• Yahaya Alhaji Adamu Federal University, Dutse
Keywords: Khaya senegalesis, batch experiment, heavy metal, adsorption, efficiency


Mankind quest for better life has led to advancements in modern technologies which include a number of manufacturing processes and methodologies. Some of these processes and methodologies often release harmful substances into the environment including heavy metals which lead to pollution. These heavy metals are non-biodegradable and therefore need to be removed. Attention has been devoted to emerging technologies which are relatively cheap, for the removal of heavy metal ions from contaminated waters. Adsorption of heavy metal ions using biological materials is one such technologies. As such, the adsorption of Cr(vi), Cd (ii), Zn (ii) and Ni(ii) from synthetic solution by activated carbon from Khaya senegalensis was studied in a batch experiment as a function of pH, metal concentration, adsorbent dose and contact time. Solutions after the batch experiments were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The result revealed dependency of adsorption process on pH. The optimal metal removal occurred at pH 6 for Cd (ii), Zn (ii) and Ni (ii) and 3 for Cr (vi). Maximum adsorption of 82.2 %, 78.9 %, 87.2 % and 83.3 % was attained for Cr (vi), Cd (ii), Zn (ii) and Ni (ii) respectively. Adsorption capacity of the adsorbent improved with initial metal concentration. Ion exchange seemed to be the major mechanism of adsorption in this study. The data collected was were modelled by the Langmuir isotherm over the entire concentration range, suggesting a monolayer coverage. The result showed that, sulphurised Khaya senegalensis is effective in removing heavy metal ions from aqueous solution.


Abdullahi, M., Sati, S. Y. and Usman, A. H. (2020). Removal of lead (Pb2+) ions from aqueous solution by adsorption using sugarcane bagasse activated carbon coated with magnetic nanoparticles. FUDMA Journals of Sciences (FJS) vol. 4(2):401-408.

Chen, G., Qiao, C., Wang, Y., Yao, J. (2014) Synthesis of magnetic gelatin and its adsorption property for Cr(VI). Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. 53:15576-15581. DOI: 10.1021/ie502709u

Condurache, B.C.; Cojocaru, C.; Samoila,P.; Cosmulescu, S.F.; Predeanu, G.; Enache, A.-C.; Harabagiu, V. (2022). Oxidized Biomass and Its Usage as Adsorbent for Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions. Molecules. 27, 6119. molecules27186119

Dermirbas, E., Kobya, M., Senturk, E., Ozkan, T. (2004). Adsorption kinetics for the removal of chromium (vi) from aqueous on activated carbons prepared from agricultural wastes. Water SA, 30(4) 533-539

Hashem, M. A. (2007). Adsorption of lead ions from aqueous solution by Okra wastes. Int. J. Phys. Sci. 2(7), 178-184. ISSN 1992-1950.

Hegazi, H. A., (2013). Removal of heavy metals from wastewater using agricultural and industrial wastes as adsorbents. HBRC Journal. 9: 276-282.

Igwe, J. C., and Abia, A. A. (2007). Equilibrium sorption isotherm studies of Cd (ii), Pb (ii) and Zn (ii)ions detoxification from wastewater using unmodified and EDTA-modified maize husk. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology (online). 10(4). Available from

Lesmana, S.O., Febriana, N., Soetaredjo, F.E., Sunarso, J., Ismadji, S. (2009). Studies on potential applications of biomass for the separation of heavy metals from water and wastewater. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 44:19-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.bej.2008.12.009

Mohan, D., Pittman jr, C. U. (2006). Activated carbons and low cost adsorbents for remediation of tri- and hexavalent chromium from water. Journal of Hazardous Materials. B137, 762-811. Doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2006.06.060.

Okoli, J.U and Ezuma, I.B.E. (2014). Adsorption studies of heavy metals by low-cost adsorbents. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 18(3), 443-448. ISSN 1119-8362.

Ramachandra, T.V. Ahalyar N and Kanamadi, R.D. (2005). Biosorption of Chromium (vi) from Aqueous Solutions by the Husk of Bengalgram (Cicer Arientinum). Electronic Journal of Biotechnology (online) 8(3) Available from ISSN: 0717-3488.

Sayqal, A.; Ahmed, O.B. (2021). Advances in Heavy Metal Bioremediation: An Overview. Appl. Bionics Biomech. 2021, 1609149.

Simon, D., Palet, C., Costas, A., Cristobal, A. (2022). Agro-Industrial Waste as Potential Heavy Metal adsorbents and subsequent safe disposal of spent adsorbents. Water. 14, 3298. 10.3390/w14203298,

Tang ,W.W., Zeng, G.M, Gong, J.L, Liang, J. Xu, P. Zhang, C., Huang, B.B. (2014). Impact of humic/ fulvic acid on the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions using nanomaterials: A review. Science of the Total Environment. 468:1014-1027. DOI: 10.1016/j. scitotenv.2013.09.044

Tiexeria Tarley, C. R and Zezzi Aruda, M. A. (2002). Biosorption of heavy metals using rice milling by-products. Characterization and application or removal of metals from aqueous solutions. Chemosphere. 54(7) , 905-915.

Velan , M. V., Sayaraghavan, K., Jegan, J. R., and Palanivalu, K. (2004). Copper removal from aqueous solution by marine green alga ulva reticulate. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology (online) 7(1). Available from ISSN 0717-3458

How to Cite