ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF Euphorbia tirucalli; ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ONE OF ITS BIOACTIVE PRINCIPLES TIRUCALLOL
Antifungal properties of extracts from Euphorbia tirucalli against some wood decay fungi were studied. E. tirucalli fresh sample was harvested, cleansed and chipped into chips of 3 x 2 cm length and breadth. Chipped sample (846.3 g) was macerated in 1000 mL of ethyl acetate, n hexane and methanol solvents, respectively. Column chromatography experiment on E. tirucalli was carried out and antifungal screening was done according to standard method for 7 days to observe zones of inhibition of fungi growth. Broth dilution method was adopted to determine the Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) of E. tirucalli extracts and fraction. Results show that Fibroporia vaillantii, Fomitopsis pinicola, Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Rhizopus sp. and Serpula lacrymans were sensitive to ethyl acetate, n’ hexane and methanol E. tirucalli extracts at concentration of 200 mg/mL with zone of inhibition of 18-26 mm and methanol extract had the highest value of 26 mm. The fraction had zone of inhibition of between 18 and 20 mm which are not significantly different (p<0.05) from 29-35 mm obtained from antibiotics. The MIC of 10 mg/mL and MFC of 20 mg/mL were recorded for extracts against the test fungi while MIC of 50 µg/mL and MFC 200 µg/mL were noted for fraction (Et15), respectively. Fraction (Et15) obtained from E. tirucalli was characterised as tirucallol compound. In conclusion, E. tirucalli extracts and fraction have proved to be effective in the control of wood decay fungi and may serve as control of diseases caused by the test fungi
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