• Ismaila Oloyede Orire
  • Bamidele Kole Ala
Keywords: HIV/AIDS; Infections; Spatio-Temporal Distribution, Ilorin Metropolis


Understanding the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in Ilorin metropolis is an issue of concern. Ameliorating this concern, the study examined certain objectives which are, to examine: the rate of HIV/AIDS infection in the metropolis; the demographic structure and characteristics of AIDS patients; the spatial distribution of the epidemic; as well as, evaluating the relationship between religion and spread of the infection in Ilorin metropolis. However, Secondary data collected from the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) were used. From these, an 8 year record consisting of 443 HIV/AIDS patients attached to the metropolis was studied. These were later analyzed using descriptive as well as inferential statistics. Thus, the result shows that females (63.2%) were more infected than the males (36.8%). Apart from this, those unmarried (singles) are less infected (32.5%), than the married (67.5%). Also, the non-civil servants (i.e. traders, artisans etc.) constitute the largest proportion (72.7%) of patients in the metropolis, from which majority (73.6%) are between ages 21-49 years. Also, education was found to exert significant influence on rate of infection, while the highest number of new cases (123 (27.8%) was recorded in year 2010. Sabon Geri ward II recorded the highest cases, while the least infected is Oju-ekun ward. In conclusion, the disease is found to be spatially inclined, coupled with the significant influence of age at first intercourse on exposure. It is recommended that, the government (at all levels) and relevant NGOs should accelerate policies and programmes development to reduce and ultimately eliminating HIV/AIDS infections in Ilorin.


Adedibu, A.A (1980). Spatial Pattern of Housing Modernization in the Traditional Area of Ilorin. Nigeria Geographical Journal, 23(1-2): 147-161).

Adegoke, A.A. (2013). HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse Education. In F.A. Adekola and R.I. Adebayo (Edts.) "General Studies in the Humanities: Topical Issues". Pp. 59-71. Unilorin Press.

Adih, W. and Alexander, C. (1999). Determinants of Condom use to prevent HIV infection among youth in Ghana. Journal of Adolescent Health, 24(1): 63-72.

Agaba, P.A., Meloni, S.T., Sule, H.M., Agbaji, O.O., Ekeh, P.N., Job, G.C., Nyango, N., Ugoagwu, P.O., Imade, G.E., Idoko, J.A. and Kanki, P.J. (2014). Patients who present late to HIV care and associated risk factors in Nigeria. HIV Med. 15(7): 396-405.

Ahmed, A., Uthman, M.M.B., Osinubi, M.O., Bolarinwa, A.O., Musa, O.I., and Aderibigbe, A.A. (2018). Assessment of Quality of Life among Patients attending HIV Clinics in Ilorin Metropolis. Res. J. of Health Sci., 6(4): 226-235.

Akande, A. (1994). AIDS-related Belief and Behaviours of Students: evidence from two countries (Zimbabwe and Nigeria). International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 4(3-4): 285-303.

Akhigbe, R.E., Bamidele, J.O. and Abodunrin, O.L. (2010). Seroprevalence of HIV Infection in Kwara, Nigeria. International Journal of Virology, 6(3): 158-163.

Asiimwe-Okiror G., Opio, A.A., Musinguzi, J., Madraa, E., Tembo, G. and Carael, M. (1997). Change in Sexual Behaviour and Decline in HIV Infection among Young Pregnant Women in Urban Uganda. AIDS, 11(14): 1757-1763.

Awoleye, J.O. and Thron, C. (2015). Determinants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in Nigeria: A Synthesis of the Literature. Journal of AIDS and HIV Research, 7(9):117-129.

Bashorun, A., Nguku, P., Kawu, I., Ngige, E., Ogundiran, A., Sabitu, K., Nasidi, A. and Nsubuga, P. (2014). A Description of HIV Prevalence Trends in Nigeria from 2001 to 2010: what is the progress, where is the problem?. Pan Afr. Med. J., 18(Supp1): 3.

Bankole, A., Ahmed, F.H., Neema, S., Ouedraogo, C. and Konyani, S. (2007). Knowledge of Correct Condom use and Consistency of use among adolescents in four countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Journal of Reproductive Health, 11(2): 197-220.

Bond, V. and Dover, P. (1997). Men, Women and the trouble with condoms: Problems associated with condom use by migrant workers in rural Zambia. Health Transition Review, 7(Suppl.): 377-391.

Chen, S. and Ravallion, M. (2008). "The Developing World is Poorer Than We Thought, But No Less Successful in the Fight against Poverty." Washington, DC: World Bank.

Chimbiri, A.M. (2007). The Condom is an ‘intruder’ in Marriage: evidence from rural Malawi. Social Science & Medicine, 64(5): 1102-1115.

DeSilva, M.B., Merry, S.P., Fischer, P.R., Rohrer, J.E., Isichei, C.O. and Cha, S.S. (2009). Youth, Unemployment, and Male Gender predict Mortality in AIDS Patients started on HAART in Nigeria. AIDS Care, 21(1): 70-77.

FMOH, (2008). National HIV SeroPrevalence Sentinel Survey. Republic of Nigeria, Federal Ministry of Health Expert Committee Report Series.

FMOH, (2009). Technical Report on National HIV Sero-Prevalence Sentinel Survey among Pregnant Women attending Antenatal Clinics in Nigeria; Abuja, 2010.

FMOH, (2010). 2010 Nigeria Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance Survey, Abuja, 2010.

Gregson S., Zhuwau, T., Anderson, R.M. and Chandiwana, S.K. (1997). HIV and Fertility Change in Rural Zimbabwe. Health Transition Review, 7(2): 89-112.

Holmes, K.K., Levine, R. and Weaver, M. (2004). Effectiveness of Condoms in preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 82, 454-461.

Hueppchen, N.A., Anderson, J.R. and Fox, H.E (2000). In: Cohen, W.R., Cherry, S.H., Merkatz, I.R. (editors). Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cherry and Merkatz's Complications of Pregnancy. 5th (ed.) Philladephia, USA: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2000.

Isiaka-Lawal, S.A., Nwabuisi, C., Fakeye, O., Saidu, R., Adesina, K.T., Ijaiya, M.A., Jimoh, A.A. and Omokanye, L.O. (2014). Pattern of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Women attending Antenatal Clinics in North-Central Nigeria. Sahel Med. Journal, 17: 145-150.

Kamali A., Carpenter, L.M., Whitworth, J.A.G., Pool, R., Ruberantwari, A. and Ojwiya, A. (2000). Seven-year Trends in HIV-1 Infection Rates and Changes in Sexual Behaviour among Adults in Rural Uganda. AIDS, 14(4): 427- 434.

Kaye, G., Rwambuya, S., Mutyoba, J., Atuhaire, I., Nalubwama, H., Maganda, A. et al., (2004). Sexual Behavioral Practices and incidence of STI and HIV infection among commercial Sex workers (CSWs) participating in the Hormonal Contraceptive and Risk for HIV-1 acquisition (HC/HIV) study: The Uganda Experience. Int. Conf. AIDS, 15: 11-6. Available at: http://www.gateway.n/

Landes, M., Thorne, C. and Newell, M.L. (2006). European Collaboratory Study; STI Sub-study Group. STI in HIV-1 infected Pregnant Women: Prevalence and Risk factors in a European Population. Int Conf AIDS; 16: 13-8. Abstract No TuPE0279.

Mayaud, P. and McCormick, D. (2001). Interventions against Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) to prevent HIV infection. Br Med Bull; 58: 129-53.

Mukiza-Gapere, J. and Ntozi, J.P.M. (1995). Impact of AIDS on Marriage Patterns, Customs and Practices in Uganda. Health Transition Review, 5 supplement: 201-208.

Nigeria National Agency for the Control of AIDS, (NACA, 2010). National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan 2010–2015. Nigeria National Agency for the Control of AIDS, Abuja, Nigeria.

Nigeria National Agency for the Control of AIDS, (NACA, 2012). Global AIDS Response: Country Progress Report. GARPR, Abuja, Nigeria. Available: Nigeria National Agency for the Control of AIDS, 2014. Global AIDS Response Country Progress Report, Nigeria.

National Population Commission (NPC, 2006) Population Census of the Federal Republic of Nigeria: Preliminary Report. United Nations Population Division (2006).

National Population Commission (NPC, 2014). National Population Commission/ICF international Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 2013, Abuja. NPC/Nigeria and ICF International 2014.

Ntozi, J.P.M. (2002). Impact of HIV/AIDS on fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Population Studies, 17(1): 103-124.

Odebode, N. and Shobiye, H. (2009). HIV/AIDS Prevalence Rate in Nigeria Rises to 4.6%: A Report by Institute of Human Virology reveals there has been a slight increase in HIV prevalence to 4.6 per cent in 2008. The Punch, p.3.

Olorunfemi, J. F. and Orire, I.O. (2013). The Planning Implications of Age of First Marriage in Traditional Urban Setting of Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Ilorin Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 15(2): 176 – 180.

Orubuloye I.O., Caldwell, P. and Caldwell, J.C. (1992).African Women’s Control over Their Sexuality in An Era of AIDS. Health Transition working paper, Health Transition Center, Australian National University, Canberra.

Owolabi, R.S., Araoye, M.O., Osagbemi, G.K., Odeigah, L., Ogundiran, A. and Hussain, N.A. (2012). Assessment of Stigma and Discrimination experienced by People Living with HIV and AIDS receiving care/treatment in University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, Nigeria. J. Int. Assoc. Phys. AIDS Care (Chic), 11(2): 121-7.

Oyebanji, J.O. (2000). Kwara State. In A.B. Mamman, J.O. Oyebanji, S.W. Petters (Edt), Nigeria: A People United, A Future Assured, Volume 2, Survey of States. Federal Ministry of Information, Abuja, 2000.

Patrick and John, (2008). Sexual Behaviour and HIV infection among Adolescent in Secondary School in Jos, Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Paediatr. 41(2): 86-89.

Pascoe, S.J.S., Langhaug, L.F., Mavhu, W., Hargreaves, J., Jaffar, S., Hayes, R. and Cowan, F.M. (2015). Poverty, Food Insufficiency and HIV Infection and Sexual Behaviour among Young Rural Zimbabwean Women. PLoS ONE, 10(1): p.e0115290.

Pettifor, A., O'Brien, K.M., MacPhail, C., Miller, W.C. and Rees, H. (2009). Early Coital Debut and Associated HIV Risk Factors among Young Women and Men in South Africa. Int. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 35(2): 82-90.

Plummer, M.L., Wight, D., Wamoyi, J., Mshana, G., Hayes, R.J., and Ross, D.A. (2006). Farming with hoe in a sack: condom attitudes, access, and use in Rural Tanzania. Studies in Family Planning, 37(1): 29-40.

Raheem, U.A; Sheu, R.A and Segun-Agboola, B.T, (2009). Exploring the Social and Environmental Determinants of Child Health in Ilorin, Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 2(3): 73-82.

Sukran, K., Aliye, M., Gulsen, M., Figen, K. and Yusuf, O. (2012). The Social and Health Problems of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Izmir, Turkey. The Eurasian Journal of Medicine, 44(1): 32-39.

UNAIDS, (2004). HIV and young people: the threat for today's youth. 2004 report on the global AIDS epidemic: 4th global report, Geneva. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 93-98.

UNAIDS, (2008). Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2008. Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS. ault.asp

UNAIDS, (2009). Global AIDS Epidemic Update. Retrieved from:

UNAIDS, (2010). UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2010.

UNAIDS, (2012). UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic 2012, Geneva, p.96.

UNAIDS,(2013). Nigeria: HIV and AIDS Estimates. Available online at: Update 2013.

UNAIDS, (2015). 'Empower young women and Adolescent Girls: Fast-Track the end of the AIDS Epidemic in Africa'. p13 (pdf).

UNAIDS, (2017). "When women lead change happens, p8. pdf".

UNAIDS, (2019a) The Nigeria National HIV/AIDS Indicator and Impact Survey (NAISS). Press Release, Abuja/Geneva, 14th March, 2019.

UNAIDS, (2019b). 'Women and HIV - A Spotlight on Adolescent Girls and Young Women'. p10 (pdf).

UNDP, (2013). Human Development Report 2013, the Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World

UNGASS, (2010). United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) Country Progress Report, Abuja, 2010.

UNICEF, (2009). Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected Infants and Children: Practical Approaches to Implementation and Scale up 2010. Available at:

USAID, (1997). cited in Adegoke, A.A. (2013). HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse Education. In F.A. Adekola and R.I. Adebayo (Edts.) "General Studies in the Humanities: Topical Issues". Pp. 59-71. Unilorin Press.

USAID, (2011). Cited in United States Agency for International Development, 2013. HIV/AIDS Health Profile: Sub-Saharan Africa. http://transition

Wald, A., Zeh, J., Selke, S., Ashley, R.L., and Corey, L. (2001) Effect of Condoms on reducing the transmission of Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 from Men to Women. JAMA, 285(24): 3100-3106.

World Population Prospects, (2019 Revision). Nigeria Population by Year (Historical). World population Review.
How to Cite