to be well accepted by farmers within and outside the nation. The paper advised the stakeholders to put more effort into providing qualitative and acceptable indigenous tomato varieties to avoid further extinction.</p> 2021-07-01T11:47:51+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES TETRACARPIDIUM CONOPHORUM EXTRACT EXHIBITS ANTI-FATIGUE ACTIVITY IN RATS VIA REDUCED PROTEIN CATABOLISM, INCREASED ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND DELAYED LACTATE ELEVATION 2021-07-02T11:08:07+00:00 Ugochukwu Vincent Igbokwe EZE EJIKE DANIEL Moses Dele Adams Karima Mohammed Rabiu Ezekiel Iliya Prisca Ojochogu Ajeka Adam Moyosore Afodun <p>Thirty rats of both sexes were assigned into 5 categories of six animals apiece. Animals in the unadministered (control) group were placed on distilled water. Group 1M and Group 1F animals were administered 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w) of <em>T. conophorum</em> aqueous nut extract whereas animals in Group 2M and Group 2F were administered 750 mg/kg dosage of the extricate (0.5 ml) orally once daily for 32 days. Phytoconstituents present in the extract include: saponins, flavonoids, tannins, phenols and alkaloids. The extract at 750mg/kg b.w notably (p&lt;0.05) raised extracellular glucose in masculine rats when matched with males that received 500 mg/kg b.w. The 500 mg/kg dose of the extract appreciably (p&lt;0.05) elevated BUN in both sexes, but with reduction in both groups at 750 mg/kg b.w when juxtaposed with their respective untreated animals. The extract at 500 mg/kg b.w increased LDH activity in male group when compared with male rats that received 750 mg/kg dose. The 750-extract dosage did not statistically (p&gt;0.05) alter LDH activity in both sexes. The extract at 500 and 750mg/kg b.w increased the 3<sup>rd</sup>‒6<sup>th</sup> swim in male rats. Substantive (p&lt;0.05) rise in swimming endurance time was first noticed at the 2<sup>nd</sup> swim when matched up with the control and group treated 500 mg/kg b.w, in female rats. Sequel to these research findings, it is hypothesized that the anti-weakness effect of <em>T. conophorum </em>might be adduced to delayed increase in lactate and reduction in protein catabolism</p> 2021-07-01T12:02:44+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES GONADAL AND EXTRA-GONADAL SPERM RESERVES OF KANO BROWN BUCKS AS INFLUENCED BY SEASON AND FEEDING REGIME IN SEMI-ARID ZONE OF NIGERIA 2021-07-02T11:07:43+00:00 M. Nasir A. M. Aliyu E. A. Rotimi <p>The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of season and feeding regime on reproductive parameters of Kano Brown bucks. A total of fourty eight (48) bucks were used for this study which comprised sixteen (16) bucks per season. At the end of this study twelve (12) bucks, three from each treatment were orchidectomised. Twenty-four right and left testes were harvested, testicular weight (g) and length (cm) were measured. Epididymis was carefully separated from the testes using scapel blade and then separated into three parts (<em>carput, corpus and cauda epididymides</em>) weight (g) and length (cm) were also measured. Testes and epididymis were used to determine gonadal and extra gonadal (x 10<sup>6</sup>)/g/testis which was done in the laboratory. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance using Completely Randomized Design. The results of gonadal sperm reserves (x 10<sup>6</sup>)/g/testis differed significantly among the seasons, dry season recorded the highest mean value (2896.83 x10<sup>6</sup>)/g/testis whereas rainy season had the lowest mean value (2350.15 x10<sup>6</sup>)/g/testis. Similarly, for extra gonadal sperm reserves, dry season also recorded the highest values (1736.00 x 10<sup>6</sup>) followed by harmattan season (1037.50 x 10<sup>6</sup>). Based on the results of this study, it could be concluded that season and feeding regime had a significant effect on gonadal and extra gonadal sperm/spermatid reserves of Kano Brown bucks. Breeding bucks should be raised during rainy and harmattan seasons.</p> 2021-07-01T13:16:57+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES FETUSES LOSSES IN SMALL RUMINANTS: A CASE STUDY OF HADEJIA EMIRATE COUNCIL OF JIGAWA STATE. 2021-07-02T11:07:20+00:00 M. Nasir A. M. Aliyu I. Bature <p>A study was conducted to assess the extent of foetal losses from small ruminants and possible factors responsible for slaughtering female animals in semi-arid abattoirs of Hadejia and Malam-Madori, Jigawa State. The study was carried out using structured questionnaire administered to 160 respondents in the abattoirs for a period of three months (June-August, 2013). Specify the statistical tool you used to analyzed your results here. The results revealed that youths aged less than 25 (35.71%) and 36-45 (37.29%) years were the main source of labour in Hadejia and Malam-Madori.The respondents were mostly engaged in evisceration and skinning (75.71% and 82.86%) in the abattoirs. Majority (77.15% and 72.00%) of the respondents in both study areas were males, mostly (68.00% and 60.00%) married, few (12.00% and 9.33%) had tertiary education, while many (26.67% and 32.00%) had acquired secondary education. Small ruminant foetuses recovered from 6 to 10 per day were 65.71% and 52.85% which vary with season. It was concluded that there was a cause for concern on loss of fetuses especially among small ruminants. It is therefore suggested that awareness should be created among livestock rearers/farmers and butchers on the implication of slaughtering of pregnant animals and its consequence on the future of small ruminant’s population since increase in population of any livestock species is based on reproduction. Thus, legislation prohibiting indiscriminate slaughter of pregnant or inbred female animals should be enforced or enacted as this has far reaching negative impact on reproduction/production and revenue generation in</p> 2021-07-01T13:30:03+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES SOIL ALKALINITY CONTROL USING THREE DIFFERENT BIO-MATERIALS (WASTES) FOR SOIL SUSTAINABILITY AND PRODUCTIVITY 2021-07-02T11:06:58+00:00 UCHE CHIWETALU Nneka, Juliana Ogbuagu Michael Emeka Okechukwu <p>The study presents soil alkalinity control using three different bio-materials for soil sustainability and productivity. It has been noted that soils without balanced pH have trouble with nutrient solubility, thereby making soil nutrients unavailable for plants. 5kg soil sample was measured and put in five different containers. Thereafter, 450g of ash was added to four containers to induce alkalinity. Moreover, three samples were further mixed with 3 different treatments; treatment A, B and C. In all, five samples were set for the study, sample A (control or ordinary soil), B (soil + ash), C (soil + ash + poultry droppings), D (soil + ash + cassava peals) and E (soil + ash + dry grasses). pH tests’ were conducted weekly on the samples and the results subjected to ANOVA test. Results obtained were 7.2, 11.5, 9.5, 8.7 and 9.2 for samples A, B, C, D and E respectively in week 1. Similarly, 7.2, 11.5,&nbsp; 8.4, 8.2 and 9.0; 7.2, 11.5, 7.8, 7.9 and&nbsp; 8.7; 7.2,&nbsp; 11.53, 7.4, 7.5 and 8.2 for samples A, B, C, D and E were obtained in&nbsp; 2nd, 3rd and 4th week respectively. The results showed that the treatments have significant effect in reducing alkalinity (p = 5%).</p> 2021-07-01T13:44:30+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES ENERGY SPECTRUM AND SOME USEFUL EXPECTATION VALUES OF THE TIETZ-HULTHÉN POTENTIAL 2021-07-07T11:14:40+00:00 Bako M. Bitrus U Wadata C. M. Nwabueze E. S. Eyube <p>In this paper, concept of supersymmetric quantum mechanics has been employed to derive expression for bound state energy eigenvalues of the Tietz-Hulthén potential, the corresponding equation for normalized radial eigenfunctions were deduced by ansatz solution technique. In dealing with the centrifugal term of the effective potential of the Schrödinger equation, a Pekeris-like approximation recipe is considered. By means of the expression for bound state energy eigenvalues and radial eigenfunctions, equations for expectation values of inverse separation-squared and kinetic energy of the Tietz-Hulthén potential were obtained from the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Numerical values of bound state energy eigenvalues and expectation values of inverse separation-squared and kinetic energy the Tietz-Hulthén potential were computed at arbitrary principal and angular momentum quantum numbers. Results obtained for computed energy eigenvalues of Tietz-Hulthén potential corresponding to <em>Z</em> = 0 and <em>V</em><sub>0</sub> = 0 are in excellent agreement with available literature data for Tietz and Hulthén potentials respectively. Studies have also revealed that increase in parameter <em>Z</em> results in monotonic increase in the mean kinetic energy of the system. The results obtained in this work may find suitable applications in areas of physics such as: atomic physics, chemical physics, nuclear physics and solid state physics</p> 2021-07-06T13:29:09+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE INVESTIGATION AROUND IKOGOSI WARM SPRING NIGERIA USING LANDSAT8 DATA 2021-07-07T11:14:11+00:00 Y. A. Bello K. M. Lawal B. B. M. Dewu A. E. Ikpokonte <p>Ikogosi warm spring (IWS) is among the most visited geothermal resource by tourists in Nigeria. On that basis, it has attracted so much attention from researchers using various geophysical methods, except the retrieval of the land surface temperature (LST) from remote sensing data. This work aimed at computing LST to delineate hot zone around Ikogosi geothermal resources. The split-window approach was used to compute the LST from Landsat 8 data. The interpretation of Landsat8 data revealed that the central region of the study area is of high LST, and the temperature then drops towards the southwest direction. The result also shows that the warm spring is situated around a region with high land surface temperature (about 29 °C) which is an indication of a geothermal reservoir. The supervised classification of the LST yields two zones of the high density of pixels with high temperature, hot spot zones. The hot spot zone west of IWS is believed to be the heat source of IWS as it has high LST, and it is closer to IWS while the hot spot zone NW of IWS shows an indication of a viable geothermal resource, high LST</p> 2021-07-06T13:46:54+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES APPLICATION OF HOMOTOPY PERTURBATION METHOD TO THE MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF TEMPERATURE RISE DURING MICROWAVE HYPERTHERMIA 2021-08-06T15:37:10+00:00 Erinle-Ibrahim L. Morenikeji Ayeni O. Babajide Idowu K Oluwatobi <p>We study a one dimensional non-linear model of multi-layered human skin exposed to microwave heating during cancer therapy. The model is analyzed using homotopy perturbation method and the fact that there are variations in specific heat, thermal conductivity and blood perfusion from one individual to another were considered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of variable blood perfusion, microwave heating and thermal conductivity on the temperature field during microwave hyperthermia. By varying the parameters, we were able to determine maximum rise of temperature as an individual undergoes cancer therapy. The results were presented in graphs and it was discovered that the temperature of the tumor increases with increase in the microwave heating index while the blood perfusion remain constant.</p> 2021-07-13T09:14:49+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES ACHIEVING UN-SDG 13 IN NIGERIA: ROLES OF RELIGIOUS LEADERS IN ADDRESSING CLIMATE CHANGE CHALLENGES 2021-07-07T11:13:49+00:00 Auwal F. Abdussalam Abba A. Abukur <p>Religious leaders have major roles to play in enabling the world's societies to take necessary actions to address climate change causes, impacts, and related issues effectively and ethically. This study investigates the roles they can play in achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 13 (Climate Action) in Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design, it involved 300 participants; 150 religious leaders each from the Muslim and Christian communities in the three geopolitical zones of northern Nigeria (northwest, northeast and north-central). A structured questionnaire was used in collecting information from these leaders. Simple descriptive and One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were used in analyzing the obtained data. Findings reveal that religious leaders (Muslims and Christians) do not differ in their perception about the causes of climate change in Nigeria (F = 2.37, p = &lt;0.05); and as well do not differ in their perception of its impact (F = 1.54, p = &lt;0.01). Although almost all (94%) of the religious leaders involved in this study strongly agree that they have an important role to play in achieving the UN-SDG 13 target, they however varied in agreeing to pressure the government on exploring an all-inclusive solution (F = 19.56, p = &gt;0.05). The study also reveals that 21% of the respondents have already started some work in addressing climate change, 75% show strong interest in commencing activities in the areas of awareness, formulating community-based adaptation strategies, and engaging policymakers</p> 2021-07-06T14:06:57+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES PRETREATMENT OF MILLET HUSK USING ALKALINE HYDROGEN PEROXIDE TO ENHANCE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS FOR REDUCING SUGAR PRODUCTION 2021-07-09T20:25:27+00:00 Zeenat Ibrahim Saulawa Lawal Nura Muntari Bala Abdullahi A. Iman <p>The effectiveness of alkaline hydrogen peroxide as a suitable choice of pretreatment for the conversion of millet husk to reducing sugars using cellulase enzyme for hydrolysis and subsequent ethanol production was determined. The effects of three variables on reducing sugar production from millet husk were determined using one factor at a time (OFAT) method namely; peroxide concentration, pretreatment time and pretreatment temperature. From the results, it was observed that a significant <em>(P&lt;0.05)</em> amount of reducing sugars were lost during pretreatment of millet husk. The untreated group which was only physically pretreated (milled) however yielded a significantly higher <em>(P&lt;0.05)</em> reducing sugar concentration of 10.67mg/ml after enzymatic hydrolysis while the highest reducing sugar concentration of 4.82mg/ml was obtained using 0.375%v/v peroxide concentration for 60minutes at 25<sup>0</sup>C. Therefore, pretreatment of biomass with alkaline hydrogen peroxide may be more suitable for feedstock with high lignin contents than millet husk.</p> 2021-07-06T14:21:23+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF MULTI-PURPOSE MINERAL LEACHING EQUIPMENT 2021-07-21T10:45:33+00:00 Olawale Ajibola Sunday Borisade Abdullahi Adebayo Adebayo Owa Oluwole Adigun Olamide Oni Princess Akanni Abayomi Oni Dada Omoyeni Ayodeji Fagbohungbe Reginald Umunakwe Folorunsho Kolawole <p>With much amount of money the nation had invested into the extractive sector of the economy, minerals are still mined and exported out of the country for beneficiation which results into much economic losses in the mining and extractive industries. The need to reduce the huge amount of losses expended on extracting valuable metals from ores by local miners and out springing cottage industries motivates this work. This report covers the design and construction of a laboratory size leaching equipment suitable for dissolution of clean pulverised minerals in acid and alkaline media via agitation and in-situ leaching techniques in single operation system. The dissolved metals are easily recovered from the solution by other techniques. The design and fabrication is based on the fundamentals of stoichiometric calculations and chemical reactions, engineering design drawings using AUTOCAD and INVENTOR softwares, material selection and safe environmental ethics. The equipment is produced from combination of highly corrosion resistant plastic materials, mild steel, stainless steel and other components. For the purposes laboratory studies, the machine can process about 320-350 kg mineral feeds charged manually and in batches for working period of 1 to 8 hours per day. The estimated fabrication cost is about N194,500.00.</p> 2021-07-06T14:45:02+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES MICROFACIES ANALYSIS OF CRETACEOUS SEDIMENTS OF DUKUL FORMATION, YOLA SUB-BASIN, NORTHERN BENUE TROUGH, NIGERIA: PALEO-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS 2021-07-07T11:12:43+00:00 Babangida M. Sarki Yandoka <p>Carbonate microfacies analysis was conducted on the exposed sediments of Dukul Formation from Yola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough with an objective to reconstruct the paleodepositional environment. The study revealed four (4) major microfacies; oyster wackestone, ostracod oyster wackestone-packestone, bioclastic wackestone and bioclastic packestone microfacies. The microfacies assemblages indicate and affirm that the Dukul Formation sediments were deposited in shallow marine (mid-inner ramp) environment under suboxic to relatively anoxic conditions due to sea-level drop. This is further supported owing to the occurence of <em>corals, brachiopods, bivalves</em> and <em>ostracods </em>immediately below the mean fair-weather wave base (FWWB)</p> 2021-07-06T15:04:58+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT OF RIG HANGING HYDRO TURBINE BASED ON WASTE WATER DISCHARGE AT CHALLAWA INDUSTRIAL AREA OF KANO STATE 2021-07-08T11:16:33+00:00 F. A. Umar S. M. Lawan C. N. Okpala A. Aminu <p>Design of hydroelectricity system is employed here in an effort to produce electric energy using an exhaust waste water of steam power plant. The major concern in this work is how the system is designed, selection of site and resources. The system after designed and fabricated was mounted at waste water outlet for proof run for about three months period. The result obtained exhibit the overall design is feasible for the sensitive site application</p> 2021-07-07T14:08:01+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN EXPRESSED CANCER RELATED GENES AND SURVIVAL OF PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER 2021-07-08T11:16:11+00:00 Chinenye Nworah Bashir Sule <p class="Abstract"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">Cancer stem cells are regulated by complex interactions with the components of the tumor microenvironment through networks of Cytokins and growth factors. These interactions are mediated by group of proteins and microRNAs (miRs), which are expressed or repressed. These expression levels are critical for cancer stem cell formation and expansion, enabling the promotion of tumor cell proliferation and migration, as well as for the survival of cancer recurrence and patient survival. Micro array and RNA deep sequencing (RNA-seq) provide tools with ability to generate transcriptome information, deciphering global gene expression patterns and quantifying a large dynamic range of expression levels. In this study 94 breast cancer patients were investigated based on miR and mRNA expression levels in which WDR1, APC and AKAP13 genes were identified as genes that play important role in the survival of patients and these genes differed significantly with respect to survival of patients. We used the Pearson correlation to identify the over-expressed and under-expressed genes. We demonstrated that parametric survival models can be used to model outcomes for breast cancer, and for our dataset the log-normal model demonstrated the best fit compared to other parametric models. Through the use of log-normal model, we examined how each of the identified genes influence the survival of breast cancer patients.</span></p> 2021-07-07T14:23:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF A SMART STATIC AND DYNAMIC OBSTACLE WALKING STICK WITH EMF DETECTOR FOR THE BLINDS USING MCU AND CONTROLLING SOFTWARE 2021-07-08T11:15:49+00:00 Sani Abdullahi Adamu Abdulkarim Adamu M. S. Anas <p>Smart static and dynamic obstacle walking stick with EMF detector is an upgraded smart stick designed for blind people for optimal navigation and electrical safety.&nbsp; An advanced blind stick prototype that allows visually challenged people to navigate walking paths and identify electronic gadgets with ease using modern technologies is hereby developed. The blind stick is integrated with ultrasonic sensor along with an EMF detector. This prototype first uses ultrasonic sensors to sense obstacles ahead using ultrasonic waves. On sensing obstacles, the sensor directs this data to the microcontroller. The microcontroller then processes this data and examine if the obstacle is close enough. If the obstacle is not that close the circuit does nothing. If the obstacle is close the microcontroller sends a signal to sound a buzzer. One more feature is that it allows the blind to detect the presence of EMF (electromagnetic field/electromagnetic waves) in the region he/she is, if there is, the microcontroller also sends a signal to a vibration motor (i.e. the output is in form of vibration), and if otherwise, the circuit does not trigger and thus, the vibration motor does nothing. The results obtained from the measurements have shown that this project work is optimally working and indeed operative.</p> 2021-07-07T14:42:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES AN ANALYSES ON PATIENTS’ QUEUING SYSTEM AT MUHAMMAD ABDULLAHI WASE SPECIALIST HOSPITAL, KANO 2021-07-08T11:15:21+00:00 Yunusa Ojirobe Abubakar Yahaya Muhammad Abdulkarim <p>A major cause for concern in hospitals is congestion, which brings about untoward hardship to patients due to long queues and delay in service delivery. This paper seeks to minimize the waiting time of patients by comparing the performance indicators of a single server and multi-server model at the Paediatrics Department of Muhammad Abdullahi Wase Specialist Hospital Kano (MAWSHK). In order to achieve this, primary data was obtained through direct observation which in turn is subjected to the test of goodness of fit to ascertain the distribution that best describes the data. The performance indicators comprising utilization factor, average number of patients in the queue, average number of patients in the system, average waiting time in queue and average waiting time in system for a single server and multi-server model were computed and analyzed respectively. Our findings indicate that the G/G/4 model performs better compared to the G/G/1 model as it minimizes the waiting time of patients</p> 2021-07-07T14:50:35+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ADOLESCENTS OF DANKANDE COMMUNITY OF KADUNA METROPOLIS 2021-07-08T11:14:59+00:00 H. Abdullahi M. K. Anigo A. O. Owolabi U. Alhassan A. B. Sallau M. I. Awal Y. S. Abubakar M. A. Saliu S. M. Hassan U. M. Jajere J. Luka <p>Studies on the nutritional status of adolescents in Dankande community of Kaduna metropolis were carried out. Adolescence is a period between 10 to 19 years of age. This period is a critical period where a healthy diet is needed for proper growth, development, academic performances and human capital development. A validated semi-structured questionnaire was used to assessed socio-demographic characteristic of the adolescent caregivers and dietary pattern of the adolescent while weight, height and BMI were used to assess the anthropometry indices of adolescent. 37.2% of adolescents were between age 10-14 years while 62.8% were between 15-19 years. Also, 5.1% of the adolescents were married, 88.5 were single and 6.4% windowed. (19.2%) of adolescents has no formal education, (2.6%) completed primary school, (29.5%) uncompleted primary school, (2.6%) completed Junior Secondary School, (19.2%) uncompleted Junior Secondary School, while (1.3%) completed Senior Secondary and (25.6%) did not complete Senior Secondary respectively.</p> <p>However, on average (35.9%) of adolescent were dieting and (64.1%) were not dieting while (32.1%) were concerned about their weight and (67.9%) were not concerned about their weight. Few adolescents were losing control of their weight (24.4%) while the majority had their weight in check (75.6%), they engaged in physical activity (85.9%), while many adolescents spent more than two hours per day watching tv/games (69.2%).&nbsp; 17.9% engage in smoking while (5.1%) are involved in drinking alcohol, beer or wine. The nutritional status of adolescents of Dankande community of Kaduna state (56.4%) is good when compared with the national average</p> 2021-07-07T15:15:49+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES TOXICITY OF Piper guineense SCHUM AND THONN AND Chlorpyrifos POWDERS FOR THE CONTROL OF Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic.) ON STORED Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt IN GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA 2021-07-08T11:14:37+00:00 A. O. Thompson H. M. Abba <p>A study was conducted with aim of determining toxicity effects of <em>Piper guineense</em> and chlorpyrifos powders on adult mortality of <em>Callosobruchus subinnotatus</em>, progeny emergence (F<sub>1</sub>), damage and weight loss, germination of Bambara nuts. Study was carried out at Botany laboratory, Gombe State University, Gombe State, Nigeria. <em>P. guineense</em> and chlorpyrifos were mixed at 0.0g and 0.8g concentration with 20g Bambara nuts inside 1000ml plastic containers. Experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design in three replicates. Ten pairs of adult <em>C. subinnotatus</em> unsexed were introduced into treatments nuts and stored for 7days. Bruchid mortality, progeny emergence, nut damage and weight loss, and germination were assessed. Data obtained were subjected to analyses of variance, significant differences of treatment mean were separated using New Duncan’s multiple range test at 5% probability level. <em>Piper guineense</em> and chlorpyrifos powders had comparable toxicity effects, causing 100% <em>C. subinnotatus</em> adult mortality between 5-7 days of treatment. <em>P. guineense</em> and chlorpyrifos powders proved effective as lower <em>C. subinnotatus</em> progeny emergence was observed compared with control. Progeny emergence under control was 93.42% and 100% higher than nuts treated with <em>P. guineense</em> and chlorpyrifos, respectively. <em>P. guineense</em> and chlorpyrifos did not cause significant reduction in seed germination. Study recommends <em>P. guineense</em> is a reliable organic material that could offer protection to Bambara nuts against <em>C. subinnotatus</em></p> 2021-07-07T15:26:58+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES A THREE-STEP INTERPOLATION TECHNIQUE WITH PERTURBATION TERM FOR DIRECT SOLUTION OF THIRD-ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 2021-07-08T11:14:15+00:00 Ezekiel Omole A. A. Aigbiremhon Abosede Funke Familua <p>In this paper, we developed a new three-step method for numerical solution of third order ordinary differential equations. Interpolation and collocation methods were used by choosing interpolation points at &nbsp;steps points using power series, while collocation points at &nbsp;step points, using a combination of powers series and perturbation terms gotten from the Legendre polynomials, giving rise to a polynomial of degree and equations. All the analysis on the method derived shows that it is zero-stable, convergent and the region of stability is absolutely stable. Numerical examples were provided to test the performance of the method. Results obtained when compared with existing methods in the literature, shows that the method is accurate and efficient</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2021-07-07T15:34:50+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES ON THE PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS OF A NEW EXTENSION OF EXPONENTIATED RAYLEIGH DISTRIBUTION 2021-07-09T11:14:19+00:00 Hussein Abdulsalam Yahaya Abubakar Hussaini Garba Dikko <p>Statistical distributions already in existence are not the most appropriate model that adequately describes real-life data such as those obtained from experimental investigations. Therefore, there are needs to come up with their extended forms to give substitutive adaptable models. By adopting the method of Transformed-Transformer family of distributions, an extension of Exponentiated Rayleigh distribution titled Gompertz- Exponentiated Rayleigh (GOM-ER) distribution was proposed and proved to be valid. Some properties of the new distribution including random number generator, quartiles, distribution of smallest and largest order statistics, reliability function, hazard rate function, cumulative or integrated hazard function, odds function, non-central moments, moment generating function, mean, variance and entropy measures were derived. &nbsp;Using the methods of maximum likelihood and maximum product of spacing, the four unknown parameters were estimated. &nbsp;Shapes of the hazard function depicts that GOM-ER is a distribution that is strictly increasing while those of the PDF depicts that GOM-ER can be skewed or symmetrical. Two datasets were fitted to determine the flexibility of GOM-ER. Simulation study evaluates the consistency, accuracy and unbiasedness of the GOM-ER parameter estimates obtained from the two frequentist estimation methods adopted.</p> 2021-07-07T15:47:10+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EFFECTS OF BANDITRY ON RUMINANT ANIMAL PRODUCTION IN KATSINA STATE 2021-07-11T11:19:44+00:00 Adebayo Aruwayo Segun S. Adeola R. A. Adeleke <p>Ruminant animal production has recently come under a big threat due to the challenges of insecurity. This study was conducted to assess the effect of banditry on ruminant animal production in Katsina state. Using a two-stage sampling procedure, &nbsp;&nbsp;60 ruminant animal farmers (keeping cattle, sheep and goats) in the state were selected for the study. In the first stage, three livestock markets from each of the state agricultural zones namely: Mai’dua, Charanchi and Sheme markets were purposively selected based on the volume of ruminant animal sold there. The use of livestock markets was because of the difficulty of accessing the famers in their homes due to the prevalent security challenges in the study area. In the second stage, 60 questionnaires were randomly distributed to ruminant animal producers identified in the markets. However, only 44 were used due to incomplete information. The information gathered was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study revealed that 66% of the respondent were within the age of 41-60 years, married (93%) and educated (57%). Similarly, majority of the respondents (64%) have large families. According to the study, the most prominent system of production used was Semi-intensive (29%) and forage was the major source of feed (70%). The study concluded that banditry has significantly reduced the ruminant production in the study area with untold negative effect on their standard of living and that government should improve security in the study area</p> 2021-07-10T14:54:27+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES MODIFICATION OF SEPARATE RATIO TYPE EXPONENTIAL ESTIMATOR: A POST-STRATIFICATION APPROACH 2021-07-11T11:19:22+00:00 Adam Rabiu Abubakar Yahaya Muhammad Abdulkarim <p>In this research, modification of separate ratio type exponential estimator introduced in an earlier study is proposed. Expressions for the bias and mean square error (MSE) of the proposed estimator up to first degree of approximation are derived. The optimum value of the constant which minimize the MSE of the suggested estimator is also obtained. In the same vein, efficiency comparisons between the proposed estimator and some related existing ones under the case of post-stratification is conducted. Empirical studies have been conducted to demonstrate the efficiencies of the suggested estimators over other considered estimators. The proposed MSE and Percentage Relative Efficiency (PRE) were used to evaluate the achievement of the modified estimator.</p> 2021-07-10T15:25:03+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES ANALYZING THE QUALITY OF GROUND WATER IN KADUNA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA 2021-07-11T11:18:58+00:00 Paul Yohanna Ocheme Victor Apeh Timothy Lawuyi <p>The study examines the groundwater quality of Kaduna south Local government area. The physio-chemical analysis of PH, sulphate, Phosphate, chloride, Iron, Electrical conductivity, Turbidity, Nitrates, Total suspended solid and Total hardness were carried out, the result obtained were&nbsp; compared with&nbsp; World Health Organization (WHO) recommended standards for drinking water. pH, sulphate, electrical conductivity, chloride, nitrate, total suspended solids, and total hardness in all location were within the acceptable standards of WHO. The collected data from the laboratory analysis were analyzed using simple tables, graphs and charts and the result reveals that turbidity and iron in all location were above the acceptable standards of WHO. Turbidity which is above the WHO with a significant &nbsp;value at all the eight sampling points with 25.3,22.6,28.7,11.6,9.05,9.05,10.4,14.3 NTU respectively, Iron &nbsp;concentration in all the sampling points is high with 35.0, 30.0,26.0 15.0,12.0,10.0, 15.0,11.0 mg/l respectively. Large amounts of Iron in drinking water can give it an unpleasant metallic taste. Iron is an essential element in human nutrition, and the health effects of iron in drinking water may include warding off, fatigue and anaemia (metaglobinaemia).Groundwater exploitation especially boreholes should be regulated by government in order to reduce the negative effect of water pollution to humans. This research reveals there is great need to analyze any ground water before drinking</p> 2021-07-10T16:49:35+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EVAPORATING DEMAND OF THE ATMOSPHERE USING ENERGY BALANCE METHODS 2021-07-13T11:18:45+00:00 John M. Peter M. U. Hamisu <p>In this study, two models are computed which are modified penman's monteith and Hargreaves – Samani model. The essence is to provide qualitative information related to the antagonistic effect of climate change on sustainable crop production through qualitative understanding of evaporation and transpiration processes in simple term evapotranspiration (ET<sub>o</sub>). This is computed using climatic parameters obtained from Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University; Agro weather station, Bauchi for the period of three years. This describes the two processes of water loss on plants, at first, through transpiration and on another note, on the soil surface by evaporation. The study deduced a comparative analysis on aforementioned Methods to determine the evaporating power of the atmosphere in improving crops yield and production through estimating the amount of water needed at the root zone of the plant and also, the seasonal variation during the study. The result of this study shows a little deviation in the two models. The model based on Modified Penman's Monteith displays optimal evapotranspiration. This makes the model satisfy its creation for estimation of reference evapotranspiration. In May, June, September, and October for 2013-2015, high trends are recorded. While In July and August low trend was recorded between climatic parameter and the estimated evapotranspiration. The statistical analyses also show that there is a linear relationship between the two estimated models. In the above months, it shows that application of water is needed for the healthy growth of crops and improved crops yield</p> 2021-07-13T09:26:04+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES TECHNOLOGIES USING TELEPHONE APPLICATIONS IN EDO STATE, NIGERIA 2021-07-13T11:18:24+00:00 Margaret Koyenikan I. S. Ohiomoba <p>The global crisis in Climate Change (CC) requires Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) Information and Technologies (CSAITs) to address it. Mobile Phone Applications (MPAs) among other ICTs could be veritable tools for enhancing job performance of field staff by facilitating their generation and dissemination of relevant information to adapt, cope with and mitigate the effects of CC. This study examined access and dissemination of CSAITs using MPAs by field staff in Edo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Specifically, it described the socio-economic characteristics, access and dissemination of CSA-related information, use of MPAs for CSAITs and the constraints to usage of MPAs among field workers. Data were collected from the 120 field staff comprising 78 Field Extension Workers and 42 Enumerators of Edo State Agricultural Development Programme (ADP), Nigeria. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). Results show that 55.8% of respondents were males and 40.8% were between 41-50 years of age, 54.2% were HND/B.Sc holders and 50.8% had between 11-20years working experience. The CSAITs mostly accessed (≥50%) using MPAs include irrigation and “<em>fadama”</em> farming, weather forecasts and zero or minimal tillage and non-burning while CSAITs mostly disseminated include manure application, mulching, and timely harvesting. The MPAs used for CSA-related tasks include voice calls ( =2.78), Short Messaging Service (SMS) ( =2.53), calculators ( =2.46), camera ( =2.46) and emails ( =2.43). Constraints to using MPAs for CSAITs-related tasks included inadequate knowledge and skills in CSAITs ( =3.72) and in the use of many MPAs and&nbsp;</p> 2021-07-13T09:35:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES ORDER AND CONVERGENCE OF THE ENHANCED 3-POINT FULLY IMPLICIT SUPER CLASS OF BLOCK BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION FORMULA FOR SOLVING INITIAL VALUE PROBLEM 2021-07-13T11:18:00+00:00 Muhammad Abdullahi Hamisu Musa <p>This paper studied an enhanced 3-point fully implicit super class of block backward differentiation formula for solving stiff initial value problems developed by Abdullahi &amp; Musa and go further to established the necessary and sufficient conditions for the convergence of the method. The method is zero stable, A-stable and it is of order 5. The method is found to be suitable for solving first order stiff initial value problems</p> 2021-07-13T09:44:53+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES HYPER-PARAMETER OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION ON SELECTED MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHM USING HEPATITIS DATASET 2021-07-13T11:17:39+00:00 Aminat Yusuf Oyelola Akande <p>Despite the popularity and utility of most machine learning techniques, expert knowledge is required in guiding choices about the suitable technique and settings that are good for solving a specific problem. The lack of expert information renders the procedures vulnerable to poor parameter settings. Several of these machine learning techniques configurations are offered under default settings. However, since different classification problems required suitable machine learning techniques, selecting the appropriate technique and tuning its settings are vital works that will rightly improve predictions in terms of reliability and accuracy. This study aims to perform grid search parameters tuning on 5-selected machine learning techniques on hepatitis disease. Comparative performance is drawn side-by-side with the default settings. The experimental results of the five tuning techniques show that using the configurations suggested in our work yield predictions of a greatly sophisticated quality than choice under its default settings. The result proves that tuning parameters of Support Vector Machine via grid search yields the best accuracy outcomes of 90% and has a competitive performance relative towards criteria of precision, recall, accuracy and Area Under the Curve. Present combinations of parameter settings for each of the techniques by identifying ranges of values for each setting that give good Hepatitis disease outcomes</p> 2021-07-13T10:00:32+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES GENETIC DIVERSITY OF BROILER CHICKEN BRANDS RAISED IN ARID AND SEMI-ARID ZONES OF NORTHERN NIGERIA USING MITOCHONDRIAL DNA 2021-07-13T11:17:17+00:00 A. Y. Abdullahi M. Nasir A. G. Khalee R. M. Ashiru H. M. Zango S. Madaki H. C. Ha N. Ismail K. Ahmad-Syazni <p>A sector of broiler production is growing very fast to meet the high demand of meat in Nigeria. However, high mortality rates among the broilers especially during the hot dry season in arid and semi-arid zones is worrisome. There is a need for molecular genetics study that could aid in management, conservation and sustainable exploitation of this species. To evaluate the genetic diversity of broilers raised in these regions, a total of forty-six broilers were randomly sampled from eight different brands (Agrited, Amo, Chi, Fol-hope, Obasanjo, Olam, Yammfy and Zatech) for mitochondrial DNA analysis. Four haplotypes were detected among all the samples used that belong to the four strains. The sequences of mitochondrial regions revealed high haplotype diversity (0.78600) and low nucleotide diversity (0.00286). &nbsp;Lower genetic diversity observed may increase the chances of rapid disease infection and distribution during any disease outbreak. Introduction of new strains of broilers with high genetic diversity is highly recommended. Future study should be conducted on the performance of these strains during the extremely hot temperature period in arid and semi-arid zones of Nigeria. This is to provide reliable information for the sake of local broiler farmer’s benefit who invests largely on this sector. The study will also help the geneticists from these brands to develop a strain that could survive and perform excellently under severe climatic conditions of the rural areas of arid and semi-arid zones of Nigeria</p> 2021-07-13T10:18:49+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES COMPOSITION SERIES OF THE SOLVABLE ABELIAN FACTOR GROUP SOURCE OF EQUATION OF ALL POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS 2021-07-18T11:19:46+00:00 Bernard Alechenu Babayo Muhammed Abdullahi Daniel Eneojo Emmanuel <p>This work penciled down the Composition Series of Factor Abelian Group over the source of all polynomial equations gleaned through&nbsp; the nth roots of unity regular gons on a unit circle, a circle of radius one and centered at zero. To get the composition series, the third isomorphism theorem has to be passed through. But, the third isomorphism theorem itself gleaned via the first which is a deduction of the naturally existing canonical map. The solution of the source atom of the equation of all equation of polynomials are solvable by the intertwine of the Euler’s Formula and the De Moivre’s Theorem which after the inter-math, they become within the domain of complex analysis. For the source root of the equations, there is a recursive set of homomorphisms and ontoness of the mappings geneting the sequential terms in the composition series.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-07-17T16:43:23+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES CONVENTIONAL MODELLING APPROACH TO PREDICT THE DYNAMICS OF COVID-19 2021-07-13T11:16:56+00:00 S Bashir I. Z. Shehu N. Chinenye <p>The study examined transmission dynamics of COVID-19 with conventional modelling approach. We developed a mathematical model for COVID-19 pandemic as SEQIR where I, the infected compartment is partitioned in to &nbsp;and for reported and unreported group of infected individuals. Basic reproduction number has been obtained and the stability analysis was carried out. The results revealed that the disease may die out in time</p> 2021-07-13T10:28:53+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF 2-{[(2-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)methylidene]amino} nicotinic acid AND ITS Iron (II) COMPLEXES 2021-07-13T11:16:33+00:00 G. Osigbemhe M. E. Khan A. Olusegun H. D. Kabiru <p>Iron (II) complexes of 2-{[(2-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl) methylidene]amino} nicotinic acid derived from o-phenylenediamine and 5- methoxysalicaldehyde were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, using&nbsp; UV-Visible, IR, <sup>1</sup>HNMR, <sup>13</sup>CNMR,&nbsp; They were screened against known disease causative microbes to establish their effectiveness and efficacies as antimicrobial agents compared with national standards drugs, ampiclox and ketoconazole. Results showed that<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">,</span> the Schiff base exhibits antimicrobial action against all the bacteria and most of the fungi with exception of <em>Candidas. albicans</em> which exhibited naught diameter zone of inhibition. It was also found that the synthesized Schiff base exhibited two digits purity range, implying that it is relatively stable.&nbsp; The metal complex was found to be more susceptible in overall biological activity than the Schiff base synthesized and studied due to their structural stability in relationship to its activity. This has opened another drug window for the remedy to human diseases caused by these microbes</p> 2021-07-13T10:40:47+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES ANTIFUNGAL EVALUATION OF DICHROSTACHY cinerea (LEAVES AND STEM) EXTRACTS AGAINST SOME DERMATOPHYTES 2021-07-13T11:16:10+00:00 Halima Isah Abdullahi Muhammad Yusha'u <p>This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of <em>Dichrostachys cinerea</em> extracts against some isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The powdered plant materials were extracted via soxhlet extraction technique using methanol, dichloromethane and petroleum ether as extraction solvents. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening for qualitative detection of plant secondary metabolites. The extracts were further tested for antifungal activity against human isolates of <em>Microsporum canis,</em> <em>Trichophyton terrestre, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton verrucosum</em>. The results of phytochemical screening showed the presence of some secondary metabolites including; alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides and steroid. Antifungal activity testing indicated that all the extracts were active against the isolates tested with the exception of <em>T. verrucosum</em>. Pet ether extracts showed the least activity as reflected in the zone of inhibition (24 mm at 50 mg/ml), against the isolates compared to methanol (30 mm at 25 mg/ml) and dichloromethane (30 mm at 50 mg/ml) extracts. The findings of this study, indicated that the plant is a potential for the drug candidate for the treatment of dermatophytic diseases and support the claim for their traditional use against skin diseases</p> 2021-07-13T10:50:40+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES LEVELS OF HEAVY METALS IN SOME SELECTED FISH OF RIVER GONGOLA BASIN, ITS DAM AND DADINKOWA DAM, GOMBE STATE NIGERIA 2021-07-14T11:16:58+00:00 A. H. Santuraki A. U. Babayo Abdu Zakari A. G. Abdulkadir <p>This study was carried out in ten (10) different locations within River Gongola, its Dam, and Dadinkowa Dam, Gombe State, Nigeria during the wet and dry season to study the water quality in terms of physicochemical properties to ascertain the levels of contaminants due to flooding and anthropogenic activities and the levels of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, and Ni) in the two species of fish (Clarias gariepinus and Bagrus docmak). A total of 200 water and 360 fish samples comprising two different species were collected in the month of March-June 2017 (Dry season) and July-October 2017 (Wet Season). The results of physicochemical properties obtained ranges between Temperature 29.0-30 0C and 30-32 0C, pH 5.4-7.8 and 6.0-6.9, Conductivity 93.3-161 μS/cm3 and 104.9-128 μS/cm3, Dissolved oxygen 1.2-3.98 mg/l and 0.4-3.1 mg/l, Total Suspended Solids 10-860 mg/l and 13-1180 mg/l, Total Dissolved Solids 46.5-80.5 mg/l and 54.2-76.5 mg/l, Turbidity 424.7-783.5 NTU and 11.15-442.1 NTU, Phosphate 1.82-7.23 mg/l and 0.00-0.11 mg/l, and Nitrate 2.25-8.82 mg/l and 2.68-6.81 mg/l during wet and dry season respectively. The result reveals that turbidity, PO43, DO, TSS, and TDS were above the acceptable permissible limits of WHO While the mean concentration levels of heavy metals in Clarias gariepinus and Bagrus docmak revealed that Cr was below the detectable limit while Cd ranges between 0.5-7.75 µg/g, Pb rangesbetween 3.9-35.6 µg/g during the wet and dry season. The mean concentrations of all the studied metals were above the permissible limit of WHO with a higher concentration during the dry season.</p> 2021-07-13T07:37:09+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF SEVERE MALARIA AMONG CHILDREN IN TWO GENERAL HOSPITALS, JIGAWA STATE- NIGERIA 2021-07-16T11:19:17+00:00 H. I. Sa'idu G. P. Shiaka J. B. Balogun <p>The prevalence and pattern of presentation of severe malaria differ from one area to another, in one age group and gender. A descriptive cross sectional study of children between the ages of one month and fourteen years with symptoms of severe malaria was conducted between July and December 2018 in Dutse and Birnin Kudu Local Government Area of Jigawa State. Venous blood samples were used for parasitological, hematological and biochemical examination following standard procedures. Thick and thin blood films were prepared, stained and examined at x100 magnification. A total of 172 children were considered in which, 73/167(43.7) children had severe malaria. Children less than 5 years of age had the highest percentage of severe malaria (47.1%; 95% CI = 39.5 to 54.7). Hyperpyrexia, prostration, hyper parasitemia and multiple convulsions were the commonest presentations. While metabolic acidosis, jaundice, hypoglycemia and respiratory distress were the least presenting features, no child presented spontaneous bleeding or shock. Furthermore, 21/73 children with severe malaria had only one feature of severity, 32/73 (43.8) had two features of severity, while 14/73 (19.2) of the children had up to three features. Only 4/73 (5.5) children had four of the features of severity. Chi-square analysis showed significant difference (P &lt;0.05) in prostration and multiple convulsions among children less than and above 5 years. The prevalence of severe malaria in less than five years old is high; hence care givers should present symptoms early to the hospital in order to prevent progression to severe life threatening malaria.</p> 2021-07-16T09:38:45+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES GREEN BIOSYNTHESIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLES MEDIATED BY TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA EXTRACT AND ITS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES 2021-07-16T11:19:39+00:00 Oluwasesan M. Bello Abdulsalam Shehu Shema Aisha Ibrahim Saulawa <p>Biosynthesized Nanoparticles especially from plants are a new research trend nowadays. In this study, green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (TCAgNPs) employing <em>Trichosanthes cucumerina</em> methanol leaf extract was realized. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of both the methanol extract of <em>T. cucumerina</em> and TCAgNPs were carried out and compared. Indomethacin and ascorbic acid were employed as a positive control for these activities respectively.&nbsp; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy were employed to characterize the formation of TCAgNPs. The TCAgNPs showed absorption bands at around 340-440 nm which is a distinctive band for Ag Nanoparticles and functional groups accountable for Ag nanoparticles synthesized by plants were noticed in the FTIR. TCAgNPs were spherical in morphology as seen from the SEM images. &nbsp;TCAgNPs displayed better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities at 400 ug/ml (9.79±0.58) as compared with its polar extracts (7.74±0.58) but both the polar part (52.06±1.27) and TCAgNPs (61.72±2.54) were better in anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the positive control indomethacin (antiinflammatory) (48.30±0.23). This study revealed that AgNPs from plants can find germaneness in food, drugs, environmental sciences and drugs.</p> 2021-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EFFECT OF MALARIA INFECTION ON HEPATIC AND RENAL FUNCTIONS IN PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINIC AT GENERAL HOSPITAL DUTSE, JIGAWA-NIGERIA 2021-07-16T11:18:50+00:00 J. B. Balogun Shamsiyya Sani Muhammad Musa Mustapha Dogara <p>The effect of malaria infection on hepatic and renal functions in pregnancywas investigated. Three malarious and non-malarious pregnant women &nbsp;of age ranges 15 to 40 years with a mean (SD) of 23.5 (6.6) years and a median (IQR) of 20.5 (18.3 to 27) years were enrolled. Liver enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) and Kidney (UCE) functions were determined using Randox standard assay kits. The levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and albumin were significant as malaria infected pregnant women had significantly lowered levels of ALP and albumin compared to controls (21.3 vs 26.1 IU/L, <em>P</em> = 0.03 and 4.8 vs 6.0 g/dl <em>P</em> = 0.02). There was no significant difference between malaria infected pregnant women and their non-malarious counterparts (<em>P</em> &gt; 0.05) in their renal functions. There was no significant difference in mean concentrations of urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and chloride&nbsp; regardless of the severity of malaria. Usually in pregnancy markers of liver function decrease due to expansion of extracellular fluid except alkaline phosphatase which is elevated due to its placental origin. Results of this study showed decreased level of ALP &nbsp;which could possibly be an indication that the parasite has not reached its hepatic stage. The severity of gestational malaria depends on the initial immunity of the pregnant woman. The impact of malaria on pregnancy and conversely, the impact of pregnancy on malaria, are two factors which must be put into consideration during gestational malaria</p> 2021-07-16T10:07:55+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES THE STUDY OF LONGITUDINAL AND LATITUDINAL VARIATION OF EQUATORIAL ELECTROJET SIGNATURE AT STATIONS WITHIN THE 96°MM AND 210°MM AFRICAN AND ASIAN SECTORS RESPECTIVELY UNDER QUIET CONDITIONS. 2021-07-17T15:57:55+00:00 Aniefiok Akpaneno Matthew Joshua K. R. Ekundayo <p>Solar quiet current (S_q) and Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ) are two current systems which are produced by electric current in the ionosphere.&nbsp; The enhancement of the horizontal magnetic field is the EEJ. This research is needed for monitoring equatorial geomagnetic current which causes atmospheric instabilities and affects high frequency and satellite communication. This study presents the longitudinal and latitudinal variation of equatorial electrojet signature at stations within the 96°mm and 210°mm African and Asian sectors respectively during quiet condition. Data from eleven observatories were used for this study. The objectives was&nbsp; to determine the longitudinal and latitudinal geomagnetic field variations during solar quiet conditions, Investigate monthly variation and diurnal transient seasonal variation; Measure the strength of the EEJ at stations within the same longitudinal sectors and find out the factors responsible for the longitudinal and latitudinal variation of EEJ. Horizontal (H) component of geomagnetic field for the year 2008 from Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) network were used for the study. The International Quiet Days (IQDs) were used to identify quiet days. Daily baseline values for each of the geomagnetic element H&nbsp; were obtained.&nbsp; The monthly average of the diurnal variation was found. The seasonal variation of dH was found. Results showed that: The longitudinal and latitudinal variation in the dH differs in magnitude from one station to another within the same longitude due to the difference in the influence of the EEJ on them.</p> 2021-07-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EFFECT OF SOLID AND LIQUID ORGANIC FERTILIZER ON GROWTH, YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF ROSSELLE (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) IN THE NIGERIAN SAVANNAH 2021-07-17T16:05:00+00:00 K. M. Ladan M. G. Abubakar J. Suleiman <p>The Study was conducted to evaluate the effect of solid and liquid organic fertilizer on growth and yield of rosselle in 2016 cropping season at Institute of Agricultural Reserve Zaria, Samaru (11011’N 07038E and 686m) and Institute of Horticultural Research Farm Bagauda (12000’N 8031”Em 488m) in Northern Guinea Savannah and Sudan Savannah Ecological Zones of above sea level Nigeria. Treatments consisted of four levels of solid poultry manure (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0) tons/ha and five levels of liquid organic manure from Grand Total Organic Fertilizer Limited (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.9) litres/ha, which were factorially combined in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Data on growth parameter were collected on plant height (cm), plant dry weight (g), leaf Area index crop growth rate (CGR) Relative Growth Rate (RGR) and Net assimilation rate (NAR) while data on yield parameters like number of calyx per pant, 100 seed weight (g) and&nbsp; calyx yield per hectare kg/ha were collected. Results showed that plant height, plant dry weight(g), 100 seed weight(g) and calyx dry yield kg/ha had a significant increase with application of 2.0 litres/ha of liquid fertilizer than other rates. While application of solid poultry manure at 3.0ton/ha significantly increases plant height, net assimilation rate, leaf area index and calyx dry weight when compared with other rates. From the results obtained, the combination of 2.0 litres/ha liquid organic fertilizer and 3.0 ton/ha solid poultry manure produce the highest calyx yield at both location.</p> 2021-07-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES FLORISTIC COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY OF TREE SPECIES IN KUMO TOWN AND ITS ENVIRONS 2021-07-21T11:23:37+00:00 Sadiq Abdullahi H. M. Abba <p>Study was conducted on Floristic Composition and Diversity of Tree Species in Kumo Town and its Environs. &nbsp;The aim was to investigate the Tree Species Structure, composition and diversity. Systematic random sampling method was used to sample the Tree species. The result showed that a total number of Twenty –Seven (27) species belonging to 8 genera and 12 families were identified. The family Leguminosae: Mimosoideae had the highest number of 4 species. The family Combretaceae, Moraceae, Caesalpinoidceae, and Palmae had 3 species each. The family Anacaediaceae, Myrtaceae, were represented by 2 species each. The remaining 5 families; Balanitaceae, Bombacaceae, Meliaceae, Rhamnaceae and Sterculiaceae were represented by 1 species each. The plant with the highest dominance was <em>Adansonia digitata. </em>The Shannon Weiner index was 2.45 and Simpson index was 0.48. This study therefore concluded that the species <em>Azadirachta indica </em>was the most abundant, with highest Relative Density, Relative Frequency, and Importance Value Index in the study area. This study recommended that the plants that had the lowest IVI such as <em>Prosopis africana</em>, <em>Cassia sieberiana</em>, need urgent conservation measures</p> 2021-07-20T13:13:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES STOCHASTIC TRANSMISSION DYNAMICS OF COVID-19 WITHIN A DENSITY DEPENDENT POPULATION 2021-07-29T09:56:33+00:00 Lubem M. Kwaghkor Stephen E. Onah Ibrahim G. Bassi Theophilus Danjuma <p>Coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease. Most infected people are known to develop mild to moderate symptoms and recover without requiring special treatment except for those who have underlying medical conditions and the elderly have a higher risk of developing severe disease. This research is aimed at studying the probable spread of the COVID-19 virus within a completely susceptible density-dependent population using a modified exponential distribution function. The modified exponential distribution function was extended to include the Basic Reproduction Number&nbsp;which was computed using the Nigerian COVID-19 index cases from 27<sup>th</sup> February to 18<sup>th</sup> April, 2020 to be. Various interesting results were obtained for the&nbsp;including the time period for the spread for different population sizes. The duration of the spread of the virus is from 4 to 7 hours with an average of 5.5 hours. This indicates that, for one infectious person with &nbsp;to enter a completely susceptible population of size , the virus can spread through the entire population in about &nbsp;hours if no control measures are in place.</p> 2021-07-20T13:22:13+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES ON COEFFICIENT BOUNDS AND FUNCTIONALS OF ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS ON A UNIT DISC 2021-07-21T11:22:48+00:00 Philip Terwase Ajai T. O. Opoola K. O. Babalola <p>We introduce and investigate a new subclasses of the function class &nbsp;of biunivalent functions defined in the open unit disk, which are associated with linear combinations of some geometric expressions, satisfying subordinate conditions. Coefficients and Fekete-Szegö functional for the class are obtained.</p> 2021-07-20T13:41:46+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES DERIVATION OF 2-POINT ZERO STABLENUMERICAL ALGORITHM OF BLOCK BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION FORMULA FOR SOLVING FIRST ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 2021-07-21T11:22:26+00:00 Muhammad Abdullahi Bashir Sule Mustapha Isyaku <p>This paper is aimed at deriving a 2-point zero stable numerical algorithm of block backward differentiation formula using Taylor series expansion, for solving first order ordinary differential equation. The order and zero stability of the method are investigated and the derived method is found to be zero stable and of order 3. Hence, the method is suitable for solving first order ordinary differential equation. Implementation of the method has been considered</p> 2021-07-20T14:13:15+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES PREVALENCE OF EXTENDED SPECTRUM BETA-LACTAMASES (ESBLS) PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI AND KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE AMONG HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS FROM NIGERIA 2021-07-26T11:25:21+00:00 Olivia Sochi Egbule Bernard O. Ejechi <p>The aim of this study was to determine the resistance patterns and ESBLs production among clinical isolates of <em>Escherichia coli </em>and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae </em>in two government hospitals of Delta State, Nigeria. Urine, blood and wound samples were aseptically collected from hospitalized patients, bacteriologically processed and isolates identified using standard protocols. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined by disc diffusion method. The plasmid DNA of Multidrug resistance (MDR) isolates were extracted by alkaline lysis method. Phenotypic ESBL production of the MDR isolates was done by Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST) while PCR was used to detect <em>bla</em><sub>CTX-M</sub>, <em>bla</em><sub>SHV</sub> and <em>bla</em><sub>TEM </sub>among isolates. A total of 217 isolates were obtained, of which 161(74.2%) and 56(25.8%) were <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> respectively. The antimicrobial resistance varied from one location to another. All isolates obtained from blood of general hospital Warri (GHW) were 100% resistant to amoxicillin clavulanic acid and the cephalosporins (ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and cefuroxime). Isolates from General hospital Agbor (GHA) showed high resistance of 75.0% to cefotaxime, 93.8% to each of ceftazidime and cefuroxime. Overall low resistance to nitrofurantoin was observed in <em>E</em>. <em>coli</em> isolates obtained from urine of GHW (27.5%) and GHA (20.8%). Out of 217 isolates, 75.1% (163/217) were MDR, of which 36.8% and 39.3% produced ESBL by DDST and PCR respectively. The most common ESBL gene was <em><u>bla</u></em><u><sub>CTX-</sub></u><sub>M</sub> expressed by 28(17.2%) of the isolates. The high prevalence of MDR and ESBL underscores the need for a continuous local monitoring of antibiotic resistance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-07-26T09:53:23+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES COMPARATIVE PROFITABILITY OF MANAGING MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA ON THE VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF CUCUMBERS (CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.) USING ROOT GROW (MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI) AND BROILER DROPPINGS 2021-07-26T11:24:53+00:00 Oluwatoyin E. Bello Nkechi B. Izuogu Oluwasesan M. Bello <p>Screen-house and field experiments were carried out to evaluate and compare the activities of Root grow (mycorrhiza fungi) and broiler droppings (singly and both) on root-knot nematode, <em>Meloidogyne incognita</em> infecting Cucumber, <em>Cucumis sativus</em> (L). The experiment was designed as a 2 by 5 factorial fitted into a Complete Randomised Design (CRD) and Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) for screen house and field experiments respectively. Two levels each of the two treatments were evaluated both in the screen house and on the field. Root-grow (mycorrhiza fungi) was evaluated at the rate of 0.5 g and 1.0 g while broiler droppings were evaluated at the rate of 50 g and 100 g. The effects of treatments on vegetative growth as well as nematode damage and population were determined both in the screen house and on the field. All data collected were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and where treatment means were significant, multiple comparisons of treatments were done using Tukey’s honesty significant difference at a 5 % level of significance. Broiler droppings at 100 g and 50 g were more effective in controlling nematode than the two levels of Root grow (mycorrhiza fungi). Plant growth was best with broiler droppings at 100 g followed by broiler droppings at 50 g. Nematode population was reduced in all plant treated and were less galled compared with the control. The results showed that broiler droppings and mycorrhiza fungi can be used in controlling root-knot nematode<em> Meloidogyne incognita </em>on cucumber</p> 2021-07-26T10:59:39+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES CORROSION INHIBITION EFFICIENCY, ADSORPTION BEHAVIOR, KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMIC STUDIES OF LANNEA ACIDA ETHANOL LEAVES EXTRACT ON MILD STEEL IN HYDROCHLORIC ACID 2021-07-29T11:27:42+00:00 Abdulfatai A. Siaka Sunday O. Owa M. K. Gafar J. O. Okunola <p>The corrosion inhibition potential of <em>lannea acida</em> (LA) ethanol leaves extract was investigated using mild steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. The leaves extract was characterized using FT- IR Spectroscopy. The surface analysis of the mild steel was also studied using scanning electron microscopy. The study was carried out at an ambient temperature and selected high temperatures. The LA leaves extract concentration ranges from 0.1- 0.9g/L. The data obtained from weight loss measurements show that the leaves extract repressed the corrosion rate of mild steel. The increase in temperature with a corresponding increase or decrease in the inhibitor efficiency of LA leaves extract shows that the adsorption mechanism obeyed comprehensive adsorption. The value of activation energies (Ea) obtained which ranged from 15.32 to 17.63 kJ mol<sup>-1</sup> agrees with the physical adsorption mechanism. The values of enthalpy of activation (ΔH*) obtained were positive and ranged from 38.29 to 59.00 KJ mol<sup>-1</sup> is an indication that the dissolution of the mild steel is an endothermic reaction and requires less energy in the presence of LA leaves extract. The values of entropy of activation (ΔS*) obtained which were negative indicate that the activated complex in the rate-determining step is associative rather than dissociative. The kinetics study shows the adsorption process follows first-order kinetics. The adsorption isotherm data fitted best into Freundlich adsorption isotherm</p> 2021-07-29T10:11:20+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES 2D ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF MINERALS’ OCCURRENCES IN UGONEKI, EDO STATE, SOUTH-SOUTH, NIGERIA 2021-09-21T12:04:46+00:00 Y. S. Onifade V. B. Olaseni I. G. Baoku C. Eravwodoke <p>Geophysical investigation using the 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was carried out to assess the subsurface of Ugoneki and its environs in order to investigate for minerals. A total of six (6) traverses, 200 m long each, three (3) transverse lines were in the North-South direction and the other three (3) traverses in the West-East direction using the Wenner electrode configuration. 2D Wenner resistivity data were acquired along each traverse. The data were inverted to reveal a spatially continuous resistivity distribution in 2D within the study area. The 2D results reveal a depth of 39.6 m across each traverse. Resistivity values vary from 87.1 – 3423 Ωm in the entire study area. From the standard resistivity table, the following solid and non-metallic type of minerals can be delineated in the study area which is representative of sandy clay, lateritic clay sand, sandstone and limestone with resistivity values that range from 87.1 – 89.9 Ωm, 1201 – 1462 Ωm, 2069 – 3423 Ωm, and 2069 – 3423 Ωm respectively. The implication of this research is to know the type and the particular location where these non-metallic solid minerals are located in the subsurface for future exploration. The results of resistivity values are compared with those in the literature and are found to be in good agreement. In order to quantify these minerals, it is also recommended to use higher dimension (3D) of resistivity method (ERT) in the study area.</p> 2021-09-20T21:26:42+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION USING MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM – A REVIEW 2021-06-21T10:53:02+00:00 Hassan Abdulsalam Ibrahim Nuhu <p>World development increased dramatically ever since the Industrial Revolution, in particular after &nbsp;second world war (WWII), which drove the rise of energy consumption. Thus, energy consumption in the World has been growing continuously in the past 50 years. Using micro Combined Heat and Power (mCHP) allows energy scheduling and demand-side management depending on different variables which will benefit users and suppliers. Different researches have been conducted due to increasing interest from researchers to increase and optimise the advantages of energy scheduling. In addition to the mCHP system, optimisation process also includes distributed energy sources (solar panels) with electricity storage. On the demand side, various devices with different load profiles which can be controlled over time can be considered. This study therefore, being a desktop based one, sought to review the energy demand-side management as it applies to the use of mCHP in residential settings.</p> 2021-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES HEAVY METALS IN FOOD CROPS: IDEAL SOURCES AND ROLES OF URBAN AGRICULTURE IN FACILITATING THEIR CONSUMPTION- A REVIEW 2021-06-21T10:52:39+00:00 N. Abdullahi E. C Igwe M. A. Dandago N. B. Umar <p>The qualities of agricultural soil and water are diminishing continuously due to the rigorous anthropogenic activities currently stocking the soil with a lot of toxic chemicals including heavy metals. Heavy metals are highly persistent and non-biodegradable, control of their contamination is very tricky to handle. Their presence in soil and water is detrimental to food crops and humans. Various sources of heavy metals contaminants and the role of urban food production on human heavy metal contamination were discussed.Heavy metals have their way into the soil and food crops through wastewater irrigation and production in contaminated soil. The habitual heavy metals contamination sources for food crops are wastewater irrigation, abuse of agrochemicals, production in the contaminated field, atmospheric deposit when foods are exposed to contaminated air, and unethical mining activities. Agricultural soil in urban and peri-urban areas are heavily contaminated with heavy metal due to various anthropogenic activities. Wastewater irrigation intensify the contamination by supplying the soil with more heavy metals. The heavy metals are passed to food during production and subsequently to humans after consumption.</p> 2021-06-20T21:32:31+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES TRANSPORTATION OPTIMIZATION MODEL USING THE DISTANCE MATRIX: A CASE OF CEMENT DISTRIBUTION FROM SELECTED COMPANIES TO DISTRIBUTION CENTERS IN EBONYI STATE 2021-06-23T10:56:36+00:00 Emmanuel Eneojo DANIEL Benard ALECHENU Mustapha Umar ADAMU Gambo YAKUBU <p>Ascertaining an optimal cement distribution plan for cement companies in Nigeria has remained a challenge. The absence or fluctuation of data for estimating the cost of transporting cement from each source to each distribution center is a big stumbling block whenever modeling attempts are being made via transportation algorithms. This work has succeeded in removing these challenges by providing a Transportation Optimization Model for cement distribution using transportation Distance Matrix instead of transportation Cost Matrix. This research seeks to improve supply in the Nigerian cement industry. Three selected factories (Gboko, Port-Harcourt and Calabar) and four major distribution centers (Abakaliki, Onueke, Ohaozara and Afikpo) in Ebonyi state were considered for this work. The result of the findings using the Vogel Approximation Method, minimized the total transportation distance and by implication the total transportation costs.</p> 2021-06-22T19:29:12+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES A REVIEW ON 5G WIRELESS NETWORK IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES IN NIGERIA 2021-07-11T11:18:13+00:00 Kareem A. Bakare Lawal Idris Bagiwa M. M. Nafisa Auwa Abdulsalam <p>The 5G networks stand for fifth generation mobile technology and can outperform earlier versions of wireless communication technology. The new technology provides diverse abilities and encourages full networking among countries globally. Fifth Generation (5G) wireless communication network development was an initiative in furtherance to the current Fourth Generation (4G) wireless communication network technology. The 5G networks for future applications in all domains provide prospects for a fully connected society. The proliferation of all connectivity between the devices provides a broader range of new governance, business structures, health care delivery, Economic growth and insecurity reduction which subsequently paves a path towards different industry profiles, such as energy, Communication and manufacturing sectors. This paper discusses the Concept of 5G Network, 5G network implementation strategies and technology requirements, deployment challenges as well as suggestions on the way forward based on Nigerian context</p> 2021-07-10T17:09:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES