• UCHE CHIWETALU Enugu State University of Science and Technology
  • Nneka, Juliana Ogbuagu
  • Michael Emeka Okechukwu
Keywords: poultry droppings; cassava peels; grasses; alkalinity; pH; soil.


The study presents soil alkalinity control using three different bio-materials for soil sustainability and productivity. It has been noted that soils without balanced pH have trouble with nutrient solubility, thereby making soil nutrients unavailable for plants. 5kg soil sample was measured and put in five different containers. Thereafter, 450g of ash was added to four containers to induce alkalinity. Moreover, three samples were further mixed with 3 different treatments; treatment A, B and C. In all, five samples were set for the study, sample A (control or ordinary soil), B (soil + ash), C (soil + ash + poultry droppings), D (soil + ash + cassava peals) and E (soil + ash + dry grasses). pH tests’ were conducted weekly on the samples and the results subjected to ANOVA test. Results obtained were 7.2, 11.5, 9.5, 8.7 and 9.2 for samples A, B, C, D and E respectively in week 1. Similarly, 7.2, 11.5,  8.4, 8.2 and 9.0; 7.2, 11.5, 7.8, 7.9 and  8.7; 7.2,  11.53, 7.4, 7.5 and 8.2 for samples A, B, C, D and E were obtained in  2nd, 3rd and 4th week respectively. The results showed that the treatments have significant effect in reducing alkalinity (p = 5%).


Acton, D.F., &Gregorich, L.J.(1995). The Health of Our Soils: Toward Sustainable Agriculture in Canada. Agriculture Agri-Food Canada, CDR Unit, Ottawa.

Adediran, J. A., De Baets, N, Mnkeni, P. N. S., Kiekens, L., Muyima, N. Y. O. &Thys, A.(2003). Organic Waste Materials for Soil Fertility Improvement in the Border Region of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Biol. Agric. Hortic.20:283-300.

Akanbi, W. B., Olaniran, O. A., Olaniyi, J. O., Ojo, M. A. & Sanusi, O. O.(2007). Effect of Cassava Peel Compost on Growth and Nutritional Quality of Celosia (Celosia argentea L.). Res. J. Agro., Medwell J. 1(3):110-115.

Asghar, M. &Kanehiro, Y. (1980). Effects of sugar-cane trash and pineaple residue on soil pH, redox potential, extractable Al, Fe and Mn. Trop Agric 57: 245-258.

Benites, J. and Bos, A. (2005). Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations, Rome. FAO Soils Bulletin 80.

Brady, N. C. & Weil, R. R. (1999). The Nature and Property of Soils, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle Hall, NJ, USA.

Brigid, A., Peter, M. K., David, C., Scott, A. D. & Neal, W. M.(2019). Changes in soil chemistry after the application of gypsum and sulfur and irrigation with coal seam water. Geoderma, vol. 337, pg. 782 -792.

Environment, Resettlement and Social Unit (ERSU), (2017). Project Management Unit (PMU) Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN). Nigeria Electricity Transmission Project (NETAP) Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF)

FAO, 2015. Revised World Soil Charter, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy

Glanz, J.T., 1995. Saving Our Soil: Solutions for Sustaining Earth’s Vital Resource. Johnson Books, Boulder, CO, USA.

Hue, N. V. &Amien, I.(1989). Aluminum detoxification with green manures. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 20: 1499 – 1511.

IremD.O.(1999). Weather forecasting and its utility in saving the future of our environment, Paper present at ESUT Auditorium on world met day, Enugu.

Iren, O. B., Asawalam, D. O., Osodeke, V. E. & John N. M.(2011b). Effects of Animal Manures and Urea as Nitrogen Sources for Amaranthus Growth and Yield in a Rainforest Ultisol in Nigeria.WorldJ.Appl.Sci.Technol.(WOJAST),3(1):73-78.

John, N. M., Ibia, T. O., Effiong, G. S., Etokeren, U. E. & Iren O. B.(2011). Response of maize (Zea mays l.) to different levels of decomposed refuse in Uyo Municipality, Nigeria. World Journal of Applied Science and Technology (WOJAST), Vol.3. No.1, 7-12.

Jones, A., Breuning-Madsen, H., Brossard, M., Dampha, A., Deckers, J., Dewitte, O., Gallali, T., Hallett, S., Jones, R., Kilasara, M.&Le Roux, P. (2013). Soil atlas of Africa.

Józefaciuk, G., Hoffmann, C. &Marschner, B.(2002). Effect of extreme acid and alkali treatment on pore properties of soil samples. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 165(1), 59-66

Karlen, D. L., Mausbach, M. J., Doran, J. W., Cline, R. G., Harris, R. F. & Schuman, G. E. (1997). Soil quality: a concept, definition, and framework for evaluation (a guest editorial). Soil Science Society of America Journal, 61(1), 4-10.

Lambin, E. F., Gibbs, H. K., Ferreira, L., Grau, R., Mayaux, P., Meyfroidt, P., Morton, D.C., Rudel, T.K., Gasparri, I.&Munger, J.(2013). Estimating the world's potentially available cropland using a bottom-up approach. Global environmental change, 23(5), 892-901.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Desertification Synthesis, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, USA

Minasny, B., Hong, S. Y., Hartemink, A. E., Kim, Y. H. & Kang, S. S.,(2016). Soil pH increase under paddy in South Korea between 2000 and 2012. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 221, 205-213.

Ofomata, G. E.(2002). A survey of the Igbo nation. Africana First Publishers.

Okechukwu, M. E. &Mbajiorgu, C. C. (2020). Spatial distribution of rainfall and reference evapotranspiration in southeast Nigeria. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 22 (1):1-8.

Okike, I., Samireddypalle, A., Kaptoge, L., Fauquet, C., Atehnkeng, J., Bandyopadhyay, R., Kulakow, P., Duncan, A., Alabi, T.&Blummel, M. (2015). Technical innovations for small-scale producers and households to prSocess wet cassava peels into high quality animal feed ingredients and aflasafe™ substrate. Accessed on 29/06/2016

Omisore, J. K., Kasail, M. Y. &Chukwu, U. C.(2009). Determination of Optimum Poultry Manure Rate for Maize Production. Proc. 43rd Annual Conference of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria, Abuja, pp. 260-263.

Noble, J. A., Smith, L. A. & Suffet, I. H. (1996). Influence of natural dissolved organic matter, temperature, and mixing on the abiotic hydrolysis of triazine and organophosphate pesticides. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 44(11), 3685-3693.

Ohno, T. and Erich, M. S. (1990). Effect of wood ash application on soil pH and soil test nutrient levels. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. Volume 32, Issues 3–4, Pages 223-239.

Oosterbaan, R. J.(2003). International Course on Land Drainage (ICLD). International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI).Wageningen, public domain, latest upload 20-11-2017

Parr, J.F., Papendick, R.I., Hornick, S.B. & Meyer, R.E. (1992). Soil quality: attributes and relationship to alternative and sustainable agriculture. Am. J. Altern. Agric. 7, 5–11.

Shackelford, G. E., Haddaway, N. R., Usieta, H. O., Pypers, P., Petrovan S. O., & Suthern;and W. J. (2018). Cassava farming practices and their agricultural and environmental impacts: a systematic map protocol. Environmental Evidence. Springer Nature.
How to Cite