• R. A. Adeleke
  • A. Aruwayo
  • A. Hamza
Keywords: Degradability, Processing methods, Ram, Rumen and Acacia hockii


Three fistulated rams with average live weight of 20kg were used as replicates in a completely randomized design (CRD) to study the influence of post-harvest processing methods on chemical composition, In Sacco dry matter degradability (DMD) and organic matter degradability (OMD)  of three differently processed Acacia hockii leaf meal. The processed leaf meals (ensiled, T1; sundried, T2 and fresh, T3) were incubated in the rumen of the three rams (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48h incubation time). The processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the tannin and saponin levels. The highest levels were observed in the fresh leaf meal. There was significant (p<0.05) different in CP contents between the treatments, with T1 having the highest CP content of 15.06%. The CF contents also differed significantly (p<0.05) between the treatments. T3 had the highest CF content (9.23%). T1 had significantly (p<0.05) higher DMD and OMD than T2 and T3.  The differences in effective dry matter degradations (EDMD) and effective organic matter degradations (EOMD) were also significant (p<0.05) between the three treatments. It is concluded that the processing methods (ensiling and drying) had positive effect on the chemical composition, DMD and OMD of Acacia (Acacia hockii) leaf meal. It is recommended that ruminant animal farmers, who practice zero grazing, should process Acacia hockii leaf meal before feeding it to their animals for better nutrients availability and utilization.


Abdu, S.B., Ehoche, O.W., Adamu, A.M., Yashim, S.M., Hassan, M.R. and Abdulrazaq, A. (2010). Effect of post-harvest processing methods on chemical composition, rumen dry matter and organic matter degradation characteristics of Ziziphus (Zizyphus mauritiana) leaf meal. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science, 12: 147-154.

Abia J.N., Ngongoni N.T. and Gandiya F. (2006). Effect of supplementing natural pasture hay with five C. calothyrsus provenances on the intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and excretion of purine derivative by goat. Tropical and subtropical agro ecosystems 6 pp 65 - 71

Acamovic, T. and Brooker, J. (2005). Biochemistry of plant secondary metabolites and their effects in animals. Symposium on ‘plants as animal foods: a case of catch 2?’ Symposium on ‘plants as animal foods: a case of catch’. Proc Nutr Soc 64: 403–412.

Allen O.N. and Allen, E.K. (1981) The Leguminosae: a Source Book of Characteristics, Uses and Nodulation. Madison, USA: University of Wisconsin Press.p. 729-798.

Attia-Ismail, S.A. (2005). Factors limiting and methods of improving nutritive and feeding values of halophytes in arid, semi-arid and coastal areas. In: International conference on biosaline agriculture & high salinity tolerance, Mugla, Turkey, 9–14 January 2005, pp 91–99

Balogun, R.O., Jones, R.J. and Holmes, J.H.G. (1998). Digestibility of some tropical browse species varying in tannin content. Animal Feed Science and Technology 76, 77-88.

Beauchemin, K.A., Kreuzer, M., O’Mara, F. and McAllister, T.A. (2008). Nutritional management for enteric methane abatement: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 48: 21-27.

Bekele-Tesemma, A. (2007). Useful trees and shrubs of Ethiopia: identification, propagation and management for 17 agroclimatic zones. In: Tengnas, B., Kelbesa, E., Demissew, S., Maundu, P. (Eds.), RELMA in ICRAF Project World Ageoforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya.

Bento, M.H.L., Acamovic, T. and Makkar, H.P.S. (2005). The influence of tannin, pectin and polyethylene glycol on attachment of 15N-labelled rumen microorganisms to cellulose. Anim Feed Sci Technol 122(1–2):41–57.

Canbolat, O. (2012). Determination of potential nutritive value of exotic tree leaves in Turkey. Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafkas University, 18(3): 419-423.

Coe, M. and Beentje, H. (1991). A Field Guide to the Acacia s of Kenya. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Duncan, R.F. (1995). Cordycepin blocks recovery of non-heat-shock mRNA translation following heat shock in Drosophila. Europ. J. Biochem., 233(3): 784--792.

Edreva, A., Velikova, V., Tsonev, T., Dagnon, S., Gürel, A., Aktaş, L. and Gesheva, E. (2008). Stress-protective role of secondary metabolites: diversity of functions and mechanisms. Gen Appl Plant Physiol Special Issue 34(12): 67–78.

Everist, S.L. (1969). Use of Fodder Trees and Shrubs. Queensland Department of Primary Industries Advisory Leaflet no. 1024.

Felker, P. and Bandurski, R. S. (1979). Uses and potential uses of leguminous trees for minimal energy input agriculture. Economic Botany, 33(2): 172 – 184.

Forbey, J.S., Harvey, A.L., Huffman, M.A., Provenza, F.D., Sullivan. R. and Tasdemir, D. (2009). Exploitation of secondary metabolites by animals: a response to homeostatic challenges. Integr. Comp. Biol., 49:314–328.

Hernandez, J.E., Edyvean, R.G. (2008). Inhibition of biogas production and biodegradability by substituted phenolic compounds in anaerobic sludge. J Hazard Mater 160: 20-28.

Hammond, L.E., Rudner, D.Z., Kanaar, R. and Rio, D.C. (1997). Mutations in the hrp48 gene, which encodes a Drosophila heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle protein, cause lethality and developmental defects and affect P-element third-intron splicing in vivo. Mol. Cell. Biol., 17(12): 7260-7267.

Hoste, H., Jackson, F., Athanasiadou, S., Thamsborg, S.M. and Hoskin, S.O. (2006). The effects of tannin rich plants on parasitic nematodes in ruminants. Trends parasitol. 22: 253 - 261.

Kamra, D.N., Patra, A.K., Chatteerjee, P.N., Kumar, R. and Agarwal, N. (2008). Effect of plant extracts on methanogenesis and microbial profile of the rumen of buffalo: a brief overview. Australian Journal Experimental Agriculture 48:175-78.

Katie, E., Ferrell, T. and Richard, W. (2006). Squirrels: the animal answer guide. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p91.

Le Houerou, H. N. (1980). Chemical composition and nutritive value of browse in tropical and West Africa. In: browse in Africa the current state of knowledge. Le Houerou, H. N. (ed.), ILCA, Addis Ababa. Pp. 261 – 289.

Leng, R.A. (1997). Tree foliage in ruminant nutrition. FAO Animal Production and Health paper no. 139, Rome, Italy.

Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa: A Check List. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Makkar, H.P.S. (2003). Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannins rich feeds. Small Ruminants Research, 49: 41-256.

McDonald, P., Edwards, A.R., Greenhalgh, J.F.J. and Morgan, C.A. (2002). Animal Nutrition, Sixth edition Longman UK.

Miller, S.M. (1994). The role of Acacia aneura in animal production. In: GutteridgeRC, Shelton HM (eds) Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture. CAB International: Wallingford, pp. 245-254.

Mokoboki, H.K., Ndlovu, L.R., Malatje, M.M. (2011). Intake and relative palatability indices of acacia species fed to sheep and goats. Agroforestry Systems 81: 31-35.

Moore, K.J. and Jung, H.J.G. (2001). Lignin and fiber digestion. J. Rangel. Manag. 54: 420–430.

Mupangwa, L.F., Ngongoni, N.T., Topps, J.H. and Ndhova, P. (1997). Chemical composition and dry matter degradability profiles of forage legumes Cassia rotundifolia Lablab purpureus amd Macroptilium atropurpureum at 8 weeks of growth. Animal feed science Tech., 69:167-178.

Neba, N.E. (2009). Management of woody plants in indigenous land use systems of the Sahel: example of north Cameroon. International NGO Journal, 4(11): 480-490.

Norton, B.W. (1994). Anti-nutritive and toxic factors in forage tree legumes. In: Gutteridge RC, Shelton HM (eds) Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture. CAB International: Wallingford, pp. 202-215.

Nuttaporn, C. and Naiyatat, P. (2009). The reduction of mimosine and tannin contents in leaves of Leucaena leucocephala. Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry, S137-S144.

Ørskov, E.R. (2000). The In situ technique for estimation of forage degradability in ruminants. In Forage Evaluation in Ruminant Nutrition, Eds., Givens, D. I., Owen, E., Axford, R.F.E. and Omed, H.M. Wallingford: CAB International, pp: 175-188.

Ørskov, E.R. (1980). The use of nylon bag techniques for the evaluation of feed stuff. Tropical Animal prediction. 5: 195-213.

Osuga, I.M., Abdulrazak, S.A., Ichinohe, T. and Fujihara, T. (2005). Chemical composition, degradation characteristics and effect of tannin on digestibility of some browse species from Kenya harvested during the wet season. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 18(1): 54–60.

Ovimaps (2012), Ovi location map; Ovi earth imagery; May 20th, 2012.

Patra, A.K. and Saxena, J. (2010). A new perspective on the use of plant secondary metabolites to inhibit methanogenesis in the rumen. Phytochemistry, 71: 1198-1222.

Pedley, L. (1987). Australian Acacias: Taxonomy and Phytogeography. In: Turnbull, J. W. (ed) Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. Proceedings, International Workshop held at Gympie, Australia, August 1986. ACIAR Proceedings No 16. pp. 11-16.

Preston, T.R. (1986). Better utilization of crop residues and byproducts in animal feeding: research guidelines 2. A practical manual for research workers.

Reddy, D.V. (2001). Principles of animal nutrition and feed technology. Oxford IBM Publishing Company Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.

Alain, A., Damase, K., Scott, Chang, A.D. (2013). Tropical Agroforestry . Springer Science & Business Media. p. 11. ISBN 978-94-007-7723-1.

Siegler, D.S. and Ebinger, J.E. (2010). New combinations in Senegalia and Vachellia (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). Phytologia, 92(1): 92-95.

Statistical Analysis System (2001) User’s Guide: Statistics, Version 8.2. SAS Institute, NC, USA.

Ternouth, J.H. and McDonald, W.J.F. (1979). Laboratory analysis of the nutritional value of western Queensland browse feeds. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 19: 344-349.

Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis, B.A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 3583–3597.

Van Soest, P.J. (1994). Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. Second edition. Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press: Ithaca.

Wink, M. (1999a). Introduction: biochemistry, role and biotechnology of secondary metabolites. In Biochemistry of plant secondary metabolism annual plant reviews, vol. 2. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 1–15.

Wink, M. (1999b). Introduction: biochemistry, role and biotechnology of secondary metabolites. In Biochemistry of plant secondary metabolism annual plant reviews, vol 3. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 1–16.

How to Cite