• N. J. Shanono Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria
  • M. L. Attanda
  • N. M. Nasidi
  • M. D., Zakari
  • A. Ibrahim
  • M. N. Yahya
  • I. M. T. Usman
  • A. H. Abdullahi
  • S. I. Umar
Keywords: Anthropogenic activities, Floods, Hadejia River Valley, Nigeria, Reservoir utilization


The unceasing risk perception and socio-economic damages caused by flood disasters have been persistent in Hadejia River Valley (HRV). There is, however, a need to review upstream factors that could exacerbate downstream floods in the valley. The review tends to gain insight from the local and global flood occurrences due to the interplay between upstream reservoir management and other anthropogenic activities and downstream floods. The review underscores the impact of poor upstream reservoir operation, agriculture and other anthropogenic activities in exacerbating the occurrence of floods. These activities alter natural drainage patterns, reduce water absorption, and frequent spills from the major dams and hence, amplify runoff resulting in heightened flood risks. It was observed that reservoirs can serve as flood control facilities (if well-managed) and also exacerbate flooding by releasing large volumes of water too quickly or reaching capacity during intense rainfall events. It is, therefore, essential to consider the location, design, and operation of reservoirs, as well as their role within the HRV management context. In conclusion, the Hadejia-Jama’are River Basin Development Authority (HJRBDA) should adopt the Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) approach that combines reservoir management, land use, flood forecasting, and emergency response strategies for minimizing downstream flood risks and maximizing the utilization of the upstream reservoirs.


Adhikari, S.P., Meng, S., Wu, Y.J., Mao, Y.P., Ye, R.X., Wang, Q.Z., Sun, C., et al. (2020) Epidemiology, Causes, Clinical Manifestation and Diagnosis, Prevention and Control of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) during the Early Outbreak Period: A Scoping Review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00646-x

Adeoye N.O., Ayanlade. A., Babatimehin (2009). Climate change and menace of floods in Nigeria cities: socio-economic implications. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 3(3); 369-377.

Akukwe, T.I., A.A. Oluoko-odingo, G.O. Krhoda (2020). Do floods affect food security ? A before-and-after comparative study of flood-affected households ’ food security status in South-Eastern. Bull. Geogr. Soc. Econ. Series, 47 (2020), pp. 115-131

Ashley, S.T. and W. S. Ashley (2008). Flood Fatalities in the United States. J. of app. Met. And Climatology. Vol (47) pp 805 – 818. https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JAMC1611.1

Aura, M.C., Nyamweya, C.S., Owili, M., Gichuru, N., Kundu, R., Njiru, J.M., Ntiba, M.J., (2020). Checking the pulse of the major commercial fisheries of Lake Victoria Kenya, for sustainable management. Fish Manag Ecol. 00:1–11. doi: 10.1111/fme.12414.

Bai, V.R. and M.R. Tamjis, 2007. Fuzzy logic model on operation and control of hydro-power dams in Malaysia. ICCES, 4: 31-39.

Banik, Dan. 2019. Achieving Food Security in a Sustainable Development Era. Berlin: Springer.

Béné, C. (2020). Resilience of Local Food Systems and Links to Food Security—A Review of Some Important Concepts in the Context of COVID-19 and Other Shocks. Food Security, 12, 805-822. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-020-01076-1

Changnon, S. A. (2008). Assessment of flood losses in the United States. Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education, 138(1), 38– 44.

Chinnarasri, C., Jirakitlerd, S., Wongwises, S.(2004). Embankment dam breach and its outflow characteristics, Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems. 21:4, 247-264, DOI: 10.1080/10286600412331328622

Chioma, O.C., Chitakira M, Olanrewaju O.O., Louw E. (2019). Impacts of flood disasters in Nigeria: A critical evaluation of health implications and management. Jàmbá J. Disaster Risk Stud.; 11(1):1–9.

Cuc LM, Huyen LTN, Hien PTM, Hang VTT, Dam NQ, Mui PT, et al. (2012) Application of marker-assisted backcrossing to introgress the submergence tolerance QTL SUB1 into the Vietnam elite rice variety-AS996. American Journal of Plant Sciences 3, 528–536. doi:10.4236/ajps.2012.34063

Daily-Nigerian (2021). The United Nations climate expert issued a red alert and advised relocation of Hadejia town over impending floods. Daily Nigerian Publication, Nigeria. https://dailynigerian.com/climate-expert-issues-red/

Di Baldassarre, G., Montanari, A., Lins, H., Koutsoyiannis, D., Brandimarte, L., & Blschl, G. (2010). Flood fatalities in Africa: From diagnosis to mitigation. Geophysical Research Letters, 37(22), 2–6. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL045467

Douglas, I. (2017). Flooding in African Cities, Scales of Causes, Teleconnections, Risks, Vulnerability and Impacts. Int. J. Disaster Risk Reduct., 26, 34–42.

Durodola, O.S. (2019).The Impact of Climate Change Induced Extreme Events on Agriculture and Food Security: A Review on Nigeria. Agricultural Sciences, 487-498 DOI: 10.4236/as.2019.104038

Echendu, A. J. (2022). Flooding, food security and the sustainable development goals in Nigeria: an assemblage and systems thinking approach. Social Sciences, 11(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020059

Erena, S.H., Worku, H., (2018). Flood risk analysis: causes and landscape based mitigation strategies in Dire Dawa city, Ethiopia. Geoenvironmental Disaster Vol. 5, No. 16.

Ezugwu, C. N., 2(013). International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) Vol. 2 Issue 9, September – 2013

Fortnam, M. P. & Oguntola, J. A. (eds) (2004) Lake Chad Basin. GIWA Regional Assessment 43. University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden.

Gleick, P. H. (2012). China dams. In The World's Water (pp. 127– 142). Washington, DC: Island Press.

Hossain, A.A., Y. Jia, X. Chao (2009). Estimation of Manning’s roughness coefficient distribution for the hydrodynamic model using remotely sensed land cover features 2009 17th International Conference on Geoinformatics, IEEE (2009), pp. 1-4

Haskoning: "Tiga Dam Evaluation Report", July 1978

Hanasaki, N., Kanae, S., and Oki, T.(2006). A reservoir operation scheme for global river routing models, Journal of Hydrology, 327, 22–41.

ICOLD. (2018). World Register of dams: International Commission on Large Dams.

Iliyasu U. Flood risk assessment in parts of Hadejia- Jama’are River Basin (HJRB) of Jigawa State, Nigeria (2017) An M.Sc. Thesis submitted to the Department of Geography.

Leibrand A, Sadoff N, Maslak T, Thomas A. (2019). Using Earth Observations to Help Developing Countries Improve Access to Reliable, Sustainable and Modern Energy. Front. Environ. Sci.; 7:1–14.

Linnerooth-Bayer, J., & Mechler, R. (2015). Insurance for assisting adaptation to climate change in developing countries: A proposed strategy. Climate Policy, 6(6), 621- 636. https://doi.org/10.1080/14693062.2006.968562

Magami, I.M. Yahaya, S. and Mohammed, K. (2014). Causes and consequences of flooding in Nigeria: a review. Biological and Environmental Sciences Journal for the Tropics 11(2), June 2014 Management, Hydrological Processes 12, 823–834.

Maina M. M., Shanono N. J., Bello M. M., Nasidi N. M., and Abdullahi M. (2023). Simulation of Climate Change Effect on Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Production in Kano River Irrigation Scheme (KRIS) using APSIM Model. FUDMA Journal of Sciences. 7(3), pp 21-27. https://doi.org/10.33003/fjs-2023-0703-1845

Mertzanis, A., Papadopoulos, A., Goudelis G., Pantera, A., Efthimiou, G. (2011). Human-induced impact on the environment and changes in the geomorphology: Some examples of inland and coastal environments in Greece, Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment 3 (8), 273-297.

NAN, (2019). Flood: Jigawa spends N2.7m on clearing the Hadejia River. TheGuardian Publication, Nigeria. https://guardian.ng/news/flood-jigawa-spends-n2-7m-on-clearing-hadejia-river/

Nkwunonwo, U. C., Whitworth, M. and Baily, B. (2015). Flooding and flood risk reduction in Nigeria: Cardinal gaps. Journal of Geography and Natural Disasters, 5(1):1-12

Nnaemeka-Okeke, R. 2016. “Urban Sprawl and Sustainable City Development in Nigeria.” Journal of Ecological Engineering 17 (2): 1-11.

Nwigwe, C. and Embargo, T. T. (2014). An assessment of causes and effects of flooding Nigeria. Standard Scientific and Research Essay, 2(7): 307-315

Obialor, C. A., Okeke, O.C., Onunkwo, A. A., Favorite, V. I., and Ehujuo, N.N. (2019). Reservoir Sedimentation: Causes, Effects And Mitigation. International Journal of Advanced Academic Research | Sciences, Technology and Engineering | ISSN: 2488-9849 Vol. 5, Issue 10.

Olalekan, E.I, Abimbola L.M, Saheed M, Damilola O.A. (2014) Wetland Resources of Nigeria: Case Study of the Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands. Poult Fish Wildl Sci 2: 123. doi:10.4172/2375-446X.1000123.

Olaniyi, Olumuyiwa Akin, Z. O. Ojekunle, and Brenda Temitope Amujo. (2013). Review of climate change and its effect on Nigeria's ecosystem. International Journal of African and Asian Studies—An Open Access International Journal 1: 57–65.

Olatunji, T., 2005 Evaluation of the Challawa Gorge dam spillway channel using a physical model 31st WEDC International Conference, Kampala, Uganda, 2005.

Ologeh I O, Akarakiri J B, and Adesina F A 2018 Constraints to Climate Change Adaptations Efforts in Nigeria. in: Filho W.L. (Ed.) Limits to Climate Change Adaptation (Cham: Springer) pp.159-174.

Osabuohien, E. S., Okorie, U. E., & Osabohien, R. A. (2018). Rice Production and Processing in Ogun State, Nigeria: Qualitative Insights From Farmers' Association. In A. Obayelu (Ed.), Food Systems Sustainability and Environmental Policies in Modern Economies (pp. 188-215). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-3631-4.ch009

Penning-Rowsell E., Floyd P., Ramsbottom D., Surender S. (2005). Estimating Injury and Loss of Life in Floods: A Deterministic Framework. Natural Hazards , 36(1-2); 43-64.

Prime, T., Brown JM, Plater AJ (2015) Physical and Economic Impacts of Sea-Level Rise and Low Probability Flooding Events on Coastal Communities. PLoS ONE 10(2): e0117030. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117030

Shanono, N.J., M.S., Abubakar, M.M., Maina, M.L., Attanda, M.M., Bello, M.D., Zakari, N.M., Nasidi, & Usman, N.Y. (2023). Multi-criteria Indicators for Irrigation Schemes Sustainability Performance Assessment. FUDMA Journal of Sciences, 6(6), 241 - 250. https://doi.org/10.33003/fjs-2022-0606-1164

Shanono, N.J. and J. Ndiritu (2020). A Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Impact of Human Behaviour on Water Resource Systems Performance. Alg. J. Eng. Tech. 2020; 3: 009-016. http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4400183

Shanono, N. J. (2019). Assessing the Impact of Human Behaviour on Reservoir System Performance Using Dynamic Co-evolution - A PhD Thesis Submitted to University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. http://wiredspace.wits.ac.za/handle/10539/29043

Sheng, J.B.; Li, L; Wang, Z.S. (2006). Discussion on dam security of small-scale reservoirs in China. China Water Resources, 2, 41–43.

Spencer, T., Brooks, S. M., Evans, B. R., Tempest, J. A., & Möller, I. (2015). Southern North Sea storm surge event of December 5, 2013: Water levels, waves, and coastal impacts. Earth-Science Reviews, 146, 120–145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.04.002

Sun, Z.D., Q Huang, C Opp, T Hennig, U Marold (2012). Impacts and implications of Major changes caused by the Three Georges Dam in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Water Resources Management, 26, 3367–3378. doi:10.1007/s11269-012-0076-3

Thorne, C., 2014. Geographies of UK flooding in 2013/4. Geog. J. 180 (4), 297–309.

UK Cabinet Office (2017). National Risk Register of Civil Emergencies. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-risk-register-of-civil-emergencies-2017-edition

Umma, M, Ibrahim, M, Tasi’u, Y.R.,Binta, S.B., Jamila, M.H., Hassan KY 2014. Effects of anthropogenic factors on the phytoplankton distribution of Watari Dam, Kano State. Standard Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol 2(8): 136-141, December Special Issue 2014 (ISSN: 2311-2751) http://www.standresjournals.org/journals/SRJAS

WFP, (2020). World Food Programme: Overview. https://docs.wfp.org/api/documents/WFP-0000121605/download/?_ga=2.155302011.1339219008.1695806730-1372439013.1695806729

Wing, O. E., Bates, P. D., Smith, A. M., Sampson, C. C., Johnson, K. A., Fargione, J., & Morefield, P. (2018). Estimates of present and future flood risk in the conterminous United States. Environmental Research Letters, 13(3), 034023.

Wizor, C.H. and Week, D.A., 2014b, Geospatial mapping and analysis of the 2012 Nigeria flood disaster extent in Yenagoa City, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental and Earth Science 4(10), 64–77.

How to Cite
ShanonoN. J., Attanda M. L., Nasidi N. M., Zakari M. D., Ibrahim A., Yahya M. N., Usman I. M. T., Abdullahi A. H., & Umar S. I. (2023). EFFECT OF RESERVOIR UTILIZATION AND OTHER ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES ON THE HADEJIA RIVER VALLEY FLOODS: A REVIEW. FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, 7(5), 125 - 133. https://doi.org/10.33003/fjs-2023-0705-2001