• N. Abdullahi
  • N. B. Umar
  • A. U. Tsoho
  • A. Sani
  • Z. M. Yazeed
  • M. A. Tsangaya
  • Y. A. Yahaya
  • K. Yusuf
  • S. A. Haruna
  • U. A. Abdullahi
  • A. Ali
  • U. M. Dahiru
  • U. A. Suleiman
  • A. A. Umar
Keywords: adulteration, soil contamination, soil amendment, organic manure


The review article intended to provide an overview of quality variation and various contaminants in locally processed palm oil (PO). The paper also deliberates on the pros and cons of wastes generated during PO processing. There is a serious concern about the quality and safety of crude PO in Nigeria resulting from poor quality raw materials, inadequate processing know-how, inappropriate packaging and storage facilities, poor handling and transportation system and more importantly adulteration by producers and marketers. Wide disparities in the chemical and physical composition were reported in the literature. This may result from the variations in the chemical composition of the palm fruit, environmental factors, variation in processing operations which is determined by the location and abuse during handling and transportation. Microbial contamination is the foremost safety challenge in Nigerian crude PO processing. Higher microbial counts and the presence of toxic microorganisms including aflatoxins-producing fungi were reported by many researchers. Oil palm production in contaminated soil account for PO heavy metals contamination, though, heavy metals contamination below permissible limits was reported in most cases. Wastes generated from PO processing can be detrimental to the environment. Alternately, various benefits can be derived from the proper handling and utilisation of PO processing wastes. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a good substrate for the production of organic manure, biomolecules and amendment of oil-contaminated soil. Recommendations on how to tackle various challenges along the PO supply chain were presented at the end of the paper.


Abdul-Qadir, M. I., Okoruwa, V. O., and Olajide, A. O. (2016). Productivity of Oil Palm Production Systems in Edo and Kogi States, Nigeria: A Total Factor Productivity Approach. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 97, 37–44. DOI:

AbdullRani, S. N. N. (2015). Prediction of Free Fatty Acid in Crude Palm Oil using Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Abiodun, O. A., Tolulope, M. O., Femi, F. A., and Samuel, A. A. (2019). Assessment of Palm Oil Sold in Mainland Markets, Lagos State, Nigeria. EC Nutrition, 14(3), 208–214.

Ado, A., Tukur, A. I., Ladan, M., Gumel, S. M., Muhammad, A. A., Habibu, S., and Koki, I. B. (2015). A Review on Industrial Effluents as Major Sources of Water Pollution in Nigeria. Chemistry Journal, 1(5), 159–164.

Ahmed, A., and Wagini, N. H. (2018). Bacteriological Quality of Palm Oil Sold at Some Selected Markets within Katsina Metropolis. Katsina Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 7(2), 15–22.

Ajai, A. I., Adedokun, T. A., Inobeme, A., and Jacob, J. O. (2016). Determination of Physicochemical Properties of Selected Vegetable Oils in Minna. FUW Trends in Science and Technology Journal, 1(2), 475–478.

Akanni, K. A. (2018). Effect of Quality Assurance Deficit on Market Competitiveness for Export Commodities and Household Income in Nigeria. Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce, 12(4), 103–108. DOI:

Akinola, S. A., Omafuvbe, B. O., Adeyemo, R. O., Ntulume, I., and Ailero, A. A. (2019). Effect of storage on the quality of processed palm oil collected from local milling points within Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 57(3), 858–865. DOI:

Ako, P., and Anegbe, B. (2022). Total and Available Copper and Zinc in Soils Affected by Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Oghareki, Oghara Kingdom, Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 26(6), 1049–1055. DOI:

Amadi, E., and Wogborama, N. (2016). Role of Vocational Technical Education on Capacity needs for Palm oil and Kernel marketers in rural dwellers of Niger Delta in Nigeria. Current Studies in Comparative Education, Science and Technology, 3(1), 135–143.

Amechi, A. K., and Felix, E. (2019). Effects of process parameter on crude oil biodegradation of palm oil mill effluent using response surface optimization. Journal of Chemical Health Risks, 9(2), 117–132.

Andoh, S. S., Nuutinen, T., Mingle, C., and Roussey, M. (2019). Qualitative analysis of Sudan IV in edible palm oil. Journal of the European Optical Society, 15(1), 1–5. DOI:

Andoh, S. S., Nyave, K., Asamoah, B., Kanyathare, B., Nuutinen, T., Mingle, C., Peiponen, K. E., and Roussey, M. (2020). Optical screening for presence of banned Sudan III and Sudan IV dyes in edible palm oils. Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment, 37(7), 1049–1060. DOI:

Ani, K. A. (2020). Kinetics of crude oil degradation by an indigenous mixed culture isolated from palm oil mill effluent. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 13(15), 1555–1562. DOI:

Aphiar, A. E., and Raphael, N. I. (2019). Quality Assessment Of Physicochemical Properties Of Palm Oil From Different Palm Oil Mills In Isoko , Delta State. International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies, 6(6), 31–35.

Ayinla, Z. A., Ademakinwa, A. N., and Agboola, F. K. (2017). Studies on the Optimization of Lipase Production by Rhizopus sp. ZAC3 Isolated from the Contaminated Soil of a Palm Oil Processing Shed. Journal of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, 5(2), 30–37. DOI:

Bamidele, J. (2015). Occupational hazards and their effect on the health and socio-economic status of local palm oil processors in delta state, Nigeria. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 22(3), 483–487. DOI:

Bello, R., Essien, B., and Jauro, M. (2015). Economic Potentials of Oil Palm Production and Machinery Use in UDI, Enugu State, Nigeria. Science Journal of Business and Management, 3(5), 16–20. DOI:

Chigbogu, M. P., Jonathan, E. I., Onyenankeya, E. I., and Ikechukwu, O. S. (2015). Evaluation of the Quality and Level of Adulteration of Palm Oil Obtained from Different Locations in Enugu Metropolis , Nigeria. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences and Engineering, 6(6), 23–26.

Chikwendu, M. U., and Ogbonna, A. N. (2019). Impact of Palm Oil Mill Effluent on the Soil in Upkom- Bende Forest Reserve, Abia State, Nigeria. Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment, 10(3), 55–61.

Chinakwe, E. C., and Ogbuagu, D. H. (2019). Microbial and Physicochemical Qualities of Edible Palm Oil Sold in Major Markets of South-Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology, 5(6), 117–125.

Chuku, E. C., and Chuku, O. S. (2016). Fungi Associated with the Rancidity of Palm Oil. Nigerian Journal of Mycology, 8, 122–130.

Constant, L.-L.-N. B., Ntsomboh-Ntsefong, G., Ngando-Ebongue, G. F., Ngalle-Bille, H., Nyouma, A., and Bell, J. M. (2017). A review of main factors affecting palm oil acidity within the smallholder oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) sector in Cameroon. African Journal of Food Science, 11(9), 296–301. DOI:

Dada, E., Akinola, M., and Haruna, R. (2018). Physico-Chemical and Genotoxicity Assessments of Palm Oil Mill Effluent Generated by a Corporate Refinery In Nigeria. Pollution, 4(1), 83–92.

Dhiman, A., Thakur, D., and Suhag, R. (2021). Influence of encapsulating materials on spray-dried palm oil-based powder. The Pharma Innovation Journal, 10(1), 120–125. DOI:

Dikko, A. B., Alkasim, A., and Ahmed, A. D. (2015). The Effect of Impurity Concentration on Activation Energy Change of Palm Oil and a its Application to Identify an Adulterated Palm Oil. IOSR Journal of Applied Physics, 7(1), 22–25.

Ebere, E. C., Wirnkor, V. A., Chinedu, E. E., and Ngozi, V. E. (2018). A Review on the Quality of Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Produced Locally in Imo State, Nigeria. Sustainable Food Production, 4, 40–50. DOI:

Edward, J. B., Agunbiade, R. O., and Ayodele, A. P. (2017). Impact of Palm Oil Mill Effluent on River Awemu in Ijero-Ekiti. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 11(7), 53–56.

Egobueze, F. E., Ayotamuno, J. M., Iwegbue, C. M. A., Eze, C., and Okparanma, R. N. (2019). Effects of organic amendment on some soil physicochemical characteristics and vegetative properties of Zea mays in wetland soils of the Niger Delta impacted with crude oil. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 8(s1), 423–435. DOI:

Ekpo, G. I., Eteng, O. E., Ukeme, E., Ekwu, M., Bassey, S., and Uboh, F. (2022). Evaluation of Public-Health Risk of Heavy Metals Contaminants and Physicochemical Parameters in Adulteration Palm Oil Commonly Consumed in Calabar, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 26(2), 307–314. DOI:

Enyoh, C. E., Ihionu, E. A., Verla, A. W., and Ebosie, P. N. (2017). Physicochemical Parameter of Palm Oil and Soil from Ihube Community, Okigwe, Imo State Nigeria. International Letters of Natural Sciences, 62, 35–43. DOI:

Enyoh, E. C., Enyoh, C. E., and Amaobi, C. E. (2017). Quality Assessment of Palm Oil from Different Palm Oil Local Factories in Imo State, Nigeria. World Scientific News, 88(2), 152–167.

Ezeomedo, I. C., and Ogbogu, N. V. (2022). Oil Palm Industries and Its Environmental Influence in Akpo, South-Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, VI(IX), 819–825.

Ezirim, C. Y., Chikezie, P. C., Iheanacho, K. M., and Nwachukwu, N. R. (2017). Comparative Activities of Soil Enzymes from Polluted Sites in Egbema, Imo State, Nigeria. Journal of Pollution Effects and Control, 5(2), 1–7. DOI:

Filusi, O. J., Ayinde, J. O., Oladimeji, F. V., and Olorunshola, E. O. (2022). Youth Involvement in Entrepreneurial Activities Along Oil Palm Fruit Processing Value Chain-a Call To Skill Development and Livelihood Sustenance in Nigeria. Food and Agribusiness Management, 3(2), 55–58. DOI:

George, T., Rufus, E., and Alex, Z. C. (2017). Artificial neural network based ultrasonic sensor system for detection of adulteration in edible oil. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 12(6), 1568–1579.

Gourichon, H. (2013). Analysis of incentives and disincentives for palm oi in Nigera. In Food and Agriculture Organization: Monitoring African Food and Agricultural Policies.

Hope, N., and Gideon, A. (2015). Biosurfactant production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for applications as oil field chemical in Nigeria. Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition, NAICE 2015, 2013. DOI:

Ibiyemi, M. F., Julius, O. O., Oluwatobi, F. B., and Arotupin, D. J. (2022). Optimization, Purification and Characterization of Lipase by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Palm Oil Processing Cottage Industries in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Biotechnology and Bioresource Technology, 8(1), 12–25. DOI:

Idoko, O., Emmanuel, S. A., Obigwa, P. A., and Fadeyi, A. E. (2018). Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Palm Oil Samples obtained from Kwali Area Council, Abuja, Nigeria. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria, 43(4), 779–782.

Imo, E. O., and Ihejirika, C. E. (2021). Microbial load and biodegradation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by microorganisms at different stages of discharge. EQA-International Journal of Environmental Quality, 44, 9–17.

Imoke, E. D., and Muma, C. B. (2018). Estimation of Biogas Production from Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome) in Real Oil Mills Palm Plantation, Odukpani L.G.A., Nigeria. African Journal of Environment and Natural Science Research, 1(1), 24–32. DOI:

Izah, S. C. (2018). Feed potentials of Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass cultivated in palm oil and cassava mill effluents. Journal of Bacteriology and Mycology: Open Access, 6(5), 287–293. DOI:

Izah, S. C., Angaye, T. C., and Ohimain, E. I. (2016). Environmental Impacts of Oil Palm Processing in Nigeria. Biotechnological Research, 2(3), 132–141.

Izah, S. C., and Ohimain, E. I. (2016a). Review Microbiological quality of palm oil used in Nigeria : Health impacts perspective. Point Journal of Botany and Microbiology Research, 2(1), 37–45.

Izah, S. C., and Ohimain, E. I. (2016b). The opportunities and weakness of Nigerian oil palm industry. Biotechnological Research, 2(1), 33–43.

Jagaba, A. H., Kutty, S. R. M., Hayder, G., Latiff, A. A. A., Aziz, N. A. A., Umaru, I., Ghaleb, A. A. S., Abubakar, S., Lawal, I. M., and Nasara, M. A. (2020). Sustainable use of natural and chemical coagulants for contaminants removal from palm oil mill effluent: A comparative analysis. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 11(4), 951–960. DOI:

Jolayemi, O. S., Ajatta, M. A., and Adegeye, A. A. (2018). Geographical discrimination of palm oils (Elaeis guineensis) using quality characteristics and UV-visible spectroscopy. Food Science and Nutrition, 6(4), 773–782. DOI:

Kenechi, N., Felix, A., Linus, C., and Kayode, A. (2017). Analysis on the Physicochemical Properties of Palm Oil Within Isialangwa Local Government Area of Abia State , Nigeria. International Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry, 2(3), 159–162.

Lim, K., Pan, K., Yu, Z., and Xiao, R. H. (2020). Pattern recognition based on machine learning identifies oil adulteration and edible oil mixtures. Nature Communications, 11(1). DOI:

Lim, S. Y., Mutalib, M. S. A., Khaza’ai, H., and Chang, S. K. (2018). Detection of fresh palm oil adulteration with recycled cooking oil using fatty acid composition and ftir spectral analysis. International Journal of Food Properties, 21(1), 2428–2451. DOI:

MacArthur, R. L., Teye, E., and Darkwa, S. (2020). Predicting adulteration of Palm oil with Sudan IV dye using shortwave handheld spectroscopy and comparative analysis of models. Vibrational Spectroscopy, 110(103129), 1–6. DOI:

Muhammed, A. S., Kundiri, A. M., Daud, N. N. N., and Muhammad, I. S. (2017). Sorption Characteristics of Contaminants in Compacted Granite Residual Soil - Palm Oil Fuel Ash Mixture. Nigerian Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Research, 3(1), 70–75.

NAFDAC. (2020). Fats and Oils Regulations.

Ndidi, N., Tamuno-boma, O., Udiomine Brantley, A., and Tamunomiebam Emmanuel, I. (2020). Toxicological Effects of Sudan III Azo Dye in Palm Oil on Liver Enzyme and Non Enzyme Markers of Albino Rat. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 9(4), 104–111. DOI:

Ngangjoh, A. S., Tatanja, N. A., and Ejoh, A. R. (2020). Spoilage and microbial quality of crude palm oil from the North-west Region of Cameroon. African Journal of Food Science, 14(9), 304–312. DOI:

Nmaduka, N. J., Obioma, N. U., Victor, A. C., Chukwudi, O. C., and Juliet, O. C. (2018). Impact of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Contamination on Soil Enzyme Activities and Physicochemical Properties. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology, 12(1), 34–41. DOI:

Nnaji, J., Okoye, J., and Omotugba, S. (2016). Soil quality in the vicinity of palm oil mills in Umuahia, Nigeria. International Research Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Sciences, 3(1), 29–32.

Nwabanne, J. T., Oguegbu, O. O., and Agu, C. M. (2018). Removal of Solids from Palm Oil Mill Effluent and Paint Wastewater Using Electrocoagulation Technique. International Journal of Electrochemistry, 2018, 1–9. DOI:

Nwachoko, N., and Fortune, R. (2019). Toxicological effect of Sudan III Azo Dye in Palm Oil on Kidney Parameters of Albino Rats. Worl Jounal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research, 5(5), 5–11.

Nwachukwu, I. N., Amadi, E. S., Ogwo, U. C., Umeh, S. I., Opurum, C. C., Chinakwe, E. C., Nwaogwugu, N. U., Ochiagha, I. E., Ogbuagu, H. D., and Ujowundu, F. N. (2019). Molecular Screening of Fungal Isolates of Palm Oil from South Eastern Nigeria for Aflatoxin and Ochratoxin Biosynthetic Genes Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (mPCR). Microbiology Research Journal International, 28(5), 1–9. DOI:

Nwankwegu, A. S., Ikpe, E. M., Chukwura, E. I., Irondi, R. C., and Obika, E. I. (2016). Ex Situ Biodegradation of Crude Oil Using Bacterial Isolates From Palm Oil Mill Effluent. American Journal of Life Sciences, 4(3), 71–73. DOI:

Nwoko, C. I. A., and Ukiwe, L. N. (2016). Physicochemical characteristics of soils treated with palm oil mill effluent in three localities in Imo State, Nigeria. Pure and Applied Chemical Sciences, 4(1), 1–8. DOI:

Obire, O., and Hakam, I. O. (2015). Evaluation of the Microbiological Quality of Palm Fruits in the Various Stages of Palm Oil Production. Current Studies in Comparative Education, Science and Technology, 2, 313–323.

Odoh, C. K., Amapu, T. Y., Orjiakor, I. P., Martins, P. E., Seibai, B. T., Akpi, U. K., Ugwu, C. S., Lerum, N. I., and Nwankwegu, A. S. (2017). Assessment of mold contamination and physicochemical properties of crude palm oil sold in Jos, Nigeria. Food Science and Nutrition, 5(2), 310–316. DOI:

Ogboi, E., Kperegbeyi, J. I., Nmor, E. I., and Odeh, H. O. (2010). The performance of maize (Zea mays) in soil contaminated with palm oil mill effluent ( POME ) in South, South Central Nigeria. African Journal of General Agriculture, 6(1), 19–24.

Ogundare, F. O., Adekola, F. M., and Oladosu, I. A. (2019). Compositions and photon mass attenuation coefficients of diesel, kerosene, palm and groundnut oils. Fuel, 255, 115697. DOI:

Ohimain, E. I., and Izah, S. C. (2015). Physicochemical Characteristics and Microbial Population of Palm Oil Sold in Major Markets in Yenagoa Metropolis , Bayelsa States , Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques, 3(3), 143–147.

Okogeri, O., and Uchenna-Onu, U. (2016). Changes occurring in quality indices during storage of adulterated red palm oil. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 1(3), 1–5.

Okolie, H., Ekwuribe, C., Obidiebube, E., and Obasi, C. (2020). Impact of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on the populations of rhizobium and meloidogyne species in Awka, Nigeria. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 19(1), 27–32. DOI:

Okolie, H., Ekwuribe, E., Obasi, C., Obidiebube, E., and Obasi, S. (2019). Evaluation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Impact on Soil Chemical Properties and Weed Cover in Awka–Rain Forest Zone of Nigeria. Canadian Journal of Agriculture and Crops, 4(2), 93–100. DOI:

Olafisoye, O. B., Fatoki, O. S., Oguntibeju, O. O., and Osibote, O. A. (2020). Accumulation and risk assessment of metals in palm oil cultivated on contaminated oil palm plantation soils. Toxicology Reports, 7, 324–334. DOI:

Olafisoye, O. B., Oguntibeju, O. O., and Osibote, O. A. (2017). Trace elements and radionuclides in palm oil, soil, water, and leaves from oil palm plantations: A review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 57(7), 1295–1315. DOI:

Oluwatusin, F. M. (2017). Performance Analysis of Technical Palm Oil Marketing in Ondo and Ekiti States Nigeria. Researcher, 9(2), 9–16.

Omotoso, A. E., Igbinaduwa, P., and Barifa, A. M. (2018). Quality assessment of crude palm oil available in Benin-city, Nigeria. European Journal of Advanced Research in Biological and Life Sciences, 6(1), 39–47.

Omozemoje, A. A., Ovuru, K. F., and Izah, S. C. (2017). Evaluation of Selected Heavy Metals in Palm Oil Sold in Some Markets in Yenagoa Metropolis. EC Nutrition, 11(6), 244–252.

Onu, S. E., Ekwe, K. C., Aguaguiyi, F. N., and Ufomba, V. U. (2022). Comparative Analysis of Use of Traditional and Modern Methods of Palm Oil Processing Among Rural Farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. Journal of Community and Communication Research, 7(1), 96–103.

Oparaocha, E. T., Akawi, J. A., Eteike, P., and Joakim, N. (2019). Effects of Palm Oil Colorant on the Hepatic Functions of Albino Rats. ACTA Scientific Nutritional Health, 3(4), 41–44. DOI:

Osman, N. A., Ujang, F. A., Roslan, A. M., Ibrahim, M. F., and Hassan, M. A. (2020). The effect of Palm Oil Mill Effluent Final Discharge on the Characteristics of Pennisetum purpureum. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1–10. DOI:

Oti, J. A. (2021). Awareness and Use of Food Adulterants among Food Vendors and Market Women in the Northern Part of Ghana. European Journal of Nutrition and Food Safety, 13(2), 79–94. DOI:

Rafiu, O. R., Azibaola, K. I., Jackson, G., and Kola, K. A. (2022). Assessment of proximate and physicochemical properties of crude palm oil from south-west and South-south Nigeria. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 16(2), 40–56. DOI:

Raphael, O., John, O. O., and Sandra, U. I. (2017). Trace Metal Contamination of Some Edible Oils Consumed in Benue and Taraba States of Nigeria. American Journal of Food, Nutrition and Health, 2(4), 20–25.

Rohman, A., and Man, Y. B. C. (2009). Monitoring ofvirgin coconut oil (VCO) adulteration with palm oil using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Journal of Food Lipids, 16(4), 618–628. DOI:

Rohman, A., and Man, Y. B. C. (2010). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for analysis of extra virgin olive oil adulterated with palm oil. Food Research International, 43, 886–892. DOI:

Rohman, A., and Man, Y. B. C. (2011). Palm oil analysis in adulterated sesame oil using chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 113(4), 522–527. DOI:

Sam, C. E., and Nenman, D. V. (2019). The Effects of Four Local Additives on Some Physico- Chemical Properties of Palm Oil Obtained from Jos Metropolis, Plateau State, Nigeria. Proceedings of the 5th Postgraduate Colloquium for Environmental Research, 48–49.

Samuel, E., Salisu, S., Abdulraheed, A., Babai, M., and Sule, H. R. (2020). Variations on the Physiochemical , Microbiological and Selected Heavy Metals of Different Palm Oil Samples Sourced from Galadima , Tarauni , Sabon-Gari , Yan-Kura of Kano State and Samples from Kogi and Edo States of Nigeria. Chemistry Research Journal, 5(6), 189–194.

Samuel, E., Salisu, S., Yahaya, U. B., Danlandi, I. Y., and Sule, H. R. (2018). Comparative studies on the quality of palm oil samples collected from different markets (Galadima, Sabon Gari and Singa) of Kano State, Nigeria West Africa. International Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Processes, 4(2), 2545 – 5265.

Shehu, S., Salleh, M. A., and Syahadat, E. F. (2021). the Challenges Facing Palm Oil Industry in Nigeria. Asian People Journal (APJ), 4(1), 26–33. DOI:

Suseela, L., and Muralidhar, P. (2018). Reduction of organic load from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using selected fungal strains isolated from POME dump sites. African Journal of Biotechnology, 17(36), 1138–1145. DOI:

Tomaszewska-Gras, J. (2016). Rapid quantitative determination of butter adulteration with palm oil using the DSC technique. Food Control, 60, 629–635. DOI:

Ubani, C. S., Onwuneme, C., Okpashi, V. E., Osuji, A. C., and Nwadike, U. G. E. M. (2017). Palm Oil Mill Effluent Effect on Soil Fertility: a Longitudinal Assessment of Zea Mays Plant. EQA – Environmental Quality, 23, 43–53.

Urhibo, F. A. (2022). Factors Influencing Linkages in Oil Palm Innovation System in Delta and Edo States, Nigeria. African Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Development, 3(1), 63–72.

Uroko, R. I. (2014). Impact of Fresh and Fermented Palm Oil Mill Effluents on Soil Physico-Chemical Parameters and Enzyme Activities in Umuaka, Njaba, Imo State of Nigeria. University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Yuguda, A. U., Jalam, A. M., Ibrahim, H. G., Sadiq, L. S., Garba, M., and Natu, B. S. (2021). Assessment of Water Quality in Relation to Palm Oil Mill Effluent Discharge, Ogele Stream, Ogbadibo, Benue State, Nigeria. African Journal of Environment and Natural Science Research, 4(1), 45–52.

How to Cite
AbdullahiN., UmarN. B., TsohoA. U., SaniA., YazeedZ. M., TsangayaM. A., YahayaY. A., YusufK., HarunaS. A., AbdullahiU. A., AliA., DahiruU. M., SuleimanU. A., & UmarA. A. (2023). NIGERIAN PALM OIL: QUALITY DISPARITY, CONTAMINATION AND PROCESSING WASTES HANDLING. FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, 7(1), 126 - 135.

Most read articles by the same author(s)