• I. Aliyu
  • J. M. Kaura
  • I. Abubakar
  • A. Ocholi
Keywords: Compressive Strength, Minitab 18, Metakaolin, Factorial design, FTIR, XRF.


Geopolymer concrete (GPC) has no mix design code to guide in the choice of material proportions for specific compressive strengths, its properties have not been fully understood especially in Nigeria despite being blessed with abundant geopolymer Al-Si source material (Kaolin). This study presents the properties of Kankara kaolin before and after treatment. Minitab 18 factorial design was used to design a Metakaolin based Geopolymer Concrete (GPC) with target compressive strength of 25 N/mm2 (Suitable for Reinforced concrete). After kaolin treatment XRF results indicate a marginal difference in Oxide composition with the kaolin before treatment, but FTIR results showed more of the difference because the transmittance of the band between 3619 and 3690 cm-1 which is typical of kaolin increased when treated to 94.484 % from 74.825 % when untreated and quartz interference at 1114.5 cm-1 and Si-O quartz at 674.6 and 752.9 cm-1 were no more after the treatment. A factorial design with four factors having 9 experimental runs recoded 39.5 N/mm2 (Run No 7) as highest compressive strength and 4.1 N/ mm2 (Run No 2) as the lowest. Results indicated that mixes with low alkaline liquid and low Molar concentration content exhibits lower strength than those with high alkaline liquid content and High Molar concentration. Re-analysing laboratory results and targeting a strength of 25 N/mm2; a mix (M1) with 14M proposed for the validation attained 38.7 N/mm2, another mix (M2) with 8 M also attained 30 N/mm2, Both M1 and M2 are satisfactory going by ACI 211.4R.93 1998


Aaron P, W (2015). Establishing a Mix Design Procedure for Geopolymer Concrete. A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences, University of Southern Queensland.

Abdul Aleem. M. I, and Arumairaj P. D. (2012). Geopolymer Concrete- A review. International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Emerging Technologies. ISSN: 2231 – 6604 Volume 1, Issue 2, pp: 118-122 ©IJESET

ACI 211.4R-93 (1998). Guide for Selecting Proportions for High-Strength Concrete with Portland cement and Fly Ash. Report by ACI Committee 211

Anuradha. R. V. Sreevidya R. Venkatasubramani and B.V. Rangan (2012). Modified Guidelines for Geopolymer Concrete Mix Design Using Indian Standard. Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (Building And Housing) Vol. 13, No. 3 Pp 353-364

ASTM C618-05 (2005). Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA,

Bharat B and Kamal K (2015). Geopolymer concrete-A Review. SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering (SSRG-IJCE), ISSN: 2348 – 8352 Pp 96-99

Bhaskar J. S. and Gopalakrishnarao P (2010). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Characterization of Kaolinite from Assam and Meghalaya, Northeastern India. J. Mod. Phys., 2010, 1, 206-210. doi:10.4236/jmp.2010.14031 (

Box, G.E.; Hunter, J.S.; Hunter,W.G. (2005). Statistics for Experimenters: Design, Innovation, and Discovery, 2nd Edition. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-71813-0.

BS 812 -2 (1995). Testing aggregates. Methods for determination of density’’ BSI 389 Chiswick High Road LondonW4 4AL UK

BS 812-103.1 (1985). Testing aggregates-Method for determination of particle size distribution. Sieve tests. BSI

BS 812-105-1 (1989). Testing aggregates. Methods for determination of particle shape. Flakiness index. BSI 389 Chiswick High Road LondonW4 4AL UK

BS 812-105-2 (1990). Testing aggregates. Methods for determination of particle shape. Elongation index of coarse aggregate. British Standard Institute

BS 812 -110 (1990). Determine Aggregate Crushing Value. British Standard Institute

BS 812-112 (1990). Testing aggregates. Method for determination of aggregate impact value (AIV). British Standard Institute

BS812-2 (1995). Testing aggregates. Methods for determination of density. British Standard Institute

BS 882(1992). Specification for aggregates from natural sources for concrete. BSI ISBN0580 2163 X

BS EN 1008 (2002). Mixing water for concrete- Specification for sampling, testing and assessing the suitability of water, including water recovered from processes in the concrete industry, as mixing water for concrete. 389 Chiswick High Road LondonW4 4AL UKBSI ISBN0 580 40141 3

Celik K., Jackson M.D., Mancio M., Meral C., Emwas A.-H., Mehta P.K. and. Monteiro P.J.M. (2014). High-volume natural volcanic pozzolan and limestone powder as partial replacements for portland cement in self-compacting and sustainable concrete. Journal of Cement & Concrete Composites, 45, pp. 136-147.

Chandra K.P and B. Sarath C.K.B (2017). An Experimental Study on Metakaolin and GGBS Based Geopolymer Concrete. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 544–557, Article ID: IJCIET_08_01_062, ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316

Chanh. N.V, Trung. B.D., Tuan, D.V. (2008). Recent research geopolymer concrete. The 3rd ACF International Conference – ACF/VCA.

Chong J.Z., Sutan N.M. and Yakub I. (2013). Characterization of early pozzolanic reaction of calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate for Nanosilica modified cement paste. Journal of UNIMAS, Vol. 3, Issue 3

Ephraim T. K (2016). Effects of different Molarities of sodium hydroxide and Curing Regimes on Metakaolin based Geopolymer Concrete. Unpublished MSc Dissertation submitted to the Department of Building, Faculty of Environmental Design, hmadu Bello University, Zaria.

Ernst. W, Lynn. P, Nathan. M, Chris. H, and Leticia O. M (2001). Carbon dioxide Emissions from the global cement industry. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment. 26:303-329

Getso,A.I (2013). An evaluation of the properties of binary concrete containing pozzolana zaria Nigeria’’ An unpublished MSc thesis, Department of Building. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

Hardjito Djwantoro, Steenie E. Wallah, Dody M.J. Sumajouw, and B.V. Rangan (2004). Factors influencing the compressive strength of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Civil Engineering Dimension, Vol. 6, No. 2, 88–93, ISSN 1410-9530

Hardjito. D, S.E. Wallah, D.M.J. Sumajouw, and B.V. Rangan (2004). Brief review of Development Of Geopolymer Concrete. Invited Paper, George Hoff Symposium, American Concrete Institute, Las Vegas, USA

Jacob E Ad (2017). Evaluation of the properties of Matakaolin based Geopolymer Concrete made with Recycled concrete Aggregate. Unpublished MSc Dissertation submitted to the Department of Building, Faculty of Environmental Design, hmadu Bello University, Zaria

Joseph Davidovits. (2002). Geopolymer. 2002 Conference, Australia.

Ken P.W., Ramli M. and Ban C.C. (2015). An overview on the influence of various factors on the properties of geopolymer concrete derived from industrial by-products. Journal of Construction and Building Materials, 77, pp. 370–395.

Marounane E A, Salihi A, Mohammed E A and, M’hamed T (2019). Preparation, characterisation, and Application of Metakaolin based Geopolymer for removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution. Journal of Chemistry ID 4212901, 14 https;//

Minitab 18 (2017). Minitab 18 Statistical Software. Minitab Inc; Department of Statistics at Pennsylvania State University, 1829 Pine Hall Rd, State College, PA 16801, USA

Mohammed. R. N, Tejas. O, Manojkumar V. C, (2014). Effect Of Curing Temperature And Curing Hours On The Properties Of Geo-Polymer Concrete. International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) ISSN (e): 2250 – 3005 Vol, 04 Issue, 9 pp 1-11

Pacheco-Torgal, F., Castro-Gomes, J., Jalali, S. (2008). Alkali-activated binders: A review Part I. Historical background, terminology, reaction mechanisms and hydration product. Journal of Construction and Building Materials Vol. 22, pp. 1305-1314.

Pawan kumar K. R. and Surendra B. V, (2016). Study on strength of geopolymer concrete with ambient temperature curing and low alkaline content. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) volume: 03 Issue: 05 e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Pourkhorshidi A.R., Najimi M., Parhizkar T., Jafarpour F. and Hillemeier B. (2010). Applicability of the standard specifications of ASTM C618 for evaluation of natural Pozzolans. Journal of Cement & Concrete Composites, 32, pp. 794–800

Shankar H. S, and Khadiranaikar, R. B (2013). Performance of Alkaline solutions on Grade of Geopolymer Concrete. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology Issn 2319 – 1163 IC-RICE Conference Issue Pp 366-371

Siddharth. K, P.T. Ayswariya Lakshm, R. Abhinaya V, (2016). Experimental Studies of Geopolymer Mortar With Fine Aggregate Partially Replaced By Crushed Laterite. International Research Journal Of Engineering And Technology (Irjet) E-Issn: 2395 -0056; P-Issn: 2395-0072 : 03 (12)| Www.Irjet.Net

Srinivasan K and A. Sivakumar (2013). Geopolymer Binders: A Need for Future Concrete Construction. International Scholarly Research Notices, ISRN Polymer Science

Turanli L., Uzal B. and Bektas F. (2005). Effect of large amounts of natural pozzolan addition on properties of blended cements. Journal of Cement and Concrete Research, 35, pp. 1106 – 1111

Vijai K R. Kumutha and B. G. Vishnuram (2010). Effect of types of curing on strength of geopolymer Concrete. International Journal of the Physical Sciences Vol. 5(9), pp. 1419-1423, ISSN 1992 - 1950 Academic Journals

Zhang H.Y., Kodur V., Qi S.L., Cao L. and Wu B. (2014). Development of metakaolin–fly ash based geopolymers for fire resistance applications. Journal of Construction and Building Materials, 55, pp. 38–45.

How to Cite

Most read articles by the same author(s)