EVALUATION OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS AFTER TWO ROUNDS OF MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION IN LAU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF TARABA STATE NIGERIA
Keywords:Wuchereria bancrofti, Mass Drug Administration, Prevalence, clinical manifestations, microfilaria
This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) on Wuchereria bancrofti (microfilariae) after two rounds of combined Ivermectin and Albendazole distribution. A total of 221 participants were recruited in three communities in Lau Local Government Area of Taraba State by convenience sampling method. Questionnaires and physical examinations were used to assess clinical manifestations associated with the infection. Blood samples were collected by finger prick method and stained with Giemsa stain for examination to establish the presence of W. bancrofti while immunochromatographic card test was performed to determine the presence of filarial antigen in serum. Previous data were used to determine the pre-drug prevalence of the parasite. The results showed that the drug did not significantly reduce the clinical manifestations reported among the patients. The microfilariae prevalence and microfilaria mean density after two rounds of drug administration was 19.5% and 1.49%, while the pre- MDA prevalence and microfilaria mean density was 27.8% and 2.44% respectively. There was a statistically significant decrease of microfilaria prevalence (P<0.05) after two rounds of MDA. There was no significant effect of MDA by age, sex and occupation-related microfilariae prevalence in the study area. In conclusion, the study reveals that microfilaria prevalence and load decreased after two rounds of MDA of combined Ivermectin and Albendazole distribution amongst the studied populations. Routine evaluation of the MDA is required to assess the impact of the drug for the eventual elimination of the infection.
KEYWORDS: Wuchereria bancrofti, Mass Drug Administration, Prevalence, clinical manifestations, microfilaria,
Addiss D (2011). Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis. The 6th Meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: A half-time review of LF elimination and its integration with the control of other neglected tropical diseases. Parasite and Vectors 3: 100.
Akogun, O.B., Akogun, M.K., Apake, E. and Kale, O.O. Rapid community identification, pain and distress associated with lymphoedema and adenolymphangitis due to lymphatic filariasis in resource-limited communities of North-eastern Nigeria. Acta Tropica. 2011; 120(Supplement 1): S62–S8.
Badaki, J.A. (2010).Parasitological and social aspects of lymphatic filariasis in Taraba state. PhD thesis. University of Jos, Nigeria, Department of Zoology. pp. 1-150
Cantey, P.T. (2010). Increase compliance with mass drug administration programme for lymphatic filariasis in India through education and lymphedema management programmes. Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, 4:e728 (doi: 10.1371/0000728).
Cheesbrough M. 2010. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries (2nded.). Cambridge University Press, pp. 280-285.
Eigege, A., Kal, A., Sallau, A. and Umaru J. (2013). Long-lasting Insecticidal Nets are synergistic with Mass Drug Administration for interruption of Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission in Nigeria. Plos Neglected Tropical Disease 7(10) e2508.
Elkanah, O. S. (2006). A study on the epidemiology, Community perception and diagnosis of Bancroftian Filariasis in Lau L.G.A. Taraba State. M.Sc. University of Jos, Nigeria, Department of Zoology. pp 1-120.
Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) (2013). Guidelines for Malaria-lymphatic filariasis Co-implementation in Nigeria. Department of Public Health. https://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/news/health_publications/malaria/guidelines-malaria-lf-co-implementation-nigeria-9-13.pdf
Hotez, P.J., Asojo O.A., and Adesina A.M. (2012). Nigeria: “Ground Zero” for the High Prevalence Neglected Tropical Diseases. PLoS Neglected Tropical Disease. 6: 1600:10.1371.
McCarthy, J.S., Lustigman, S., Yang, J., Barakat, R.M., García, H.H., Sripa, B., Willingham, A.L., Prichard, R.K. and Basáñez, M. (2012). A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: diagnostics for control and elimination programmes. PLoS Negl Trop Dis., 6: e1601
Okoro, N., Nwali, U. N., Nnamdi, O. A., Innocent, O. C., Somadina, O. C. and Shedrack, E. O. (2014). The prevalence and Distribution of Human Onchocerciasis in two senatorial District in Ebonyi State. Journal of Science and Education, 2 (2): 39-44.
Stanton, M.C., Yamauchi, M., Mkwanda, S.Z., Ndhlovu, P., Matipula, D.E. and Mackenzie, C. (2017) Measuring the physical and economic impact of filarial lymphoedema in Chikwawa district, Malawi: a case-control study. Infection Disease of Poverty; 6(28):67–74.
Thiele, E. A., Cama, V. A., Lakwo, T., Mekasha, S., Abanyie, F., Sleshi, M., Kebede, A. and Cantey, P. T. (2016). Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in skin snips by microscopy and real-time polymerase chain reaction: Implications for monitoring and evaluation activities. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 94(4), 906–911.
Tyrell. E. (2013). Socioeconomic burden of lymphatic filariasis in Georgetown, Guyana. Trop Med International Health: 18(2):152–8.
World Health Organization (2010). Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis Progress Report 2000-2009 and Strategic Plan 2010-2020, WHO Press, Geneva 27, Switzerland.
Weil, G.J., Curtis, K.C., Fakoli, L., Fischer, K., Gankpala, L. and Lammie, P.J. (2013). Laboratory and field evaluation of a new rapid test for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti antigen in human blood. Am Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 89(1):11–5.
World Health Organization. (2011). Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: progress report. Weekly Epidemiology Record 87: 346–356
World Health Organization. (2013). Lymphatic filariasis: a handbook of practical entomology for Global Programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: progress report. Weekly Epidemiology, Record, 87: 346–356
Yahathugoda, C., Supali, T., Rao, R., Djuardi, T., Stefani, D., Pical, F., Fischer, P., Lloyd, M., Premaratne, P., Weerasooriya, M. and Weil, G. (2015). A comparison of two tests for filarial antigenemia in areas in Sri Lanka and Indonesia with low-level persistence of lymphatic filariasis following mass drug administration. Parasites & vectors. 8. 369. 10.1186/s13071-015-0979-y.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
FUDMA Journal of Sciences