HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN SOIL SAMPLES AROUND IDENTIFIED METAL WORKSHOPS
Soil properties may change due to climate change, but in recent times, the changes occur as a result of anthropogenic activities such as metal workshop operations. This study was conducted to assess the impact of metal contamination on human health due operating activities of metal workshops. In this research work which was carried out to estimated human health risk due to heavy metal contamination around metal workshops, five different workshops, Garejin Oga Abdul (GOA), Nakowa Welding Construction (NWC), Garejin Da’awa (GDH), Garejin Adamu Salisu (GAS) and Garejin Iliya Maina (GIM) all in Potiskum town, Yobe State were sampled for the study and analyzed for eight heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni and Cu) levels using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Results from this study revealed that Cr (2.37E-01) and Co (5.77E-04) recorded the highest and lowest hazard quotient and the trend of total hazard quotient of all the heavy metals analyzed is Cr > Pb > Mn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Zn > Co. The hazard Quotients (HQ) and Hazard Index (HI) deduced from the workshops fall below the acceptable level indicating unlikelihood of non-carcinogenic health risks. However, GDH, GIM and GOA workshops were estimated to pose medium cancer risks with Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) values of 8.195 x 10-5, 6.313 x 10-5 and 7.443 x 10-5 respectively.
Abah, J., Mashebe P. and Onjefu, S.A. (2014). Survey of the Levels of Some Heavy Metals in Roadside Dusts along Katima Mulilo Urban Road Construction, Namibia. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 3 (1): 19-27 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajep.20140301.13
Adamu, Y. A. (2023). Removal of Heavy Metals by Adsorbent Produced from Khaya Senegalensis. FUDMA Journal of Sciences (FJS), 7(1): 29-34 DOI: https://doi.org/10.33003/fjs-2023-0701-1168
Adekeye, E.A., Ojo, M.A. and Ajayi, O.O. (2011). Contributions of Metal Welding Workshops to Environmental Pollution in Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries, 3 (1): 1-7
Chen, H., Teng, Y., Lu, S., Wang, Y. and Wang, J. (2015). Contamination Features and Health Risk of Soil Heavy Metals in China. Sci. Total Environ., 512–513, 143–153 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.01.025
Daura, M.M., Ibrahim, A. and Abba K.J. (2006). Problems of Urbanization in Nigeria, A Case Study of Damaturu. International Journal of Environmental Issues, 6 (1&2): 32-39
Garba, S.T. and Abubakar, M.A. (2018). Source and Distribution of the Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, and Mn in Soils of Bauchi Metropolis, Nigeria. American Journal of Engineering Research, 7 (2): 13-23
Ihedioha, J.N., Ukoha, P.O. and Ekere, N.R. (2017). Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil of a Municipal Solid Waste Dump in Uyo, Nigeria. Environ. Geochem. Health, 39 (3): 497–515 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-016-9830-4
Ikenaka, Y., Shouta, M.M.N., Kaampwe, M. Kennedy, C., Hiroki, T. Naoharu, M. and Mayumi, I. (2010). Heavy Metal Contamination of Soil and Sediment in Zambia. Afr J Env Sci Tech., 4 (11): 729-739
Isinkaye, O.M. (2018). Distribution and Multivariate Pollution Risks Assessment of Heavy Metals and Natural Radionuclides around Abandoned Iron-Ore Mines in North Central Nigeria. Earth Syst. Environ., 2 (2): 331–343 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41748-018-0035-0
Jimoh, A., Agbaji, E.B., Ajibola, V.O. and Funtua, M.A (2020). Application of Pollution Load Indices, Enrichment Factors, Contamination Factor and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Pollution of Soils of Welding Workshops at Old Panteka Market, Kaduna-Nigeria. Open J Anal Bioanal Chem, 4 (1): 011-019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17352/ojabc.000019
Kamunda, C., Mathuthu, M. and Madhuku, M. (2016). Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from Witwatersrand Gold Mining Basin, South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 13 (7): 663 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13070663
Liang, Y., Yi, X., Dang, Z., Wang, Q., Luo, H. and Tang, J. (2017). Heavy Metal Contamination and Health Risk Assessment in the Vicinity of a Tailing Pond in Guangdong, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 14: 1-17 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121557
Lim, H.., Lee, J., Chon, H. and Sager, M. (2008). Heavy Metal Contamination and Health Risk Assessment in the Vicinity of the Abandoned Songcheon Au–Ag Mine in Korea. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 96: 223–230 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2007.04.008
Lu, X., Zhang, X., Li, L.Y. and Chen, H. (2014). Assessment of Metals Pollution and Health Risk in Dust from Nursery Schools in Xi’an, China. Environ. Res., 128: 27–34 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2013.11.007
Luo, W., Lu, Y., Giesy, J.P., Wang, T., Shi, Y., Wang, G. and Xing, Y. (2007). Effects of Land Use on Concentrations of Metals in Surface Soils and Ecological Risk Around Guanting Reservoir, China. Environ. Geochem. Health, 29: 459–471 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-007-9115-z
Momodu, M.A. and Anyakora, C.A., (2010). Heavy Metal Contamination of Ground Water: The Surulere Case Study. Research Journal Environmental and Earth Sciences, 2 (1): 39-43
NIMET, Nigeria Metrological Agency (2014). NIMET Annual Report.
NPC, National Population Commission (2006). Population and Housing Census, Nigeria. http://nationalpopulation.gov.ng
Oguh, C.E. and Obiwulu, E.N.O. (2020). Human Risk on Heavy Metal Pollution and Bioaccumulation Factor in Soil and Some Edible Vegetables around Active Auto-Mechanic Workshop in Chanchaga Minna Niger State, Nigeria. Annals of Ecology and Environmental Science, 4 (1): 12-22
Orosun, M.M., Adewuyi, A.D., Salawu, N.B., Isinkaye, M.O., Orosun, O.R. and Oniku, A.S. (2020). Monte Carlo Approach to Risks Assessment of Heavy Metals at Automobile Spare Part and Recycling Market in Ilorin, Nigeria. Scientific Reports. Springer Nature Research, 10:22084 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79141-0
USEPA, United State Environmental Protection Agency (2001). Guidance for Characterizing Background Chemicals in Soil at Superfund Sites. Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Washington, DC. OSWER Directive, 9285: 7-41
USEPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency (2017). Human Health Risk Assessment Model Ecological Risk Assessment; Available: https://www.epa.gov/risk/humanhealth-riskassessment#self.
Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
FUDMA Journal of Sciences