EVALUATING THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF INTERNAL DISPLACEMENT OF PERSONS IN KADUNA STATE
The constraints faced by IDPs were many ranging from inadequate housing, poor medical health care, hazardous work, vulnerability of women and children to trafficking and sexual exploitation, discrimination based on ethnicity, religion, class or gender as well as break in social relations. The aim of the study was to assess the nature of internal displacement in terms of causes and consequences of the internally displaced persons in Kaduna State. The sample population was drawn from the three senatorial zones. Purposive/availability sampling was used in selecting the settlements. The results had shown movement of internally displaced persons (IDPs) from one local government to another and from neighboring states into the study area. The study also revealed that the level of integration between the IDPs and the host communities is higher in rural areas as a result of the small size of the settlements which allows easier cohesion between the communities. The study recommended for public awareness on the large number of IDPs presence in the society and the need to empower them. The virtue of tolerance and forgiveness should be encouraged among the people to strengthen mutual co-existence in the society.
Arun, K.A. (2009). The Dynamic of Internal Displacement, Forced Migration and Vulnerable to Trafficking in Mexico. Instituto de Investigaciones socials, Univesidad Autiononma de Nuero leon. Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexic
Andreas, H. and Alexander, D. (2007). Grasping the Impact of Religious Traditions on Political Conflicts: Empirical findings and theoretical perspective. Die Friedens –Warte, Bd. 82, H 2/3, Religious, Krieg and Frieden. Pp.19-47.
Burns. R. B. (1994). Introduction to Research Methods. 2nd edition, Longmann Cheshire Pty Limited, Australia. Pp. 164-180.
Bogumil, T. (2012) Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement: Theoritical Framework and Challenges. Geneva.
Cornea, M.M. (2019). Risks, Safeguards and Reconstruction. A model for Population Displacement and Resettlement. Economic and Political Weekly.
Elizabeth, F., and Chareen, S. (2012) Internal Displacement in West Africa: A Snapshot. Brookings- LSE Project on Internal Displacement.
Falola, J. F. (2000) Learning from the Process of Gude Model Village Resettlement Scheme in Kano in Issues in Land Administration and Development in Northern Nigeria. Department of Geography, Bayero University, Kano-Nigeria.
Fayomi, O. (2014) Displacement in the Context of Social Crises in the Oil-rich Niger-Delta of Nigeria and oil-rich Bakassi Peninsula in Cameroon. International Journal of Social Work and Human Sciences Practice. Vol.2, No.1, pp.28-34. Horizon Research Publishing.
Gambo,Y. L., and Omirin, M. M. (2012) Ethno Religious Conflict and Settlement Pattern in Northern Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. Vol 3, No. 3 Sept, 2012. Meditarranean Centre of Social and Educational Research.
Ibrahim, A. H. (2016) Harnessing the Ethno-cultural Potentials for Tourism Development in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Un published Doctoral Thesis Submitted to Geography Department, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.
Ibeanu, O. (1998). Exiles in Their Own Home: Internal Population Displacement in Nigeria. African Journal of Political Science, Vol.3, No.2 pp.80-97. African Association of Political Science.
IDMC (2014) Multiple Displacement Crises Overshadowed by Boko Haram.
IDMC (2015) Global Overview. People Internally Displaced by Conflicts and Violence.
Jain, B.M. (2005). Ethno-Religious Conflicts and Civilian Intervention in South Asia in the Context of India and Pakistan. Journal of Asian Affairs, Vol.18, No.1. pp.1-16
John, O, O. (1997) The Ethnic Factor in Internal Displacement of Populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Journal of Political Science, vol. 2, No. 2. African Association of Political Science.
Joan, E., Laura, M. and Debraj, R. (2012). Ethnicity and conflicts: Theory and facts.
Mathias, C. and Krisztina, K. (2009). Civil Conflict and Displacement: Village-Level Determinants of Forced Migration in Aceh. Journal of Peace Research, Vol.46 No.3 Sage Publications Ltd.
Monirul, H. (2000). State, Identity Movements and Internal Displacement in the North-East. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 35, No.57. Economic and Political Weekly.
NEMA (2020) North-West Regional office, Kaduna.
Olowoselu, A., Adaobi, O. and Uzoechina, G.O. (2015). Effects of Insurgency on Universal Basic Education in Borno State of Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research, Vol.3, No.4, 490-494. Science and Education Publishing.
Opukri, C.O. and Ibaba, S.I. (2008). Oil Induced Environmental Degradation and Internal Population Displacement in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa Vol.10, No.7.
Sarah, K.L. (2008). Security and Displacement in Iraq: Responding to the Forced Migration Crisis. International Security, Vol.33 No.2 pp.95-119. The MIT Press.
SEMA (2020) Kaduna State Office.
SOKAMUDA, (2017) An Account of the April 2011 Genocide in Southern Kaduna. Published by Southern Kaduna Muslim Ummah Development Association.
Solomon, A. (2010) African Union Convention for the Protection and Assistance of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa. Introductory Note. International Legal Materials, Vol.49, No.1 pp.83-100. American Society of International Law. http://www.jster.org/stable/105305/intelegamate.49.1.0083 Accessed 18-01/2022
Tajudeen, O.A. and Adebayo, F.O. (2013). Issues of Refugees and Displaced Persons in Nigeria. Journal of Sociological Research. Macrothink Institute. Vol.4, No.1.
UNHCR and Brookings – BERN Project on Internal Displacement (2007). ‘Expert Seminar on Protracted IDP Situations,’ 1-51 in Seminar Report, Geneva, Switzerland.
Yahya S. I., Imaji, Z. O. S. and Tijjani, H. (2015). Insurgence and Counter Insurgence. The Case of Boko Haram Insurgent Group in Nigeria. International Journal of Current Research,7, (12).
Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
FUDMA Journal of Sciences