LEAD ACCUMULATION IN MAIZE GRAINS, LEAVES AND OTHER PARTS OF THE PLANT: A POSSIBLE ROUTE FOR LEAD POISONING
Lead (Pb) accumulation in parts of maize plant as a possible route for Pb poisoning was investigated. Experimental design adopted was a 3 factorial combination (4 x 1 x 1). Prior to planting of seeds, soil sample was analyzed for its physicochemical properties. At maturity, maize crop and parts of the plants were harvested and analyzed for their Pb contents. TF, BCF and BAF were as well determined. Physicochemical properties’ results revealed that pH was 6.75, Ec = 1.62 dSm-, K = 1.66 %, Mg =12.87 cmol/kg, Ca =1.9 cmol/kg, N = 0.6%, P = 0.98%, BD = 1.25 g/cm3 and MC = 40.84%. TF, BCF and BAF value obtained were < 1. Similarly, Pb found in the grains, leaves, shots, roots and soil were within 0.3133 - 1.0533 ppm; 4.7133 - 7.100 ppm; 8.070 - 14.09 ppm; 14.02 - 26.00 ppm and 172 - 551.34 ppm for grains, leaves, shoots, roots and soil Pb concentration respectively. However, consumption of vegetables and crops cultivated in Pb contaminated soil will pose serious health risk to the consumers as Pb found in the grain and leaves of maize were above the maximum permissible limit for health safety (0.2 ppm) recommended by joint FAO/WHO.
Aladesanmi O. T., Oroboade J. G., Osisiogu C. Peter and Osewole Afolabi O. O. (2019). Bioaccumulation Factor of some selected Heavy Metals in Zea mays. Journal of Health and Pollution. DOI: 10.5696/2156-9614-9.24.191207
Arshad MA, Lowery B, and Grossman B. (1996). Physical Tests for Monitoring Soil Quality. In: Doran, J. W., and Jones, A. J., Eds., Methods for assessing soil quality, Soil Science Society of America Special Publication 49, SSSA, Madison, WI. p 123 - 142.
Akhtar, S. (2013). Food Safety Challenges—A Pakistan’s Perspective
Aponte, H., Mondaca, P., Santander, C., Meier, S., Paolini, J., Butler, B., Rojas, C., Diez, M.C., Cornejo, P. (2021). Enzyme activities and microbial functional diversity in metal (loid) contaminated soils near to a copper smelter. Science of the Total Environment 779, 146423.
Ather M. and Vohara S.B. (1985). Heavy metal and environment, New Age, International Publisher Ltd., Willey eastern limited New Delhi.
Bradl H. (2002). Heavy Metals in the Environment: Origin, Interaction and Remediation. Vol. 6. London: Academic Press.
Chiwetalu, U. J., Mbajiorgu C. C. and Ogbuagu N. J. (2020). Remedial Ability of Maize (Zea-Mays) on Lead Contamination Under Potted and Non-Potted Field Soil Condition. Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts, 5 pp. 51 -59. Journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jobab
Chiwetalu, U. J., Ogbuagu N. J. and Okechukwu M. E. (2021). Soil Alkalinity Control Using Three Different Bio-Materials (Wastes) for Soil Sustainability and Productivity. FUDMA Journal of Science (FJS) 5 No. 2, pp 247 – 254. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33003/fjs-2021-0501-514.
Daniela, M. M., Nicole, A. and Septimiu, M. (2010). Studies Regarding the Pb Toxicity Accumulation in Plants. Rom Biotech Lett. 15 (3): 5240-5245.
De A.K., (2010) Environment Chemistry, Willey eastern limited New Delhi
Duffus J. H. (2002). Heavy metals: A meaningless term? Pure and Applied Chemistry; 74(5):793-807
Engwa, G. A., Ferdinand, P. U., Nwalo, F. N. and Unachukwu, M. N. (2019). Mechanism and Health Effects of Heavy Metal Toxicity in Humans. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.82511
Fuller, R., Landrigan, P. J., Balakrishnan, K., Bathan, G., Bose-O’Reilly, S., Brauer, M., Caravanos, J., Chiles, T., Cohen, A., Corra, L., Cropper, M., Ferraro, G., Hanna, J., Hanrahan, D., Hu, H., Hunter, D., Janata,G., Kupka, R., Lanphear, B., Lichtveld,M., Martin, K., Mustapha, A., Sanchez-Triana, E., Sandilya, K., Schaefli, L., Shaw, J., Seddon, J., Suk, W., Téllez-Rojo, M. M., Yan, C. (2022). Pollution and Health: A Progress Update. Lancet Planet Health: 6:e535 – 47. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2542-5196(22)00090-0.
He, B., Yun, Z., Shi, J., & Jiang, G. (2013). Research Progress of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Sources, Analytical Methods, Status, and Toxicity. Chinese Science Bulletin, 58, 134-140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11434-012-5541-0
Hu, Z., Li, J., Wang, H., Ye, Z., Wang, X., Li, Y., Liu, D. and Song, Z. (2019). Soil Contamination with Heavy Metals and its Impact on Food Security in China. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 7(05), 168.
Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion Facilities (2005). Washington DC: United State Environmental Protection Agency: pp. 1284
Ismail B.S., Farihah K. and Khairah (2005). Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Vegetables from selected agricultural areas. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 74: 320 – 327.
Jarup L. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. British Medical Bulletin. 2003;68(1):167-182
Joint FAO/WHO (2018). Codex Alimentarius Commission General Standard for Contaminants and Toxins in Food and Feed (CXS 193-1995); FAO: Rome, Italy.
Kabta, P., Pendias, H. (1984). Trace Elements in Soil and Plants. Boca Raton, Fla, USA: CRC Press.
Kaewsringam T. Wongchawalit J. and Panich-Pat T. (2014). Accumulation of Pb in Maize (Zea Mays) Growth on Pb Contaminated Soil at Klity Village, Kanchanaburi Province
Kelepertzis, E., Chrastný, V., Botsou, F., Sigala, E., Kypritidou, Z., Komárek, M., Skordas, K., Argyraki, A. (2021). Tracing the sources of bioaccessible metal(loid)s in urban environments: A multidisciplinary approach. Science of the Total Environment 771, 144827.
Kumhomkul, T. and Panich-pat, T. (2013). Lead Accumulation in the Straw Mushroom, Volvariella volvaccea, from Lead Contaminated Rice Straw and Stubble. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 91: 231-234.
Li F., Qiu Z. Z., Zhang J. D. (2017). Investigation, pollution mapping and simulative leakage health risk assessment for heavy metals and metalloids in groundwater from a typical brownfield, middle China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health; 14(7):768. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14070768
Li, M., Zhang, J., Yang, X., Zhou, Y., Zhang, L., Yang, Y., Luo, L., Yan, Q., (2021). Responses of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms to biochar and compost amendments of heavy metals-polluted soil. Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) 102, 263–272.
Liu, D., Jiang, W., Liu,C., Xin, C. and Hou, W. (2000).“Uptake and accumulation of lead by roots, hypocotyls and shoots of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.)],” Bioresource Technology, vol.71, no. 3, pp. 273–277.
Liu, Y., Tie, B., Li, Y., Lei, M., Wei, X., Liu, X., Du, H. (2018). Inoculation of soil with cadmium-resistant bacterium Delftia sp. B9 reduces cadmium accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 163, 223–229.
Loveland P and Webb, J. (2003). Is there a critical level of organic matter in the agricultural soils of temperate regions: A Review, Soil and Tillage Research, Volume 70, Issue 1, Pages 1-18, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-1987(02)00139-3?
Lu, Y., Yin, W., Huang, L. B., Zhang, G. L., and Zhao, Y. G. (2011). Assessment of Bioaccessibility and Exposure Risk of Arsenic and Lead in Urban Soils of Guangzhou City, China. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 33, 93-102. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-010-9324-8
Malik, A., (2004). Metal bioremediation through growing cells. Environment International 30, 261–278.
Malik R. N., Husain S. Z., Nazir I. (2010). Heavy metal contamination and accumulation in soil and wild plant species from industrial area of Islamabad, Pakistan. Pak J Bot.;42(1):291-301.
Manisalidis I., Stavropoulou E., Stavropoulos A. and Bezirtzoglou E. (2020) Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution: A Review. Front. Public Health 8:14. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00014
Martin S, Griswold W. Human health effects of heavy metals. Environmental Science and Technology Briefs for Citizens. 2009; 15:1-6
Marketer B. (1993). Plant as a biomonitors: indicators for Heavy Metals in Terresial Environment. VCH Weinheim: NewYour/Base/Cambridge, pp. 395 – 401.
Markowitz M. (2000). Lead poisoning. Pediatry Review.; 21(10):327-335
Monisha J, Tenzin T, Naresh A, Blessy BM, Krishnamurthy NB (2014). Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdisciplinary Toxicology. 7(2):60-72
Mwilola P. N., Mukumbuta I., Shitumbanuma V., Chishala B. H., Uchida Y., Nakata H., Nakayama S. and Ishizuka M. (2020). Lead, Zinc and CadmiumAccumulation, and Associated Health Risks, in Maize Grown near the Kabwe Mine in Zambia in Response to Organic and Inorganic Soil Amendments. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.
Ondo, J. A., Prudent, P., Menye Biyogo, R., Rabier, J., Eba, F. and Domeizel, M. (2012) Translocation of Metals in Two Leafy Vegetables Grown in Urban Gardens of Ntoum, Gabon. Afr. J. Agric Res. 7 (42): 5621-5627.
Peridn-Elmer Co. (1968). Analytical Methods for Atomic Absorption •Spectrometry
Rodriguez, L., Lopez-Bellido, F. J., Carnicer, A., Recreo, F., Tallos,A. and Monteagudo, J. M. (2005).“Mercury recovery from soils by phytoremediation,” in Book of Environmental Chemistry, pp. 197–204, Springer, Berlin, Germany.
Salido, A. L., Hasty, K. L., Lim, J. M., and Butcher, D. J. (2003) “Phytoremediation of arsenic and lead in contaminated soil using Chinese Brake ferns (Pteris vittata) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea),” International Journal of Phytoremediation, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 89–103.
Seema T. and Tripathi I. P. (2012). Lead Pollution - An Overview. International Research Journal of Environment Sciences ISSN 2319–1414Vol. 1(4), 84-86.
Sharma R. K., Agrawal M., Marshall F. (2006). Heavy Metals Contamination in Vegetables grown in Wastewater irrigated areas of Varanasi, India Bulletin of Environmental Contamination Toxicology 77: 312 – 318.
Sharma, S. and Singh, B. (2014) Effects of acute and chronic lead exposure on kidney lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in BALB-C mice (Mus musculus). Int. J. Sci. Res., 3: 1564-1566.
Sirisuntornlak, N., Ullah, H., Sonjaroon, W., Anusontpornpern S., Arirob W. and Datta Avishek (2021) Interactive Effects of Silicon and Soil pH on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Maize. Silicon 13, 289–299. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12633-020-00427-z
Sridhar MKC (2001) Environmental Lead Levels in African Cities. Heavy Metals Research Group, Division of Environmental Health, College of Medicine University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; pp: 1 – 9.
Sriprachote, A., Kanyawongha, P., Ochiai, K., & Matoh, T. (2012). Current Situation of Cadmium-Polluted Paddy Soil, Rice and Soybean in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 58, 349-359. https://doi.org/10.1080/00380768.2012.686435
Turkekul, I., Elmastas, M. and Tuzen, M. (2004). Determination of Iron, Copper, Manganese, Zinc, Lead, and Cadmium in Mushroom Samples from Tokat, Turkey. Food Chem. 84: 389-392.
Yang, D., Deng, W., Tan, A., Chu, Z., Wei, W., Zheng, R., Shangguan, Y., Sasaki, A., Endo, M., Chen, H. (2021). Protonation stabilized high As/F mobility red mud for Pb/As polluted soil remediation. Journal of Hazardous Materials 404,124143.
Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
FUDMA Journal of Sciences