PERFORMANCE OF YANKASA RAMS FED CORN COB BASAL DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH MIXTURE OF SUN-DRIED BROILER LITTER AND DIFFERENT ENERGY SUPPLEMENTS

  • S. P. Zagi
  • M. Mahmud
Keywords: Corn Cob, Rams, Diets, Sun-Dried Poultry Litter and Supplements

Abstract

A total of sixteen (16) Yankasa rams of about 10-12 months of age and having an average weight of 24 kg were used in an 84-day trial to investigate the nutrient utilization and digestibility of Yankasa rams fed grounded corn cob as basal diet supplemented with sun-dried broiler litter (SDPL) and different energy concentrate mixture. The rams were randomly assigned into four (4) treatments with four (4) replicates per treatment in a completely randomized design (CRD).  Four experimental diets were formulated and designated as: T1 (Corn cob + 150g SDPL + 150g MB), T2 (Corn cob + 150g SDPL + 150g RB), T3 (Corn cob + 150g SDPL + 150g MO), and T4 (Corn cob + 150g SDPL + 150g WO) and used to feed the Yankasa rams. The result of the performance of the rams showed that basal feed intake (35360.00-37735.00g; P<0.05), supplement feed intake (25077.50-25200.00g; P<0.05), total feed intake 60437.50-62935.00g; P<0.05), daily feed intake (719.49-749.23g; P<0.05), feed conversion ratio (7.74-9.11; P<0.05) and water intake 199.93-206.93L; P<0.05) were significantly affected across dietary treatments. On the daily weight of the rams, final weight (30500.00-32250.00g; P<0.05), weight gain (6750.00-8000.00g; P<0.05) and daily weight gain (80.36-95.24g; P<0.05) was significantly (P<0.05) while initial weight did not differ significantly. Poultry litter inclusion in ruminant diets could enhance the active utilization of fibrous feed materials and crop residues used in formulation. It could also possibly have role in supplying active microbial network that could enhance digestibility and degradability of rumen dietary fractions.

References

AAFCO Association of American Feed Control Officials (2019). Animal Feed Labeling Guide. Association of American Feed Control Officials. Accessed June 5, 2020. https://www.aafco.org/Portals/0/SiteContent/Publications/Feed_Labeling_Guide_web_cmplete.pdf

Abdu, S. B., Hassan, M. R., Musa, A., Adamu, H. Y., Abdulrashid, M. and Mijinyawa, M. A. (2017). Cost Benefit Analysis of Inclusion of Exogenous Enzyme in Maize Cob Based Rabbit Diets. Journal of Animal Production Research, 29 (2): 74-80.

Abdullahi, M., Abubakar, M., Doma, U. D. and Kalla, D. J. U. (2020). Nutrient Intake and Growth Performance of Growing Yankasa Sheep Fed Urea Ensiled Sesame Chaff Supplemented with Varying Proportion of Protein and Energy Sources. FUDMA Journal of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, 6 (2): 176-188.

Abouheif, M. A., Al-Saiady, M. Y., Al-Mufarrej, S. I, Makkawi, A., Ibrahim, H. A. and Aljumaah, R. S. (2012). Effect of Physical Form of Diet and Frequency of Feeding On Digesta Retention Time and Digestion in Najdi Lambs. Journal of Animal Veterinary Advances, 11: 1774-1779.

Alemayehu, M., Gezahagn, K., Fekede, F. and Getnet, A. (2017). Review On Major Feed Resources in Ethiopia: Conditions, Challenges and Opportunities. Acad. Res. J. Agri. Sci. Res, 5 (3): 176-85.

Alemneh, T. and Getabalew, M. (2019). Factors Influencing the Growth and Development of Meat Animals. International Journal of Animal Science, 3 (2): 1048.

All About Feed (2015). Maize Cobs Meal Suitable as Livestock Feed. https://www.allaboutfeed.net/animal-feed/feed-additives/maize-cobs-meal-suitable-as-livestock-feed/. (Accessed 12, April 2021).

AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association) (2019). AVMA Guidelines for the Depopulation of Animals. AVMA, Schaumburg, I. L. https://www.avma.org/sites/default/files/resources/AVMA-Guidelines-for-the Depopulation-of-Animals.pdf.

AVMA (American Veterinary Medical Association) (2020). AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2020 Edition. https://www.avma.org/sites/default/files/202001/2020_Euthanasia_Final_1-15-20.pdf

Babale, D. M., Yahaya, S. M., Nyako, H. D., Mbahi, T. F. (2018). Effects of replacing maize bran with maize cob on nutrients utilization, rumen metabolites and microbes of Red Sokoto Bucks Journal of Veterinary and Animal Research, 1 (102): 1-6. Doi: 10.18875/2639-7315.1.102

Babayemi, O. J., and Bamikole, M. A. (2010): Ethics and Animal Welfare: Is It Possible in Nigeria? In: 35th Annual Conference of Nigeria Society for Animal Production Held at University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Pp. 732-734.

Banglapedia (2021a). Farming Systems. National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. https://en.banglapedia.org/index.php/Farming_System (Accessed 19, June 2021).
Bello, A. A. and Tsado, D. N. (2013). Feed Intake and Nutrient Digestibility of Growing Yankasa Rams Feed Sorghum Stover Supplemented with Graded Levels of Dried Poultry Droppings Based Diet. Asian Journal of Animal Science, 7 (2): 56-63.

Bhattarai N, Kolachhapati M, D. N. (2016). Effect of Non-Genetic Factors on Average
Daily Gain in the Kids of Nepalese Hill Goats (Capra hircus l.) in Nawalparasi, Nepal.
Nepalese Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 14: 191–200.

Binuomote, R. T., Ojoawo, O. T., Asaolu, V. O., and Asolo O. P. (2018). Evaluation of Ensiled Corncob-Poultry Dropping as Ruminant Feed Using In Vitro Gas Production Technique. Academic Research Journal of Biotechnology, 6 (1): 29-42. https://www.academicresearchjournals.org/ARJB/Index.htm

Bura, A. B. (2000). The Role of Small Scale Industries on Socio-Economic Development of Azare. Pp. 8-10 Unpublished. Nigerian Certificate in Education Project. College of Education Azare, Bauchi, Nigeria.

Brar, N. S., Kumar, B., Singh, P., Kumar, A. and Singh, P. (2017). Qualitative Assessment of Silage Prepared at Farmer’s Field in Tarn Taran District of Punjab. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition, 34 (3): 357-360.

Callahan, S. R., A. J. Cross, A. E. DeDecker, M. D. Lindemann, and M. J. Estienne. (2017). Effects of Group-Size-Floor Space Allowance During the Nursery Phase of Production on Growth, Physiology, and Hematology in Replacement Gilts. Journal of Animal Science, 95:201–211.
Carpio, A. J., Guerrero-Casado, J., Ruiz-Aizpurua, L., Tortosa, F. S. and Vicente, J. (2015). Interpreting Faecal Nitrogen as a Non-Invasive Indicator of Diet Quality and Body Condition in Contexts of High Ungulate Density. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 61: 557–562.

Dineen, M., McCarthy, B. and Van Amburgh, M. E. (2018). Optimizing Productivity from Pasture Based Systems – A Case Study for high Forage Feeding Levels. In: Proceedings of 80th Meeting of Cornell nutrition conference for feed manufacturers. Doubletree hotel, East Syracuse, Ithaca, New York. October 16th – 18th, 2018. Pp. 200-211.

Duncan, D. B. (1955). Multiple Range and Multiple F-Test. Biometrics, 11: 1-42. https://doi.org/10.2307/3001478

Elimam, M. E., Musa, A. S. A. and Siddig, F. S. (2018). Effects of Dried Sugar Beet Root Based Concentrates Level on the Performance of Nubian Goat Male Kids. Gezira Journal of Agricultural Science, 1 (1): 81-94.

Estefanos Tadesse and Tesfaye Gemechu. (2020). On Farm Evaluation and Demonstration of Substitution of Poultry Litter to Concentrate in Diet of Growing F1 Heifers in the Low Lands Areas of Mid Rift Valley of Ethiopia. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences, 7 (8): 8-14. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22192/ijarbs.2020.07.08.002

Fajemisin, N. A., Chineke, C. M., Fadiyamu, A. A., J., F. A., and Alokan, J. A. (2012a). Dietary Effects of Ensiled Corncobs Treated with or without Water, Iye and Urea on Performance of West African Dwarf Sheep. In: G. N. Akpa, F. A. S. Dairo, G. S. Bawa, I. P. Solomon, K. U. Amaefuele, A. A. Odunsi, and A. O. Ladokan (Eds.). Agricultural Transformation: Strategies and Policies for Livestock Development in Nigeria. Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference of the Animal Science Association of Nigeria (ASAN), 9th – 13th September Held at International Conference Center Opposite (pp. 575–578).

Gadzama, I. U., Yashim, S. M., Abdu, S. B., Makun, H. J., Barje, P. P. and Achi, N. P (2017). Feed Intake, Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Friesian Bunaji Calves Fed Soymilk Based Milk Replacer. Journal of Animal Production Research, 29 (2): 96-111.

Hammad, M. R., Safaa, Nadi Abed-Elazeem, Aiad, A. M., Mohammed, S. A. and Soliman, N. A. M. (2010). Replacement Value of Urea Treated Corn with Cobs for Concentrate Feed Mixture in Pregnant Ewes Rabbits. Journal of American Science, 6 (6): 166-177.

Heuzé, V., Tran, G. and Lebas, F. (2016a). Maize cobs. Feedipedia, a programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/718. (Accessed 10, April 2021).

Ibhaze, G. A. (2015). Feeding Quality of Fermented Maize-Cob Based Diets as Feed for West African Dwarf Goats. Applied Tropical Agriculture, 20 (1): 52 – 56.

Ibhaze, G. A., Ekeocha, A. H. and Ojeamiren, B. O. (2016). Free Choice Intake, Growth and Digestibility Responses by West African Dwarf Does Fed Pulverized Maize-Cob Based Diets. Applied Tropical Agriculture, 21 (1): 128-132.

Inuwa, M., Abubakar, M. M., and Bello, K. M. (2020). Utilization of Cattle Fore-Stomach Digesta Ensiled with African Locust Bean Pulp and Non-Protein Nitrogen Sources by Growing Uda Rams. In: 45th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production (NSAP). ATBU Bauchi, Nigeria. Bauchi 2020 Book of Proceedings. Pp. 790-794.

Islam, S. and Khan, M. R. I. (2021). The Potentiality of Major Crops by Products as Livestock Feed in Bangladesh, A Review. Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci. 9 (12): 2103-2115.
DOI | http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.aavs/2021/9.12.2103.2115

Jamarun N, Zain M (2013). Dasar nutrisi ruminansia. Jasa Surya Press, Padang, Indonesia.

James, G., Garba, D. J., Adeolu, A. S., Adamu, Z. and Mamma, Z. (2019). Effect of Different Bedding Materials on the Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Broiler Chickens. Journal of World’s Poultry Research (JWPR), 9 (2): 50-58.

Jusman V, Arnim, Marlida Y, Pazla R (2020). Production Performance and Ongole Crossbred Cattle Receiving Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Supplementation. Journal of Res. Agric.Animal Science, 7: 53-58.

Kanengoni, A. T., Chimonyo, M., Ndimba, B. K. and Dzama, K. (2015). Potential of Using Maize Cobs in Pig Diets. A Review. Asian Australian Journal of Animal Science, 28 (12): 1669. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0053

Katagum, LGA (2003). Katagum Local Government at a Glance. Pp. 11-20.

Kazi, A. A. F. (2017). Market Insight: Bangladesh Feed Industry. Light Castle Partners. https://www.lightcastlebd.com/insights/2017/06/market-insight-bangladesh-feedindustry. (Accessed 7, May 2021).

Kibrom Gebremedhin. (2017). Effect of Increasing Level of Supplementation on Feed Intake, Nutrient Utilization, Growth and Carcass Characteristics of Begait Sheep Fed a Basal Diet of Grass Hay. MSc Thesis. School of Graduate Studies of Haramaya University, Ethiopia. 65 pp.

Kleinman, P., Beegle, D., Saacke Blunk, K., Czymmek, K., Bryant, R., Sims, T., Shortle, J., McGrath, J., Dostie, D., Maguire, R., Meinen, R., Ketterings, Q., Coale, F., Dubin, M., Allen, A., O’Neill, K., Davis, M., Clark, B., Sellner, K., Smith, M., Garber, L. and Saporito, L. (2012). Managing Manure for Sustainable Livestock Production in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 67: 54A-61A.

Laursen, M. F., Bahl, M. I., Michaelsen, K. F. and Licht, T. R. (2017). First Foods and Gut Microbes. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8: 356. DOI 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00356.

Lawrence, M., Victor, M., Marvelous, S. and Casper, Y. (2015). Growth Performance of Brangus Steers Fed Graded Levels of Sun-Dried Broiler Litter as a Substitute for Cottonseed Cake. Tropical Animal Health Production, 47: 1055–1059.

Maurya, D. P., Vats, S., Rai, S. and Negi, S. (2013). Optimization of Enzymatic Saccharification of Microwave Pretreated Sugarcane Tops Through Response Surface Methodology for Biofuel. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 51: 585-590.

Midwest Plan Service MWPS (2017). Grain Drying, Handling, and Storage. Publ. MWPS-13. (MWPS), Iowa State Univ., Ames.

Mustapha, S. and Fagam, A. S. (2006). Influence of Parent Material on the Content and Distribution of B and Zn in Upland Soils of Bauchi State Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Science Technology, 4 (3): 359-362.
Muya, M. C., Malebana, I. M. M. and Nkosi, B. D. (2020). Effect of Replacing Soybean Meal with Marula Nut Meal on Rumen Dry Matter and Crude Protein Degradability. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 52: 3911-3915.

Ngele, M. B. (2008). Fermentation and Metabolic Trends in Rams Fed Roughages with Various Supplements. Ph.D. Thesis. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria. 231 Pp.

National Research Council NRC (2016). Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. 8th Rev. Ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.

Obeidat, B. S., Subih, H. S. and Ata, M. (2020). Protein Supplementation Improves Performance of Lambs Fed Low-Quality Forage. Animals, 10 (1):51.

Oderinwale, O. A. (2018). Performance, Oxidative Stress and In Vitro Studies of Kalahari, WAD, Kalawad Does and their Kids Fed Diets Containing Turmeric Powder. PhD Thesis. Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State. Pp. 281.

Okafor, E. C., Lakpini, C. A. M. and Fayomi, A. (2012). Dried Gmelina (Gmelina arborea Roxb) Leaves as Replacement Forage to Groundnut Haulms in the Diets of Fattening Red Sokoto Bucks. International Journal of Agriculture and Biosciences, 1: 5-10.

Okoruwa, M. I., Esobhawan, A. O. and Eghaghara, O. O. (2015). Mixture of Orange and Pineapple Pulps Meal as Alternative Energy Sources in the Diet of Ram Lambs. Journal of Agriculture and Life Sciences, 2 (1): 95-103.

Okoye, J. O., Oranefo, N. O., and Okoli, A. N. (2016). Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Palm Bunch Ash and Trona on the Liver of Albino Rats. African Journal of Cellular Pathology, 6: 21-27.

Pandey, Daya Shankar, Giannis Katsaros, Christian Lindfors, James J. Leahy and Savvas A. Tassou (2019). Fast Pyrolysis of Poultry Litter in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Reactor: Energy and Nutrient Recovery. Sustainability, 11 (2533): 1-17.

Pazla, R., Adrizal, Sriagtula R. (2021). Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Production Performance of Pesisir Cattle Fed Tithonia Diversifolia and Calliandra Calothyrsus-Based Rations with Different Protein and Energy Ratios. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 9 (10): 1608-1615. DOI | http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.aavs/2021/9.10.1608.1615

Pazla, R., Zain, M., Ryanto, I. and Dona, A. (2018b). Supplementation of Minerals (Phosphorus and Sulfur) and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae in a Sheep Diet Based on a Cocoa By-Product. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 17 (7): 329–335. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2018.329.335

Pérez-Marín, D. C., Garrido-Varo, A., Guerrero-Ginel, J. E., Gómez-Cabrera, A. (2004). Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) for the Mandatory Labelling of Compound Feeding Stuffs: Chemical Composition and Open-Declaration. Animal Feed Science Technology, 116 (3–4): 333–49.

Rosane Cláudia Rodrigues, Maria Antônia Melo, Sâmara Stainy Cardoso Sanchês, Jocélio dos Santos Araújo, Marcônio Martins Rodrigues, Ana Paula Ribeiro de Jesus, Susan Emanuelly Pinheiro Amorin, Ricardo Alves Araújo, Ivo Guilherme Ribeiro Araújo and Henrique Nunes Parente (2017). Supplementation of Sheep with Increasing Levels of Crude Protein: Performance, Animal Behavior, and Contamination and Spread of Nematode Larvae in Brachiaria brizantha ‘Xaraés’ Pasture. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, 38 (1): 369-380. http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=445749994029 DOI:10.5433/1679-0359.2017v38n1p369

Sarker, N. (2019). Feeds and Fodder Trend in Bangladesh-AHCAB-2017. (Accessed 9, June 2021). https://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJAS/article/view/36317/24456

Sarkar, S., Milan, S., Akbar, H. and Marian, B. (2020). Management of Crop Residues for Improving Input Use Efficiency and Agricultural Sustainability. Sustainability, 12: 9808; https://www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability.

Sani, R. T., Lamidi, O. S., Dung, D. D. and Hassan, M. R. (2017). Effect of Feeding Graded Levels of Palm Kernel Cake on Some Blood Parameters of Weaner Calves. Journal of Animal Production Research, 29 (2): 142-160.

Santos, V. R. V., Percipolli, C. M. V., Tanure, C. B., Lima, P. M. T. Correa, P. S., Brito, D. L., Torres, S. E. A. and Louvandini, H. (2017). Dry Matter Intake, Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Hair Sheep Reared Under Different Grazing System. Journal of Scientia Agricola, 74 (6): 436 – 442.

Schiffmann Christian, Clauss Marcus, Hoby Stefan, and Hatt Jean-Michel (2017). Visual Body Condition Scoring in Zoo Animals – Composite, Algorithm and Overview Approaches. Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research, 5 (1): 1-10.

Seyed Mohsen Mousavi Kashani, Darvish, Sara and Gharahveysi, Shahabodin (2017). Litter Composition of Four Different Broiler Chicken Strains Fed with Two Types of Common and Specific Feeds. Animal Research International, 14 (3): 2785 – 2792.

Shewaye Hailecherkos, Bimrew Asmare and Yeshambel Mekuriaw (2020). Evaluation of Tree Lucerne (Chamaecytisus palmensis) Dried Leaves as a Substitution for Concentrate Mixture on Biological Performance and Socioeconomic of Washera Sheep Fed on Desho Grass Hay. Veterinary Medicine and Science.

SPSS (2006). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Ver. 16.0 SPSS Inc.

Steel, R. G. D. and Torrie, J. H. (1980). Principles and Procedures of Statistics 2nd Edition: A Biometrical Approach. McGraw Hill Book Company, Inc. New York.

Suyitman, Warly L, Rahmat A, Pazla R (2020). Digestibility and Performance of Beef Cattle fed Ammoniated Palm Leaves and Fronds Supplemented with Minerals, Cassava Leaf Meal, and their Combinations. Advances Animal Veterinary Science, 8 (9): 91–96. https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.aavs/2020/8.9.991.996

Wachirapakorn, Chalong, Krung P, Metha W, Pawadee P, Anusorn C (2016). Effect of Ground Corn Cobs as a Fibre Source in Total Mixed Ration on Feed Intake, Milk Yield and
Milk Composition in Tropical Lactating Crossbred Holstein Cows. Animal Nutrition, 2 (4): 334-338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. aninu.2016.08.007

Winckler, C., C. B. Tucker, and D. M. Weary. (2015). Effects of Under- and Overstocking Free Stalls on Dairy Cattle Behaviour. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci., 170: 14–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2015.06.003

Wu, G. (2018). Principles of Animal Nutrition. FL. 1st Edition, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC CRC Press, New York. 801p.

Yahya, M. M. and Saadu, G. (2020). Formulation and Effects of Three Varieties of Protein Lick Block Supplements on the Performance of Yankasa Rams in Adamawa State. International Journal of Innovative Studies in Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, 6 (2): 20-25.

Yusuf, H. K. and Garba, Y. (2020a). Nutritive Value and Antioxidant Properties of Some Crop Residues Used in Ruminant Feeding. In: Proceedings of the 45th Annual Conference of Nigerian Society for Animal Production (NSAP). ATBU, Bauchi. Bauchi 2020 Book of proceedings. Pp. 779-784.
Published
2022-06-30
How to Cite
ZagiS. P., & MahmudM. (2022). PERFORMANCE OF YANKASA RAMS FED CORN COB BASAL DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH MIXTURE OF SUN-DRIED BROILER LITTER AND DIFFERENT ENERGY SUPPLEMENTS. FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, 6(3), 226 - 233. https://doi.org/10.33003/fjs-2022-0603-985