FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES 2023-09-29T02:35:19+00:00 FUDMA Journal of Sciences Open Journal Systems <p><strong>The <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">FUDMA</a> Journal of Sciences (FJS) </strong>is a peer-reviewed publication of original research papers, review articles, technical reports and short communications in all aspects in the fields of science and technology such as Chemistry, Earth and atmospheric sciences, Biology in general, Agriculture, Biochemistry, Botany, Microbiology, Environmental Science,&nbsp; Computer Science, Engineering, Physics, Materials Science, Mechanics, Mathematics, Statistics, Nutrition and Food Science, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Polymer and Textile Sciences, Process Modeling and Computational Analysis, Renewable Energy and waste to resource processes.</p> MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF CORRUPTION DYNAMICS: EXAMINING THE REINTEGRATION OF FORMERLY CORRUPT INDIVIDUALS 2023-09-07T02:28:17+00:00 Rwat Solomon Isa Sabastine Emmanuel Nanle Tanko Danat Samuel Hwere Tsok <p>Corruption is a global menace that undermines the foundations of societies, including the rule of law, fairness, human rights, democracy, and economic growth. This research aims to comprehensively understand the dynamics of corruption and explore strategies for its prevention and control. Specifically, it focuses on the re-integration of individuals who have recovered from corrupt practices back into the population. By evaluating the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs, the potential for relapse, and the influence of societal support systems, the study seeks to determine whether the re-integration of formerly corrupt individuals contributes to a reduction in corruption or reintroduces corrupt practices. The research employs mathematical models and analyses to investigate the transmission of corruption within the population. It examines the stability properties of uncontrolled corruption models and explores the effectiveness of different combinations of corruption prevention measures. By studying these factors, the research aims to gain insights into the underlying dynamics of corruption and identify strategies that can effectively mitigate its prevalence. The findings of this research will contribute to a deeper understanding of corruption dynamics and provide valuable insights for designing intervention programs. By informing policies and strategies, this research aims to combat corruption and foster a society that upholds integrity and ethical practices. The goal is to create a framework that supports the eradication of corruption and the promotion of transparency and accountability in all aspects of society.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES FOR PREDICTION OF COVID-19 IN POTENTIAL PATIENTS 2023-09-07T02:28:20+00:00 Oyeranmi Adigun Mohammed Mutiu Rufai Folasade Mercy Okikiola Sunday Olukumoro <p>The coronavirus pandemic overwhelmed many countries and a shortage of testing kits and centers for exposed patients worsens the situation in most countries. These have prompted the need to quickly predict COVID-19 in patients and stop the spread of the virus. In this research, we present a method for predicting COVID-19 based on symptoms, and to make this system efficient, the dataset was obtained from Afriglobal Laboratory Nigeria, and preprocessing and feature extraction were done on the dataset. Three classifiers, logistic regression, support vector machines, and hybridization of the logistic regression and support vector machines were used to train the data. The test data were evaluated against the model, and the research found that the performance analysis values for accuracy, precision, recall, and F1score for logistic regression (LR) are 91%, 91%, 95%, and 93%, for Support Vector Machines (SVM), 94%, 93%, 100%, and 96% and for the Hybridized model (LR+SVM) are 95%, 94%, 98%, and 96%.&nbsp; To get the parameters needed for the performance evaluation of the classifiers, the confusion matrix method was employed. In comparison to existing methods and studies, the hybridized system performs better than LR and SVM models. As a result, the hybridized model can accurately predict Covid-19.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA LEAF AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI, STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND CANDIDA ALBICANS 2023-09-07T02:28:21+00:00 AbdulGaniy Agbaje Maryam Moyosore Muhammed Sharafa Adegoke Bello Oluwabukola Kudirat Jimoh-Hamza Muinat Olanike Kazeem Zainab Oluwatoyin Azeez Khadijat Ndagi Jibril <p><em>Azadirachta indica</em> is a plant commonly known as neem. It is native to the Indian subcontinent and most countries in Africa, including Nigeria. The aim of this study was to synthesise silver nanoparticles and examine antimicrobial activities of crude methanolic extract of <em>Azadirachta indica</em> leaves on clinical isolates of <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli </em>and <em>Candida albicans</em>. Methanol was the solvent used for the extraction. The characterization of synthesized AgNPs was carried out using the UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Antimicrobial activity was conducted using disc diffusion method while the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were determined using broth dilution method. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized <em>Azadirachta indica</em> AgNPs was carried out using standard agar well diffusion method. Qualitative phytochemicals analysis revealed presence of tannins, phenols, alkaloids, phytosteroid, and terpenoid while flavonoids, steroids and saponin were absent.&nbsp; Antibacterial activities of the extracts using the ditch method (concentrations of 100mg/mL, 50mg/mL, 25mg/mL, 12.5mg/mL, and 6.25mg/mL) recorded no zone of inhibition for <em>Staphylococcus</em> <em>aureus</em> and <em>Escherichia</em> <em>coli.</em> Antimicrobial activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from methanolic extract showed no zone of inhibition for <em>Staphylococcus</em> <em>aureus.</em> The zone of inhibition against <em>Escherichia</em> <em>coli</em> was 5.33mm while for <em>Candida albicans</em> the zone of inhibition was 15.33mm. Based on the results obtained from this study, it could be said that methanolic extract of <em>Azadirachta indica</em> leaves contains phytochemicals of pharmacological significance which could be exploited as antifungal agent.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE IMPACTS OF METROLOGICAL PARAMETERS ON CRYSTALLINE AND AMORPHOUS MODULES AT MINNA, NIGERIA 2023-09-07T02:28:35+00:00 Ahmed Mohammed Abubakar Adamu Ezenwora Joel Aghaegbunam Moses Ukiri <p>Photovoltaic (PV) module performance is rated under standard test conditions (STC) i.e. irradiance of 1000 W/m², solar spectrum of Air Mass 1.5 and module temperature at 25°C. Manufacturers of photovoltaic modules typically provide the ratings at only one operating condition i.e. STC. However, PV module operates over a large range of environmental conditions at the field. So the manufacturer’s information is not sufficient to determine the actual performance of the module at field. Optimization of solar energy is affected by so many factors ranging from conversion efficiency of PV module to local metrological conditions. The research work therefore, evaluates the performance of three PV technologies using performance ratio. Metrological parameters such as solar radiation intensity, wind speed, relative humidity, and air temperature were measured simultaneously with the output electrical parameters from the three modules exposed to field test using metrological sensors and a CR1000 software-based data logging system with computer interface attached to the modules. Four years consecutives metrological and modules output data’s were collected from the modules and analyzed. The findings indicates that metrological parameters fluctuate non-linear with the modules output, under this conditions the trends as measured by the output power revealed that polycrystalline module has a better performance than amorphous module followed by mono-crystalline module in this experiment. The paper recommends the need to mitigate substandard modules entering our market through appropriate monitoring agencies and the setting of solar module laboratory for locally production of solar modules that would captures our local metrological parameters towards greater efficiency.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EFFECTS OF STARCH WASTEWATER ON THE PERFORMANCE OF MAIZE (Zea mays L.) IN ABRAKA, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA 2023-09-07T02:28:21+00:00 O. M. Agbogidi C. E. Enujeke O. P. Okpewho, M. Efobo C. O. Ogbemudia S. Edokpiawe 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES ANALYSIS OF PERCENTAGE OF POWER LOSS FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE UNDER TEMPERATURE CONDITION IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA 2023-09-07T02:28:15+00:00 Kehinde R. Ekundayo A. C. Egbugha M. C. Egbugha <p>For optimal design and system planning, it is essential to assess the actual operating status of solar to determine the detrimental impact of power losses. The paper analyzes the power loss caused by photovoltaic (PV) modules under the temperature conditions of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study conducted an outdoor experiment between 7:00 AM and 6:00 PM, with a 30-minute interval to evaluate the performance of the installed modules in real time.&nbsp; The power output parameters and temperature of a monocrystalline and polycrystalline 120Watt PV panel were measured for three months, covering three seasons: August, January, and April. The experiment used two MASTECH MY64 digital multimeters and a temperature sensor (thermostat). The study found that the PV panel should reach its peak point between 11:00 AM and 2:30 PM, due to the angle of incident rays from the sun, high solar irradiance, and temperature. However, it was also observed that the heat generated by the PV panel in that region as a result of the panel's prolonged exposure to the sun negatively affected the output voltage and power generated. The results also showed that as the temperature increased, the current output increased but the voltage and power output decreased. The findings observed that every 1°C rise in temperature resulted in an average decrease of 0.51 watts (0.43%) for monocrystalline and 0.9 watts (0.78%) for polycrystalline during the solar peak. The study concluded that determining the actual working state of PV modules is crucial for an optimal design solution and improved system...</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES SINE-LOMAX DISTRIBUTION: PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS TO REAL DATA SETS 2023-09-07T02:28:22+00:00 Bashir Alhaji Mustapha Alhaji Modu Isa Omeiza Bashiru Sule Ibrahim Ismaila Itopa <p>In this study, a novel distribution called the two-parameter Sine Lomax distribution was introduced. The distribution was developed by combining the Sine generalized family of distributions with the Lomax distribution. Various statistical properties of this new distribution were investigated, including the survival function, hazard function, quantile function, rth moment, entropy, moment generating function, and order statistics. The probability density function (PDF) plot indicated that the distribution is skewed to the right. Additionally, the hazard plot of the Sine Lomax distribution showed both monotonic increase and monotonic decrease. To estimate the parameters of the newly proposed distribution, the maximum likelihood approach was employed. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the consistency of the estimators. The simulation results indicated that the estimators are consistent, as the bias and mean square error decrease with increasing sample sizes. The performance of the Sine Lomax distribution was compared to other extensions of Lomax distributions and the baseline distribution which is the Lomax distribution using various evaluation criteria, including the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Consistent Akaike Information Criterion (CAIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), and Hannan-Quinn Information Criterion (HQIC). The proposed distribution demonstrated the lowest scores among the competing models, indicating its potential for accurately modeling real-world data sets. Based on the results, the proposed Sine Lomax distribution is recommended as a superior alternative to the competing models for modeling certain real-world data sets.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES FABRICATION AND ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Cu-Cu2O PHOTO ELECTRO CHEMICAL SOLAR CELLS 2023-09-06T02:35:05+00:00 A. A. Garba Mustapha Shehu M. A. Adamu A. O. Musa T. Abdullahi 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES REGULARIZED JACOBI-TYPE ADMM-METHOD FOR FINDING SOLUTIONS TO GENERALIZED NASH EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEM 2023-09-07T02:28:15+00:00 Emmanuel Akaligwo Pius Opara Aharanwa Boniface <p>In this paper, we extended the well-known alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for optimization problems to generalized Nash equilibrium problems (GNEP) with shared constraints. We developed an ADMM-type algorithm with fixed regularization to tackle the problem (GNEP) where an upper estimate for the operator norm is not known and then we apply a multiplier-penalty in order to get rid of the joint constraints. We equipped the Hilbert space with an appropriate weighted scalar product and it turns out to be weakly convergent under a lipschitz and monotonicity assumption. A proximal term is then added to improve the convergence properties. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of quasi-variational inequality method, interior point method, penalty method and the proposed method are discussed.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES MYCOFLORA OF FERMENTED LOCUST BEANS (Parkia biglobosa) SEED, “IRU” SOLD IN LOKOJA MARKETS, KOGI STATE, NIGERIA 2023-09-07T02:28:16+00:00 Esther Okolo Victory Ojoene Simon M. E. Eze <p>Fermented locust beans are a popular nutritious food seasoning that are prone to microbial contamination due to unhygienic handling and improper storage. This research aimed to evaluate the mycological quality of locust beans sold in Lokoja markets, Kogi State, Nigeria. Thirty (30) samples of locust beans were collected from five different markets in Lokoja, analyzed for inherent fungi which were identified using standard mycological techniques. The results indicated variations in the mean fungal loads across the sampled markets. Old market had the highest mean fungal load (4.33 × 10<sup>5</sup> CFU/g), followed by Adankolo market (3.67 × 10<sup>5</sup> CFU/g) and Kpata market (3.0 × 10<sup>5</sup> CFU/g) while Lokongoma market had the lowest mean fungal load (2.0 × 10<sup>5 </sup>CFU/g). The mean fungal load of the fermented locust beans from Old market was significantly different (p&gt;0.05). A total of 55 fungal isolates that include: <em>Aspergillus niger</em> (29.1 %), <em>Rhizopus arrhizus</em> (25.5 %), <em>Fusarium cladosporium</em> (18.2 %), <em>Fusarium cummunis</em> (12.7 %), <em>Aspergillus nudilans</em> (9.1%), <em>Aspergillus tamari</em> (7.3 %) and <em>Aspergillus terreus</em> (1.8%) were obtained from the samples. <em>Aspergillus niger</em>, <em>F. communis</em>, <em>F.</em> <em>clamadosporium </em>and <em>R. arrhizus</em> were present in all the sampled markets, suggesting they are the predominant fermenter of locust beans. The presence of mycotoxigenic fungi in the locust beans seeds poses a significant public health risk. Therefore, it is important to ensure that locust beans are processed and stored under hygienic conditions at all times to safeguard consumer health.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF RICE HUSK FROM LOCAL RICE SPECIES USING X-RAY FLUORESCENCE TECHNIQUE 2023-09-07T02:28:14+00:00 David Gaima Kafadi Adamu U. M. Dankawu M. N. Maharaz Ebenezer Ndikilar Chifu Suleiman Saidu Zarma N. W. Silkwa M. Ahmadu <p>Rice husk is one of the main agricultural wastes in milling processes that is abundantly available in Nigeria. The research aim to evaluate the chemical composition of Bauchi State rice husk. The rice husk samples were collected in four Local Governments of Bauchi State and analyzed using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Ten compounds were reveals in all the samples which are as follows; SiO, RbO, K<sub>2</sub>O, CaO, MnO, Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, NiO, CuO, ZnO, BrO and SrO. The major compounds having the trends SiO &gt; K<sub>2</sub>O &gt; CaO &gt; Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> with mean values (in%) 4.7508, 0.4406, 0.24784 and 0.214625 for SiO, K<sub>2</sub>O, CaO and Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> respectively. Likewise, the minor compounds are in fractions which are; CuO, SrO, BrO, NiO, ZnO and MnO with their mean values (in%) 0.000303, 0.002325, 0.002858, 0.00514, 0.006532 and 0.021368 respectively. The high percentage of silica content in all the samples makes it of economic important in terms of industrial production. The trace compounds present are in minutes quantity and satisfy the condition of Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Nigeria (1998). The toxic and hazardous compounds were absents which minimize it risk to health in terms of industrial application within the environs.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES INCIDENCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES OF CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) FROM RIVER NASARAWA, NIGERIA 2023-09-07T02:28:18+00:00 A. H. Banyigyi Samuel Monday Ameh M. H. Isah <p>Parasites attack fish causing destruction of skin and gill epithelium and injury to tissues or organs in the process of burrowing or consuming food. The gastrointestinal parasites of <em>Clarias gariepinu</em> (Catfish) from River Nasarawa were investigated in this study. Two hundred (200) samples of <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> of different sizes and sexes were obtained fresh and brought to Zoology laboratory, Nasarawa State University, Keffi for intestinal parasites examination. The fish were dissected through the abdomen by making a longitudinal slit on the ventral surface from the point of pectoral fins to the anus using a blade. The gastrointestinal tract was sectioned into oesophagus, stomach and intestine. The contents of various parts of the gastrointestinal tract were examined for parasites using floatation and sedimentation methods. Sixty (60) out of 200, that is 30% fish samples examined were found to be infected with parasites. A total of 74 parasites were isolated from different parts of gastrointestinal tract belonging to five (5) species. 3(3.33%) parasites of <em>Proamallanus spp</em> were isolated from oesophagus, 45(60.00%) parasites of <em>Hexamita spp</em>, 10(13.33%) parasites of <em>Protoopalina spp</em> and 12(18.34%) parasites of <em>Microsporidian spp</em> were isolated from stomach while 4(5.00%) parasites of <em>D. latum</em> were isolated from the intestine. Parasitic infection presents a potential threat to the health of fish and as a result of this, an understanding of the intestinal parasites of fish in the wild is important in order to find ways of avoiding mortality and disease.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EFFECTS OF VERMICAST TEA ON THE REMEDIATION OF SPENT ENGINE OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL 2023-09-06T02:28:13+00:00 Chinyere Jacinta Okonkwo Ebenezer Olasunkanmi Dada Kelechi Longinus Njoku <p>The need to maintain the rising numbers of both serviceable and degenerating automobiles in Nigeria has led to the springing up of vehicle workshops in approved and unapproved locations, where mechanics discharge spent engine oil indiscriminately into the soil and water environments. It is therefore desirable to explore potentially affordable and sustainable remediation methods. This study examined the efficacy of vermicast tea for the remediation of spent engine oil contaminated soil. Spent engine oil contaminated soil was collected from an automobile workshop, and mixed with different concentrations (20%, 50%, and 100%) of vermicast tea. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), moisture content, organic matter content, pH, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in the contaminated soils were determined on day one, day 21, and day 42, using standard procedures. It was found that the TPH concentrations reduced in both vermicast tea treated and untreated soils, but percentage reductions were higher in contaminated soils treated with vermicast tea (63.65% – 74.74%)&nbsp; than in soil without vermicast tea (59.85%). The moisture content, organic matter content, pH, and cation exchange capacity of the spent engine oil contaminated soil were impacted due to the presence of vermicast tea. Moreover, remediation was observed to be significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) at day 42 of exposure to vermicast tea, than at day 21. These results imply that vermicast tea can hasten natural remediation of soil contaminated with spent engine oil. It is recommended that future studies on the use of vermicast tea to remediate spent engine oil-contaminated soil for a...</p> 2023-09-04T08:15:16+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES CONVERGENCE TEST FOR THE EXTENDED 3 - POINT SUPER CLASS OF BLOCK BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION FORMULA FOR INTEGRATING STIFF IVP 2023-09-07T02:28:23+00:00 Abdullahi Bello Garba Ismail Danbaba Usman Garba <p>In this work, a new scheme is generated from the extended 3–point super class of block backward differentiation formula for integrating stiff IVP and the proposed method is subjected to convergence test. The proposed scheme is found to be zero stable, consistent and of order 5. Thus, possess all the required criteria for convergence. The scheme can approximate the values of three points at a time per integration step. The scheme maintained the same technique of co-opting a stability control parameter () in the formula and by adjusting its value within the interval , more A-stabled schemes can be generated. However, this research considers&nbsp; and arrived at zero and A– Stabled method, capable of solving any stiff IVPs. Hence, the proposed convergent scheme can be used for integrating stiff IVPs and archives accuracy of scale error and less executional time.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES MAPLE SIMULATION CODES FOR STABILITY ANALYSIS OF VARIABLE STEP SUPER CLASS OF BLOCK BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION FORMULA FOR INTEGRATING A SYSTEM OF FIRST ORDER STIFF IVPS 2023-09-07T02:28:22+00:00 Muhammad Abdullahi Abdullahi Bello Garba Ismail Danbaba <p>Strength of numerical scheme is rated by the properties it possessed and in turn the kind of problems it can handle. Zero stable method can effectively handle ODEs problem. While, an A – stable method can solve stiff ODEs problem. Analyzing stability of block methods are been carried out using various software. This work aimed at using simplified Maple simulation code to critically analyze avariable step size multi-block backward differentiation formula for the solution stiff initial value problems of ordinary differential equations. The Graphical comparisons of the simulated result obtained is made using Matlab to depict the performing schemes.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES IMPACT OF Plasmodium falciparum PARASITAEMIA ON SOME HEMATOLOGICAL PROFILES AMONG CHILDREN 6-59 MONTHS: A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED HOSPITALS IN MAIDUGURI, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA 2023-09-08T07:28:44+00:00 Yahaya Inuwa Godly Chessed Muhammed A. Qadeer Abubakar Suleiman Ahmed S. Bukar Mustapha Kokori <p><em>Plasmodium falciparum</em> is responsible for millions of deaths globally, with children under five (5) years old the most vulnerable. It is associated with some haematological changes. As a result, this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of <em>P. falciparum</em> parasitaemia on certain haematological parameters in Malaria-affected Children in Maiduguri. To ascertain the prevalence and haematological alterations brought on by infection, blood samples were taken from 421 kids during the months of December 2021 and June 2022 (7 months). Overall results show 182 (43.23%) patients were positive to malaria while 239 (56.77%) were negative. Similarly, the PCV, RBC and thrombocytes count respectively (23.95%, 2.94x10<sup>-9</sup>/µL and 346.23X10<sup>-9</sup>/µL and 147.15X10<sup>-9</sup>/µL) of the malaria positives subjects were significantly (<em>p</em>=0.05) lower compared to the malaria negative (34.69%, 4.0 X10<sup>-9</sup>/µL and 346.23 X10<sup>-9</sup>/µL) subjects. Furthermore, the mean WBC, lymphocytes and neutrophils respectively of the malaria positive subjects were significantly higher compared (18.67 x10<sup>-9</sup>/µL, 59.88% and 66,05%) to the infected ones (12.92 x10<sup>-9</sup>/µl, 37.69% and 47.05%). The result also shows the mean of sex comparison of haematological&nbsp; parameters of children infected with malaria, with the PCV and thrombocytes of male positive subject been significantly lower than that of the female negative children (24.40% and 145.98X10<sup>-9</sup>/µ) versus (34.82% and 337.00X10<sup>-9</sup>/µl) appropriately (p=0.05), whereas the mean WBC, lymphocytes and neutrophils were significantly higher compared to female positive subjects (17.48X10<sup>_9</sup>/µl, 59.46% and 63.95%) versus (18.64 x10<sup>-9</sup>/µl, 60.48% and 69.04%), (p=0.01, 0.05). In conclusion, malaria is highly prevalent among children, 21-30 months old in Maiduguri and it is associated...</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES AN APPLICATION OF TIME DEPENDENT FOURIER AMPLITUDE MODEL ON FORECASTING THE UNITED STATE POPULATION 2023-09-07T02:28:24+00:00 A. S. Sameer Yusuf Isah Abdullahi Bello <p>This study smeared the Time Dependent Fourier Amplitude Model Approach to forecast the Population of the United States of America from 1790 to 2020 on a 10-year interval using Number Crunches Statistical software (NCSS). Results obtained using this procedure was matched with the results obtained in the other models: Malthusian, Logistics, and Logistics (Least Squares) Model. These models were matched using the goodness of fit (the coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>), the sum of square error (SSE)), the Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD), Mean Error (ME), and Mean Sum of square Error (MSSE), Results displays that the Time Dependent Fourier Amplitude Model has the highest R<sup>2</sup> and has the lowest SSE, AIC, BIC, ME, MAD, and MSSE. The normal probability plot of residual also forms a lined pattern. The Time Dependent Fourier Amplitude Model gives a statistically significant development in the data sets as compared to the earlier models and also is a suitable model for forecasting the United States population.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF IVERMECTIN ON THE PREVALENCE OF MICROFILARIA AFTER 20 YEARS IVERMECTIN DISTRIBUTION IN SOME LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF ADAMAWA STATE NIGERIA 2023-09-07T02:28:24+00:00 S. M. Pukuma D. Lucky M. A. Qadeer <p>The attempt to control Onchocerciasis through the distribution of Ivermectin in Adamawa state has been ongoing for the past 20 years The current study assessed the impact of Ivermectin drugs on the prevalence of microfilaria. Eight (8) communities were selected in Four LGAs, Tongo, Song, Yola South and Hong for the study. The prevalence of microfilaria was determined using skin snip. Out of 396 Participants whose skin snip was collected only 6(2%) tested positive. The results obtained showed prevalence of microfilarial as follows; Kwapre (2%), Kukta (4%), Bolki (3%) and Ganzamanu (3%). Whereas Shashau, Dalasum, Bando and Bantaje communities had zero (0%) prevalence.&nbsp; Microfilaria prevalence in relation to gender was significant (P&gt;0.05). Males had higher infection (2.0%) compared to female (1.0%). The microfilaria prevalence in these communities in 1989 was between 40-61%, compared to the current 2% in 2019 in the same selected communities.&nbsp; In addition, clinical signs in 1989 showed nodules 3%, Skin Disfiguration 3%, Blindness 2% while result obtained in 2019 showed&nbsp; Nodule 0.4%, Skin disfiguration 1% and blindness none (0.0%). In 1989&nbsp; Bolki (8%) and Gangzamanu (4%) had the highest prevalence of microfilaria, but much lower in the current study 3% and 1% respectively. The results showed very low endemicity of the disease as a result of over 2 decades of Mass Drug Administration of Ivermectin in the LGAs. This implies&nbsp; the continuous distribution of the drugs has interrupted the transmission. Hence the objective for the administration of the drug was&nbsp; achieved.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED LOCATION IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLIS USING WEIGHTED ARITHMETIC WATER QUALITY INDEX 2023-09-07T02:28:19+00:00 Yusuf Madu Mshelia Daggash Muhammad Lawan Mbursa Arhyel Jerry Inuwa <p>Access to safe drinking water is crucial for human health and well-being, however many people around the world including Nigeria face challenges in accessing clean water source. The quality of water is an important public issue and water in Maiduguri is no exception. This study focuses on evaluating the physicochemical parameters of borehole water in Maiduguri. Water samples were collected from three locations namely Polo, Moduganari and Old Maiduguri which were analyzed following standard procedure. The results showed that Temperature, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Calcium, Chloride and Manganese levels were within safe limits of 25 <sup>o</sup>C, 6.5-8.5, 500 mg/l, 200-300 mg/l, 250 mg/l and 0.2 mg/l set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS). However, Old Maiduguri and Moduganari had elevated levels of nitrate 35.95 mg/l and 39.95 mg/l compared to Polo with 22.6 mg/l. Dissolved oxygen levels were quite below the standards of 6.5mg/l in all three locations, while turbidity was within the acceptable limits of 5 NTU. According to the Weighted Arithmetic Index (WAI) Method, the water quality in Polo and Moduganari was classified as poor, with Water Quality Index (WQI) values of 59.67 and 51.56, respectively. On the other hand, the water quality in Old Maiduguri was classified as very poor, with a WQI value of 88.03. These results highlight the varying degrees of water quality across the study locations, emphasizing the need for interventions to improve water quality, particularly in Old Maiduguri, to ensure the well-being of the local population.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EVALUATION OF Plasmodium falciparum PARASITAEMIA AND ASSOCIATED INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA 2023-09-07T02:28:24+00:00 R. Asher G. Chessed M. A. Qadeer I. Muhammad D. H. Muhammad E. Abba A. Jemimah 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EXTRACTION AND APPLICATION OF SOME NATURAL FLOWER PIGMENTS AS ACID-BASE INDICATORS 2023-09-07T02:28:25+00:00 Dahiru Adamu Gwarzo Jibrin Sabo Suleiman Ibrahim Musa Idriss <p>In this study, the pigments of Ixora coccinea, Lantana camara, Moringa oleifera, Nerium oleander, and Sensevieria trifasciata were used to identify the natural indicators for acid-base titrations using 0.1% acidified ethanolic solvent. The Potiskum Vetenary,&nbsp;biological gardens of&nbsp;Federal University Gashua&nbsp;and&nbsp;Umar Suleiman College of Education&nbsp;Gashua were used to collect the samples. All three types of acid-base titrations—strong acids&nbsp;against strong bases, strong acids&nbsp;against weak bases, and weak acids&nbsp;against strong bases—were studied. Calculations were made for the indicator's color change, the pH at the relevant point and the average titre values for each type of acid-base titration. According to the data, there was no appreciable difference between the mean titre values of methyl orange and Ixora c. flower extract in strong acid against weak base. Moringa o. flower extract can be used in place of methyl orange and phenolphthalein for strong acid against strong base, strong acid against weak base and weak acid against strong base titrations. Nerium o. flower extract can be used in place of phenolphthalein in weak acid against strong base titrations. Sensevieria t. flower extract can be used in place of methyl orange in strong acid against weak base titrations and phenolphthalein for strong acid against strong base and weak acid against strong base titrations. In all acid-base titrations, lantana c. flower extract had no discernible reaction. Most of the extracts proved to be a good substitute for synthetic acid-base indicators. Using these harmless and readily available flowers is recommended.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES MORPHO-GENETIC VARIATION IN CASTOR PLANTS SELECTED FROM DIFFERENT AGRO-ECOLOGICAL REGIONS OF NIGERIA 2023-09-07T02:28:26+00:00 S. C. Odeje S. O. Alonge 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES THE NIGERIAN RESEARCH REACTOR-1 (NIRR-1) POWER AND ISOTHERMAL TEMPERATURE PARAMETERS MEASUREMENTS 2023-09-07T02:28:25+00:00 S. M. Hussaini Mary T. Ekwu M. Ndawashi 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES PERFORMANCE OF AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS) AS INFLUENCED BY NPK FERTILIZER AND ORGANIC LIQUID FERTILIZER AT SAMARU, NORTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA OF NIGERIA 2023-09-07T02:28:27+00:00 G. I. Luka U. Ibrahim M. Rabo <p>Organic fertilizers have been proven to be more affordable, increase yields and safer for the ecosystem compared to chemical fertilizers. A study was carried out on the effect of NPK fertilizer and an organic liquid fertilizer (SuperGro) on <em>Amaranthus cruentus</em> in 2019 at the research field of the Institute for Agricultural Research and in 2022 at the <em>Teaching and Research Farm of Samaru College of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria in the northern guinea Savannah of Nigeria</em><em>. </em>SuperGro liquid fertilizer is 100% organic, made from poultry droppings and seabird guano. It contains (72 g L<sup>-1</sup> N), (45 g L<sup>-1</sup> P, 30 g L<sup>-1</sup> K, 15 g L<sup>-1</sup> S, 9 g L<sup>-1</sup> Ca, 7 g L<sup>-1</sup> Mg), micronutrients (5 mg L<sup>-1 </sup>Fe, 3 mg L<sup>-1</sup> I, 1 mg L<sup>-1</sup> Zn and 1 mg L<sup>-1 </sup>of marine salts.&nbsp; Treatments consisted of NPK 20:10:10 at 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, SuperGro at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 L ha<sup>-1</sup>and a control plot (Zero fertilizer) laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data was collected on plant height, leaf area index, foliage yield and seed yield and were subjected to analysis of variance using the general linear model procedure of the statistical analysis system package. Results obtained showed that application of either of the fertilizers increased the parameters taken. However, foliage yield was highest with application of 1 L ha<sup>-1 </sup>of SuperGro where 75,556 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>was obtained in 2019 and 86,632 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> in 2022...</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE GEOGENIC POLLUTION POTENTIAL OF BIDA FORMATION, NORTHERN BIDA BASIN NIGERIA 2023-09-07T02:28:27+00:00 Nuhu Musa Waziri James Egba Abakpa Isah Aliyu Goro Sidi Aliyu Ahmed <p>The environmental geochemistry of sandstones of Bida formation around Doko, northern Bida Basin Nigeria was studied to assess the potential for the release of toxic elements into the environment. Eight representative samples were collected and analysed to determine the total elemental concentration using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). Four sub-samples were analysed for their near-total concentration of selected metals using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results show that many of the elements are depleted with mean enrichment ratios of less than 1. Ce, W, Nb and Pb are the exceptions with ER values of 116.4, 122.9, 25.26 and 2.22 respectively. A similar pattern was found with <em>Igeo</em>, where W, Ce and Nb fall within strongly to extremely polluted and extremely polluted classes. High to very high partition coefficients (KD<sub>i</sub>) for four selected PTEs show that metals are strongly held within the sandstone matrix rather than dissolving.&nbsp; Because the elements are not soluble, they will not be readily available for uptake by plant roots, or will not be directly toxic to soil biota. The undissolved metal pool also reflects the sandstone metal fraction that is unsusceptible to leaching and could therefore not contaminate water. We conclude that there is no significant geogenic pollution risk associated with PTE release and uptake from the formation. It is however recommended that further research should be carried out to investigate the phases hosting Ce, W, Nb and Zr in the sandstone in Doko and its environs.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES IN SOIL SAMPLES FROM MICHIKA, ADAMAWA, STATE NIGERIA 2023-09-07T02:28:28+00:00 S. S. Zarma N. N. Garba N. Rabi’u U. M. Dankawu S. Bello G. D. Adamu Chifu E. Ndikilar <p>Naturally occurring radionuclides in the environment constitute about 85% of public exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation. These radionuclides can be found in sands,clays, soils and rocks, and many ores and minerals, commodities, recycled residues, and other appliances used by humans. There is therefore the need to assess the occurrence of natural radionuclides in Soil Samples from Michika, Adamawa State Nigeria. Forty-six (46) soil samples were collected across different location in Michika, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Gamma ray spectroscopy was used for the analysis. The results obtained show that the mean activity concentration for <sup>226</sup>Ra, <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K are 81.27, 101.28 and 324.79 Bq/kg respectively. These values are higher than the control value of 35,30 and 35 Bq/kg for <sup>226</sup>Ra, <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K set by UNSCEAR. The absorbed dose rate (D) ranges from 60.77 to 248.65 nGy/h, which is above the maximum UNSCEAR accepted value of 59nGy/h. The values of total annual effective dose lie between 0.08 and 0.31 mSv y<sup>-1</sup> with mean value of 0.14mSv y<sup>-1</sup>. Also, the mean values of Radium Equivalent Activity were 251.11 Bq/kg. Almost all the value of R<sub>aeq</sub> were below the maximum recommended value. The mean value of total cancer risk range from 3.28E-6 to 1.3E-5 with mean value of 5.93E-6. All the mean values were above the acceptable range. It can be concluded that the soil is radiologically unsafe for human and animal use. Continuous radiological monitoring of the soil is recommended to safeguard the health of the populace.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES FIRE SAFETY DESIGN OF A 5 STOREY OFFICE BUILDING: EARLY WARNING AND MEANS OF ESCAPE 2023-09-06T02:30:19+00:00 A. M. Na’inna A. S. Bature <p>A fire safety design on the early warning and means of escape for a 5 storey, Asha Office Building is conducted. This is to attain realistic standards of health and safety for persons within and outside the building. Manual alarm system (type M) along with L1 smoke detector were considered. L4 smoke detectors were to be fixed in the corridors and escape routes so as to provide an early warning of fires and smokes. The kitchen is to be covered with a heat detector. Simultaneous evacuation strategy with the capacity to allow all floors to be evacuated at the same time was considered on this design building. This was based on a total floor size of 15,275 m<sup>2</sup> and 1,038 occupants with only one main entrance. This necessitated for alternative exits to be provided in order for all the people to evacuate on time, limit the travel distances and also to make the occupants have options to other exits should in case the main entrance is blocked with fire. The building occupants from the farthest distance on the ground floor would be expected to evacuate the building within 4 minutes. Also, by providing a safety margin, a tenability condition in the building would be maintained for a minimum of 8 minutes. For emergency lightings that would aid escape of occupants, five, four and two luminaires would be required to be arranged axially and spaced 4.8 m apart for the vertical, horizontal and dead-end corridors respectively.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES FERNS RICHNESS ALONG ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS IN AYER HITAM FOREST, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA 2023-09-07T02:28:29+00:00 Gbenga Festus Akomolafe Rahmad Zakaria Rosazlina Rusly Oloyede Fatai Omomoh Bernard <p>Fern species richness was assessed to ascertain the distributional pattern of the ferns as influenced by the environmental gradients in Ayer Hitam forest reserve, Peninsular Malaysia. The ferns were collected using a preferential non-random sampling technique. Temperature, humidity, light intensity and elevation data were obtained at each point of collection of the ferns. The influence of these environmental gradients on the distribution of the species was determined using Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and general linear model (GLM). A total of 67 ferns were identified at all the study sites. Two ferns namely <em>Asplenium antiquum </em>and <em>Pteris longipinnula </em>were first recorded in this study. In all the sites, light intensity ranges from 337.9 – 8098 lux, temperature ranges from 28.5 - 33<sup>o</sup>C, humidity ranges from 66.24 - 88.80%, and elevation ranges from 14–33m. <em>Tectaria singaporeana </em>and <em>Nephrolepis biserrata </em>are the only species that are widely distributed across all the study sites. The DCA revealed that the light intensity influences the distribution of the ferns species in this forest. However, the GLM showed that temperature had a positive influence on the distribution of the ferns while light intensity had a negative influence on them.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B INFECTION AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN GOMBE, GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA 2023-09-07T02:28:31+00:00 W. Pindar J. M. Manu G. Chessed <p>Hepatitis B are endemic in tropical and sub-Saharan Africa. The Epidemiological Study of Hepatitis B infection among pregnant women in Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria was carried out on 1521 patients reporting for their first antenatal clinic in hospitals and clinics, in Gombe, Gombe State. The serum/plasma test for hepatitis B using strip was done with their socio-demographic parameters were determined. Most of the participants were between 21-30years (56.34), while those with secondary education (49.85%) and housewives (99.41%). The prevalence of hepatitis B was 1.51% with the highest prevalence among age group 21-30years with (63.57%), while the highest prevalence was among those in second trimester (2.29%) and those in primigravidea (3.70%). Those that had secondary education had the highest prevalence of hepatitis B (1.85%), while the business-oriented women had the highest prevalence of hepatitis B (7.84%), and the highest prevalence of hepatitis B was among the married (1.51%). The prevalence of hepatitis B was statistically significant with age group. We advise that measures encouraging personal and environmental hygiene should be encouraged as well as blood screening for hepatitis B should be done.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES INVESTIGATION OF MINERAL DEPOSITION IN IJEDA, OSUN STATE SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA USING GROUND MAGNETIC DATA 2023-09-07T02:28:18+00:00 G. O. Layade O. O. Adewumi Charles O. Ogunkoya H. O. Edunjobi <p>A geophysical ground magnetic survey method was used to investigate the presence and depths of magnetic minerals at Ijeda, Oriade Local Government area of Osun-State Nigeria. A G856AX Proton precession magnetometer was used to acquire 122 magnetic data points partitioned into 11 profiles. The station intervals and spacing were 10 m and 5 m respectively between each profile. Regional gradient and the effect of a geomagnetic reference field were removed from the observed survey data, the residual anomalies obtained were plotted against distance using Microsoft excel. Analytic Signal Method (ASM) and Peter’s Half Slope Method (PHSM) were utilized in estimating average Magnetic Source Depths. The Obtained magnetic data were plotted as 1-grid vector map, 2-D contour map and 3-D surface distribution map using surfer application to produce the qualitative analysis. The maximum and maximum magnetic intensity values obtained were 25.0 nT and -41.8 nT respectively, which suggested the area of magnetic mineral occurrences. The depths to the magnetic sources were calculated for 11 profiles and the average depth values ranged from 3.93 m ± 1.22 to 7.34 m ± 1.55 using both the ASM and the PHSM. The results showed that the study area holds a very good potential for magnetic mineral exploration.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES ELUCIDATING THE FUNCTIONAL ANNOTATION AND EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS OF CYTOCHROME P450 GENES IN XYLARIA SP. FL1777 USING IN-SILICO APPROACHES 2023-09-07T02:28:33+00:00 Wadzani Palnam Dauda Elkanah Glen Peter Abraham Charles Oluwaseun Adetunji Daji Morumda Shittu Emmanuel Abraham Grace Peter Wabba Israel Ogra Ogwuche <p>The higher level of human activities has resulted in several forms of anthropogenic activities with diverse adverse effects on human and environmental sustainability. The traditional means of handling xenobiotics pollutants are no longer sustainable due to the high cost involved, complex procedures and demanding regulatory requirements. Bioremediation using fungi (mycoremediation) is now recognized as an efficient and workable biotechnological tool that effectively employ fungal enzymes via the process of absorption and mineralization to get rid of contaminants. Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are diverse and unique gene families with varying degree of complexities in the eukaryotes. CYPs mainly utilize molecular oxygen to modify substrate conformation, thereby establishing a mechanism of action for achieving their important physiological and ecological processes.&nbsp;<em>Xylariaceae</em>&nbsp;belongs to the main and highly diversified families of filamentous Ascomycota; it plays an important role as saprotrophs of wood, soil, litter and dung. Genome-wide annotation analysis<em>&nbsp;</em>was carried out to explore the possibility of utilizing the CYPs of <em>Xylaria </em>sp<em>. </em>for achieving mycoremediation. The evolutionary analysis has divided the 214 <em>Xylaria</em> CYPs into fifteen (15) clades. The CYPs were categorized into forty-seven (47 clans) and eighty-six (86) families. MEME suite identified ten (10) conserved motifs. The gene structural investigation reveals high dynamic intron-exon organization. Most of the CYPs have been predicted to be localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. This study therefore calls for deeper exploration of the&nbsp;<em>Xylaria</em> sp&nbsp;and its high potential for application in bioremediation for the degradation of environmental contaminants.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES NUTRITIONAL AND ANTINUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF SOME SPICES USED AS FOOD CONDIMENTS IN AKURE, SOUTHWEST NIGERIA 2023-09-07T02:28:33+00:00 Wasiu Tomori Adijat Iyanda Bolanle Durotoluwa John 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES ATMOSPHERE HEMISPHERIC ANALYSIS OF PARTICLES POLLUTION OVER AFRICA 2023-09-07T02:28:34+00:00 Hammed A. Lawal Mukhtar I. Muhammed Ibrahim Bulus <p>Particulate Matters (PM) or particle pollution are mixture of microscopic solid and liquid particles present in air. The presence of PM in air can be monitored through modern devices known as Air Quality Sensors. In this study, we seek to investigate the concentration of PM at different latitude in some regions in Africa using purple air data available at; downloaded for a period of 365 days in some African countries namely; Nigeria, Ghana, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Morocco and Zambia. Using Pearson correlational analysis, findings have revealed that the correlation coefficient <strong>r</strong> between the average PM concentration in some countries within the Northern hemisphere shows -0.91 and 1 for countries lying in the Southern hemisphere. Taken together, these results suggest that there is an association between the PM and latitude. It can therefore be inferred that the higher the country from the northern hemisphere, the lower the concentration of PM and vice versa.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF STANDARD STAINLESS STEEL AND IMPROVISED METALLIC IMPLANTS AND CORROSION INHIBITION POTENTIAL OF GUAIACUM OFFICINALE VIA ELECTROCHEMICAL AND COMPUTATIONAL APPROACHES 2023-09-07T02:28:34+00:00 Nsidibeabasi Calvin Nwokem Idowu Elijah Agbele Uba Sani Israel Kehinde Omoniyi Gaba Echiobi Emmanuel <p>The malleability and fabrication of metal and associated alloys, as well as their vast range of applications, are significantly influenced by their physiochemical characteristics. Gas chromatograph mass spectrometer revealed the presence of eight (8) bioactive components, which are responsible for the inhibitory activities. Having a maximum inhibition efficiency of 85.17 at an inhibitor dose of 0.5g/L, there is a significantly reduction in reaction number in the presence of Guaiacum officinale extract compared to the blank solution. The electrochemical parameters for the improvised metallic biomaterial in 1.0 M HCl solution in the presence and absence of inhibitor concentrations revealed the high polarization region, thus a wide potential range. The addition of the inhibitor affected the anodic and the cathodic partial reactions, which signifies mixed-type mechanism of inhibition. The rate of corrosion mitigation increases in the presence of inhibitors when compared with a blank solution as a result of thin-film formation on metal/solution interface. This work give relevant information on the efficiency of&nbsp;<em>Guaiacum officinale </em>as an inhibitor for improvised metallic biomaterial in 1M HCl. The biocompatibility test showed that mechanical and chemical properties are within the recommended values.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES OPTIMIZATION OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM USED OIL OF FISH PROCESOR USING SODIUM METHOXIDE AND SULPHONATED EGG-SHELLS AS CATALYST 2023-09-07T02:28:35+00:00 S. M. Ayatullahi C. Muhammad A. M. Sokoto M. Mamuda M. M. Yusuf A. U. Muhammad <p>Finding a long-term solution to the world's growing dependence on conventional energy sources and the depletion of fossil fuels is what worries scientists the most right now. An alternative that appears promise is biodiesel. It was investigated how to increase the generation of biodiesel from leftover fish processors' oil using sodium methoxide and sulphonated eggshells as a catalyst, based on Box-Behnken design. The greatest yield of 96.81% was achieved at 1:12 oil to methanol ratio, 65 °C reaction temperature, 90 minutes, and 0.5 w/w% catalysts loading. The variables constant, methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, reaction temperature* reaction temperature, and methanol to oil ratio*catalyst load all had a significant effect on the biodiesel production, according to the response surface regression. The model does a good job of accounting for the link between biodiesel and process variables. Thus, residual fish processor oil might be effectively converted into more advantageous and environmentally benign biodiesel fuel.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES ON NICKEL (II) AND COPPER (II) COMPLEXES OF SCHIFF BASE DERIVED FROM ISATIN (1H-INDOLE-2,3-DIONE) ANDS THIOSEMICARBAZONE 2023-09-07T02:28:36+00:00 Ja’afaru Bello Habu Nuhu Aliyu Abdullahi Dangani Hussaini 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF DUAL-OPERATED SOLAR COOKING AND DRYING SYSTEM 2023-09-07T02:28:36+00:00 Aliyu Abdulmujeeb M. M. Garba A. M. Sokoto I. I. Rikoto A. O. Alabi <p>In this work, the thermal efficiency of a dual-operated solar cooking and drying system that may be utilized for domestic use was examined. An analysis of the system’s thermal performance was conducted at Sokoto Energy Research Centre (SERC) using the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Sampling cooking and drying tests were carried out, and the potential for extended cooking time for brine solution and animal fat was conducted. The results showed that the first figure of merit (F<sub>1</sub>) value agrees with the standard value of 0.12 and the second figure of merit (F<sub>2</sub>) value is in close correspondence with 0.25 (BIS Standard). The system was able to dehydrate 89 % of the moisture content of banana slices weighing 118 g which is of uniform thickness of 4 mm to achieve a stable weight of 12 g after 8 hours of drying. Animal fat showed more potential for extended cooking time than brine solution, as it took 5 hours to cool after heating for about 3 hours. Six pieces of eggs were boiled for 45 minutes in a temperature range of 29.7 <sup>o</sup>C and 88.2 <sup>o</sup>C. These findings indicate the potential of this dual-operated system for domestic applications.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA (REDUCED PACKED CELL VOLUME) AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINICS IN KATSINA METROPOLIS 2023-09-07T02:28:37+00:00 D. M. Dibal N. F. Bashir M. C. Emere <p>Anaemia during pregnancy is still a major health problem in malaria endemic countries with clinical consequences including death of both mother and child. Moderate or severe anaemia during pregnancy may be associated with heavy parasitic infestation. This study investigated prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Katsina metropolis, Katsina state. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 pregnant women attending four different public health centers in Katsina metropolis. Blood samples were obtained to determine their PCV. The PCV count was determined using hematocrit reader. The overall prevalence of anaemia for the all hospital was 110 (44.0%). The highest prevalence of anaemia 54 (84.38%) was recorded among pregnant women attending Turai Yar’adua Maternal and Children Hospital. The least prevalence of anaemia 14 (28.58%) was recorded among pregnant women attending PHC Kofar Marusa. A high prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in this study was an indication of possible anaemia within the study area. This study advocates the need for pregnant women to undergo routine haemoglobin estimation and early malaria prophylaxis considering the deleterious effects of anaemia on them and their foetus.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES ENERGY BALANCE ANALYSIS; CASE STUDY OF RURAL ELECTRIFICATION AGENCY (REA) PROJECT IN UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI 2023-09-07T02:28:17+00:00 James A. Sunday T. Bello Ephraim Joel Madu Misali <p>University of Maiduguri has been faced with power supply challenges due to insurgency that negatively affects the north eastern part of Nigeria. Being a research institution, increases in the costs of power and instability of on-grid power supply have jetlagged almost comatose research and academic activates. Government through the Rural Electrification Agency (REA) has provided the University with solar powered streetlights to curb energy consumption and to improve security. This study performed comparative energy cost analysis between solar photovoltaics streetlights executed by REA and public powered streetlights to evaluate energy costs. The objective of this study is to analyse the cost benefits of using solar photovoltaics streetlights, against public powered streetlight. The analyses showed 58% savings in energy costs as against 7.99% rise for public powered streetlights in 2019. The usage of solar photovoltaic streetlights has saved the University of Maiduguri close to 14.8 million Naira from year 2017 to 2019 using 134 solar streetlights poles with 77.22% fil factor.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES INTERROGATING THE EFFECTS OF SAND MINING: A CASE STUDY OF AGILA DISTRICT, ADO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA 2023-09-11T02:28:49+00:00 Mu'awiya Baba Aminu Garba Ilelah Kabiru Dalom Christopher Simon Andrew Nanfa Changde Yohanna Andarawus Musa Nengak Frankie Ojo Balogun Tijjani Dahiru Ahmad Bertha Onyenachi Akagbue Tobias Simon Favour Ofure Oseigbovo Francisco Soki Paca Pam Dajack Dung Sadiq Mohammed Salisu Mansur Sulaiman <p>This study is of believe that Illegal acts and discerning sand excavation/mining has become arisk to the ambiances. While theresearchrelied on personal geological observation on the mining sites, qualitative data were used from secondary literature. Using Agila’s river and coastal mining sites as a case study, the study revealed that it sparks to diversifications in river channels ways, physical ecosystem and food webs. As well it speeds up the river’scurrent and eventually eroding the river banks. Destroying the soil profile and removing the flora reduces the population of animals and eliminates habitat both the surface and subsurface resources. Sand dunes has played a vital aspect role in stoppage against heavy storms, erosion causes by some agents of transportations like winds, waves or floods. Numerous tiny habitants that are a component of the marine and coastal food chain and whose removal would pose some hazards to some other species rely on them for existence. The water tables in the surrounding areas decline as a result of sand mining, drying out the drinking water wells on the river embankments. Turbidity rises at the mining site as also the aquifers near the shore are affected by saline water intrusion. Sand mined areas loose scenic beauty, it emits radiation reliant on the component minerals, dust pollution, emits vibration/noise and it damages roads and some infrastructures. This researchinspected and reviewed the sand mining impacts on river, dune, marine, hydrological, biological and sociological environments with some case studies of the study area.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES PAINTS FORMULATION USING DIISOCYANATES AND 1,4 –DIAMINO ANTHRAQUINONE (1,4 DAQ) AS PIGMENTS AND POLYVINYL ALCOHOL AS BINDER, CHARACTERIZATION AND THEIR APPLICATION ON WOOD SUBSTRATE 2023-09-28T02:35:09+00:00 Sunday Omale <p>The Paint and coatings industry produces a huge variety of products that protect, preserve, and also beautify the objects to which they are applied, however, the components are expensive, therefore there is the need to look for alternative constituents which are cheaper and more durable. Emulsion Paints were formulated using colourants produced from diisocyanates and 1,4 diamino anthraquinone and polyvinyl alcohol as binder. The constituents of the paint was stirred mechanically in a ceramic mortar and pestle for 1 hour, and it was applied on the substrate (ceiling board). The coated samples were subjected to physical characterization, viscosity, surface drying time, weathering and lightfastness and compared with a commercial paint (Emulsion paint). The results indicates a very good light fastness property of 6-7, for paints produced from hexamethylene diisocyanate and where resistant to weathering, while paints produced from 1,4 phenylene diisocyanate showed a poor light fastness of 1-2, however it also indicated resistant to weathering. Hexamethylene diisocyanate, is less expensive and is more durable and economical in emulsion paint production compared to 1,4 phenylene diisocyanate which fades easily and is also expensive.</p> 2023-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES TOWARDS PREDICTION OF CEREBROSPINAL MENINGITIS DISEASE OCCURRENCE USING LOGISTICS REGRESSION – A WEB BASED APPLICATION 2023-09-29T02:35:16+00:00 Ronke S. Babatunde Oyeranmi A. Adigun Folashade Okikiola <p>Cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM) is characterized by acute severe infection of the central nervous system causing inflammation of the meninges with associated morbidity and mortality.&nbsp; The information about its symptoms, time and season of spread, most affected region, its fatality rate, type and how easily it causes major disabilities in patients can be modelled and utilized in its treatment, and prevention. This research uses data mining techniques to predict the occurrence of CSM in terms of those liable to be infected by the disease using feature information about the region and the patient.&nbsp; It encompasses data collection, preprocessing, exploration, algorithm training, prediction, and web hosting. The intention is to help in managing the resources needed for both treatment and prevention.&nbsp; The outcome of the research indicated that the proposed technique is viable for the task, considering the number of correct predictions that was reported when the application was deployed and tested.</p> 2023-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES OPTIMIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL YIELD ON THE IMPACT OF OZONE AND SULPHUR DIOXIDE USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY 2023-09-29T02:35:15+00:00 Oluwatoyin Kikelomo Bodunwa Olubodun Bodunde Aladeniyi Iyabo Ayoade Adewole <p>In this study, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to the analysis of ozone and Sulphur dioxide on soybean. The data used was secondary data which came from research on the effects of air pollutants on crop yields conducted in North Carolina State University and USDA in 1981. From the analyses, the adequacy of the model used was validated with the F-value of 18.71 and 18.55 respectively suggests the models are significant. The Coefficient of Determination &nbsp;the Adjusted ,written as&nbsp; &nbsp;and Predicted &nbsp;were also used to find the adequacy of the model used. Effects of ozone and Sulphur dioxide were looked into in the yields of soybean in two different locations. It was found that the 0.395 inlet of sulphur and 0.018 inlet of ozone gives optimum yield of 724.427 grams of soybeans in yield 1 and same quatity gives optimum yield of 248.282 grams of soybeans in yield 2 which made ozone and sulphurdioxide to have significant effect on the yield of soyabeans.</p> 2023-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES SOIL QUALITY AND HEIGHT DIAMETER MODEL ASSESSMENT IN THE MANAGEMENT OF GMELINA ARBOREA PLANTATION IN NASARAWA STATE UNIVERSITY, NIGERIA 2023-09-29T02:35:17+00:00 Segun A. Clement T. M. Soba P. B. Balogun <p><em>Gmelina arborea</em> is a very important timber species as it provides wood for furniture, serves as carbon sink and creates micro-climate with decrease soil temperatures enabling smaller niches to be formed within the forest ecosystem. Also, the nutrients composition of forest soil determines its stand structure and composition, growth rate and dominance, including other silvicultural practices. The study assessed soil quality and height-diameter (H-D) models in the management of <em>Gmelina arborea</em> plantation in Nasarawa State University. Thirty (30) temporary sample plots of 0.01 ha size were randomly selected from the sampling frame with 30% sampling intensity. Thereafter, the total height and the Dbh of each tree within the selected plots was measured for height-diameter model assessment. Also, ten (10) soil samples were randomly collected from the thirty (30) selected plots for H-D modeling in order to assess the soil properties of the plantation. Soil samples obtained were analyzed in the Faculty of Agriculture Laboratory to obtain data and further subjected to statistical analysis. The results of height-diameter models revealed that model one (1) with Akaike Information Criterion (62.19), Bayesian Information Criterion (66.39) and Residual Standard Error (0.64) had the lowest model selection indices when compared with other four models applied. Therefore, model one (1) was selected as the best and grand model for <em>Gmelina aborea </em>plantation in the study area. Also, the result of soil quality showed a significant difference between the soil properties in the study area. The Least Significant Difference result also showed that...</p> 2023-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES APPLICATION OF NON-STANDARD FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD ON COVID-19 MATHEMATICAL MODEL WITH FEAR OF INFECTION 2023-09-29T02:35:16+00:00 I. G. Usman M. O. Ibrahim B. Y. Isah N. Lawal Samuel T. Akinyemi <p>This study presents a novel application of Non -Standard Finite Difference (NSFD) Method to solve a COVID-19 epidemic mathematical model with the impact of fear due to infection. The mathematical model is governed by a system of first-order non-linear ordinary differential equations and is shown to possess a unique positive solution that is bounded. The proposed numerical scheme is used to obtain an approximate solution for the COVID-19 model. Graphical results were displayed to show that the solution obtained by NSFD agrees well with those obtained by the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method built-in Maple 18.</p> 2023-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF INSECURITY AND ITS THREAT ON ROAD TRANSPORTATION IN KADUNA STATE NIGERIA 2023-09-29T02:35:17+00:00 Jibrin Gani Usman J. E. Ogbole <p>The escalating waves of criminal activities involving motorists and other road users on highways is alarming, consequently resulting in many travellers losing lives and properties. This paper is aimed at analyzing the spatial distribution of criminal activities and its threat on road transportation across the state. The study utilized both primary and secondary data sources namely: structured questionnaire (likert scale), FGD and printed material such as journals and records from security agency. The ArcGIS software was used to determine the spatial pattern of the criminal activities in the study area. The questionnaire was analyzed using Microsoft Excel Package and the results were presented in charts. The results indicated that the state is bedeviled with four major types of insecurities which are arm robbery, Kidnapping, Ethnic violence and religious violence of which armed robbery predominate with 32%. The results also indicated that more than 61% of the LGAs in state had faced at least one attacked for the period 2017 to 2021. The areas bothering thick forests such as Birnin Gwari, Chikun and Giwa Local Government Areas were heavily hit by criminal activities. It was recommended that security apparatus should be placed more on the problematic areas for proactive majors to minimize the incidences of the attacks.</p> 2023-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES EXPLORING THE DRIVERS FOR HOUSEHOLD COOKING ENERGY TRANSITION IN GOMBE METROPOLIS, NIGERIA 2023-09-29T02:35:18+00:00 A. Ahmed M. Isma’il H. Mohammed S. M. Zubairu A. A. Salim A. W. Hassan J. H. Umar N. M. Ibrahim A. Balarabe S. S. Yusuf K. S. Umar <p>Transition to sustainable energy in the household sector is a one-way solution to significantly reducing the contending problem of forest exploitation on one hand and on the other hand an important effort to minimizing the challenging subject of climate change. This study aimed at exploring the drivers for household cooking energy transition in Gombe metropolis with a view to providing detailed information on the transition pathways in the area for policy implications. The study used quantitative research method with structured questionnaire as the instrument for data collection, while secondary data was obtained from the Gombe State Bureau of Statistics. For data collection, systematic sampling strategy was used to select sampling locations and the households to be administered the questionnaire. The quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Result from descriptive analysis revealed that household size (69.5%), households’ level of income (65.5%) and public influence (65.5%) were the major factors influencing modern energy choice in the study area on one hand and on the hand environmental consequences (35.8%), health risks (34%) and seasonal changes (49.5%) has no significant influence on household modern energy choice for cooking. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed the likelihood of respondent’s socio-demographics and modern energy adoption (p-value &lt;0.05). The study recommends conducting public awareness campaigns on the benefits of modern energy services for cooking through media and public gatherings. It also suggests providing adequate access to affordable modern energy to encourage households to adopt and shift to modern energy consumption for cooking.</p> 2023-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF FRUITS EXTRACTS OF Balanites aeqyptiaca AND Adansonia digitata ON LIPIDERMIC PARAMETERS OF DIABETICS ALBINO RAT 2023-09-29T02:35:19+00:00 Baba Gabi Hauwa Umar Hauwa Haruna Aminu Ado <p>Lipidemia is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, particularly in people with diabetes mellitus. High plasma triglyceride concentration, low HDL cholesterol concentration, and elevated concentration of tiny dense LDL cholesterol particles are some of its distinguishing features. Fruits from <em>Balanites aeqyptiaca</em> and <em>Adansonia digitata</em> have the ability to decrease blood pressure. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the combined effects of the two fruits on the lipidemia of alloxan-induced albino rats. Utilizing the glucose dehydrogenase method, glucometer accu-check was used for the evaluation of blood glucose levels. Investigations were also conducted on alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats to measure total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL). According to the results, <em>B. aegyptiaca</em> and <em>A. digitata</em> fruit extracts significantly reduced the lipid profiles of the treated groups when used at concentrations of 80:20, 160:40, and 240:60 mg/Kg body weight, respectively. While the lipid profiles were significantly reduced in groups that received treatment at dosages of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight. However, the groups treated with the highest doses of the extracts demonstrated the most significant effects on the levels of triglycerides (47mg/dl), HDL (79mg/dl), and LDL (40mg/dl). The fruits have shown cumulative effects on their potential to lower the lipid profile of diabetic rats, validating their folkloric usage in the management of cardiovascular illnesses.</p> 2023-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES A LOW-COST COMPACT ELECTRICAL ENERGY SAVING SYSTEM INTEGRATED WITH PIR MOTION DETECTOR 2023-09-29T02:35:19+00:00 Zubaidat Ashafa Ahmed Rufai Usman Sanusi Koko Rabiu <p>In the present modern society, where electricity is necessary for the lightening of homes and public buildings, the major problem in our localities is power wastes. To some extent electrical appliances such as lighting systems were left ON even in the absence of people in both private and public places. This is because traditional manual switching system is still employed in almost every building where one has to switch the room lights ON or OFF. Thus, a large amount of energy is being wasted if lights are left ON in the absence of people in those places. This work presents an intelligent energy saving system that can automatically power ON/OFF our lightening systems. The heart of this project is Passive Infrared (PIR) motion detector that can detects the radiated heat of a person and converts it to electrical signals, which is sent to switching circuit for processing. A low-cost fully automated energy saving system was designed and tested in physics laboratory of Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina, Nigeria. The system was able to detect movement of objects/humans within range of 6 meters in the lab to switch ON the light and also switch it OFF in their absence. Therefore, the designed system if explored will have the potentials of reducing energy waste and at the same time reducing one’s energy bills.</p> 2023-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES BIOSURFACTANTS: POSSIBLE ROLES IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT -A REVIEW 2023-09-07T02:28:31+00:00 P. Abraham Ezeh Okechukwu Chinedu Abubakar Abdulrazaq Banaru Wadzani Palnam Dauda <p>Recent years have seen a rise in interest in biosurfactants, which are surface-active compounds produced by microorganisms that affect surfaces, particularly the surface tension of liquid-vapor interfaces. Due to their ability to emulsify and solubilize hydrophobic compounds as result of their amphipathic nature, biosurfactants are useful in degradation of hydrocarbon and are therefore applicable in oil spill management. Because they are biodegradable, have low toxicity, work well at high or low pH levels, and are more environmentally friendly than their chemical equivalents, biosurfactants have merits over their chemical counterparts. Biosurfactants are adaptable materials with a wide range of uses in the biodegradation and bioremediation of environmental contaminants. In addition, they have uses in&nbsp;pharmaceutical, food, and other industries. The continuous interest in biosurfactants results from&nbsp;these benefits and their vast variety of applications. Hydrophobic pollutants such as hydrocarbons and their derivatives are the major environmental issues due to their poor degradation but the use of biosurfactants can enhance their microbial degradation. When microorganisms try to use substrates like hydrocarbon as a source of carbon, they produce a variety of compounds called biosurfactants that help the diffusion into the cell. This review discusses the roles of these microbial products as veritable tools in environmental management with particular emphasis on the roles of biosurfactants in the sanitation of petroleum pollution and bioremediation of soils contaminated by pesticides.</p> 2023-08-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES