• Jeffrey Ovre Agushaka Federal University of Lafia
  • C. E. Chinwokwo
  • Daniel I. Yakmut
Keywords: Intelligent Crime Management System, web-based, Lafia metropolis


Security is one of the major concerns in our societies today, and the issues related to it are steadily increasing in both intensity and complication. Predicting crimes could help, but that is a huge challenge as it requires a study of the behavioral pattern or trend of criminal activities. This research aims to develop an Intelligent Crime Management System for the Nigeria Police Force using a case study of Lafia metropolis in Nasarawa State. The java development kit (JDK), android software development kit (SDK), sinch sdk for app-to-app call, android studio, firebase and a virtual emulator, were used to accomplish the research objectives. This system is comprised of an android based mobile application for crime reporting and awareness, a geospatial database that houses both legacy and new crime data, and a web-based intelligent application. The system can utilize the crime data stored in the database to identify hotspots and clusters in the Lafia metropolis. It can also predict the crime likely to occur at a location and analyze risk assessment and situation assessment of crime in Lafia metropolis


Adepoju M. O, Halilu S. A, S.O. Mohammed, Ozigis S. M, Idris I, Blessing A, Adeluyi O. A. (2014). Geo-Spatial Technologies for Nigerian Urban Security and Crime Management - A Study of Abuja Crime Hotspot Mapping and Analysis. ASPRS: Annual Conference Louisville, Kentucky March 23-28, 2014

Adisa, J. (1994), "Urban Violence in Lagos" in: Violence in Africa, IFRA, Ibadan Institute of African Studies, University of Ibadan. Pp139 – 175.

Ahmed, M. and Salihu, R.S., 2013. Spatiotemporal pattern of crime using geographic information system (GIS) approach in Dala LGA of Kano State, Nigeria. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), 2(3), pp.51-58.

Andrea, M.S. (1997), "Spatial Analysis of Crime Using GIS-Based Data: Weighted Spatial Adaptive Filtering and Chaotic Cellular Forecasting with Applications to Street Level Drug Markets", A PhD Dissertation submitted to the H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Carnegie Mellon University.

Balogun, T.F., Okeke, H. and Chukwukere, C.I., 2014. Crime mapping in Nigeria using GIS. Journal of Geographic Information System, 6(05), p.453.

Belgiu, M. and Drăguţ, L., 2016. Random forest in remote sensing: A review of applications and future directions. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 114, pp.24-31.

Block, C.R. (1993). "STAC Hot Spot Areas: A Statistical Tool for Law Enforcement Decisions." Workshop on Crime Analysis Through Computer Mapping Proceedings. Chicago, IL: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority and Loyola University Chicago.

Bottoms, A. E., & Wiles, P. (1997). Environmental criminology (pp. 620-656). The Oxford handbook of criminology

Braga, A.A., Papachristos, A.V. and Hureau, D.M., 2014. The effects of hot spots policing on crime: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Justice quarterly, 31(4), pp.633-663.

Carnaghi, J. andT. McEwen (1970). "Automatic Pinning." In: S.I. Conn and W.E. McMahon (eds.), Law Enforcement Science and Technology, Vol. III. Chicago, IL: Illinois Institute of Technology Research

Chen, Y., 2019. Crime Mapping Powered by Machine Learning and Web GIS.

Chinwokwu, E. C. (2017). Managing police personnel for effective crime control in Nigeria. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 19(1) 11-22

DeMotto, N., and Davies, C. (2006) A GIS Analysis of the Relationship between Criminal Offenses and Parks in Kansas City, Kansas, Cartography and Geographical Information Science, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2006, pp. 141-157

Eck, J., & Spelman, W. (1987). Solving problems: Problem-oriented policing in Newport News.

Goldstein, H. (1979). Improving policing: A problem-oriented approach. Crime & delinquency, 25(2), 236-258.

Gorr, W. & Kurland, K. (2012), "GIS Tutorial for Crime Analysis". ESRI Press, Redlands CA 92373
Hutt, O., Bowers, K., Johnson, S. and Davies, T., 2018. Data and evidence challenges facing place-based policing. Policing: An International Journal.

Ibrahim S., Kuta A. A. (2015). Challenges in using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Understand and Control Crime in Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 20, Issue 3, Ver. III (Mar. 2015), PP 43-48 e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845.

Maltz, M., A.C. Gordan and W. Friedman (1990). Mapping Crime in its Community Setting: Event Geography Analysis. New York, NY: Springer – Verlag

Markovic, J. and Stone, C., 2002. Crime mapping and the policing of democratic societies. New York: Vera Institute of Justice.

McEwen, J.T., & Taxman, F. S. (1994), "Applications of Computerized Mapping to Police Operations" In: Eck, J.E., and D. Weisburd, D., (eds.), Crime, Place and Police. Crime Prevention Series, Vol. 4. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia (2004)

Mwangala, M., Jackson, P., and Gift, L., "Public crime reporting and monitoring system model using GSM and GIS", International Journal of Computer Science and Mobile Computing, 4(1), 207-226, 2015

Pauly, G.A., McEwen, J.T. and Finch, S.J., 1967. Computer mapping: A new technique in crime analysis." In: S.A. Yefsky (ed.), Law Enforcement Science and Technology, Vol. I. New York, NY: Thompson.

Puustinen, A., Hameri, K., Pekkanen, J., Kulmala, M., de Hartog, J., Meliefste, K., ten Brink, H.M., Kos, G., Katsouyanni, K., Karakatsani, A., Kotronarou, A., Kavouras, I., Meddings, C., Thomas, S., Harrison, R., Ayres, J.G., van der Zee, S., Hoek, G., 2007. Spatial variation of particle number and mass over four European cities. Atmospheric Environment 41, 6622–66

Ranjan, J. (2009). ""Business Intelligence Concept, Component, Techniques and Benefits". Journal of theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 9(1). 60-70.

Rilwani M.I and Eguabor D.O (2000). The need for GIS and Crime Prevention, Detection and Control: A case study of Edo State Police Command Nigerian Journal of Cartography and GIS Vol.1. No.1 pp. 86

Sergio Ortega Cruz (2015). Fighting crime with big data analytics. Retrieved 24 june 2017

Shillingford, D & Groussman, J.D. (2010), "Using GIS to fight crime". ISO Review. [online] Accessed April 2, 2019.

Simpson, R. and Hipp, J.R., 2019. What came first: The Police or the incident? Bidirectional relationships between police actions and police incidents. Policing and society, 29(7), pp.783-801.
Walter, L. P., Brian, M. C.; Carter P. Susan, C. S. and S. H. John. ( 2013). Predictive Policing; The Role of Crime Forecasting in Law Enforcement Operations; ISBN: 978-0-8330 8148-3.

Weisburd, D., & Eck, J. E. (2004). What can Police do to reduce crime, disorder, and fear? The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 593(1), 42-65.

Weisburd, D., Telep, C. W., Hinkle, J. C., & Eck, J. (2010). Is problem-oriented policing effective in reducing crime and disorder? Findings from a Campbell systematic review. Criminology & Public Policy, 9, 139-172

Williams, S. and Coupe, T., 2017. Frequency vs. length of hot spots patrols: a randomised controlled trial. Cambridge Journal of Evidence-Based Policing, 1(1), pp.5-21.

Yu, C. H., Ding, W., Chen, P., & Morabito, M. "Crime forecasting using spatio-temporal pattern with ensemble learning." In Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, Springer International Publishing, pp. 174-185, May 2014.
How to Cite