• A. O. Ukpene
  • C. N. Isibor
Keywords: Flowering in cowpea, photoperiod, pod setting, pod filling


Seven varieties of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were studied in two field trials (the wet and dry seasons) in the 2021 cropping season in Agbor, South-South geopolitical zone of Nigeria, were laid out in a complete randomized block design (CRBD) with seven replications for seasonal responses of flowering and pod setting. The dry season crops were manually watered twice daily while the wet season crops were rain-fed. The study recorded that most of the cowpea genotypes grown in the wet season showed photoperiod sensitivity, flowering between 46.36 and 56.43 DAP with mean of 54.97 + 6.98. Pod setting was similar across genotypes but the number (9.64 + 8.29), while length of pods varied (14.66 + 2.83) as noted from field observations. Furthermore, Seeds per pod was not significant among varieties of the wet season but they were significant and among those of the dry season (9.37 + 5.17). Genotypes which flowered earlier produced higher number of pods per plant and gave better yield such as IT06K-149-1, IT98K-128-3, IT95K1072-57 and IT98K-506-1 with grain filling of 205.58, 186.3, 183.53 and 775.99 mean seeds respectively were consequently recommended for hybridization in cowpea breeding programmes in south-south Nigeria.


Bisikwa, J., Kawooya, R., Ssebuliba, S.P., Ddungu, M., Biruma, M. and Okello, D.K. (2014). Effect of plant density on the performance of local and elite cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) L. Walp) varieties in Eastern Uganda. African Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technologies [online], 1(1): 28-41.

Boukar, O., Belko, N. & Chamarthi, S., Togola, A., (2018). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata): Genetics, Genomics and Breeding. Plant Breeding, 138 (4): 415-424

Carsky, R.J., Singh, B.B and Oyewole, B. (2001). Contribution of early season Cowpea to late season maize in the savanna zone of West Africa. Biol Agric Hortic 18: 303-315.

Cook, B. (2008). Cowpea. Factsheet-cowpea. Retrieved on 11/9/2012 from http://www.pasturepicker.comau/html/cowpea.htm

Davies, D.W., Oelke, E. A., Oplinger, E.S., Doll, J.D., Hanson, C.V. and Putnam, D.H. (2010). Cowpea. Alternative Field Crops Manual. University of Wisconsin and Minnesota: Centre for Plant and Animal products.

Dugje, I.Y., Omoigui, L.O., Ekeleme, F., Kamara, A.Y. and Ajeigbe, H. (2009).Farmers’ guide to cowpea production in West Africa. IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria. 20 p.

Edeh, H.O. and Igberi, C.O. (2012). Assessment of vegetable cowpea production among small holder farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. APRN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 7 (3) 215-222.

Fawole, I. (1986). Selection for morphological traits in cowpea. Tropical Grain Legume Bull. 32: 31-33.

Ishaku, M.F., Singh, B.B and Craufurd, P.Q. 2005). Inheritance of time of flowering in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) walp.). Euphytica 142: 291-300.

Lush, M.W. (1979). Floral morphology of wild and cultivated cowpea. Economic Botany 33(4): 442-447.

Lush, M.W. and Evans, L.T. (1980). Photoperiodic regulation of flowering of cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). Annals of Botany, 46: 719-725.

Manggoel, W. and Uguru, M.I. (2012). Evidence of maternal effect on the inheritance of flowering time in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). International Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics. 6: 1-16.

Muktar, F.B. and Singh, B.B. (2006). Influence of photoperiod and gibberellic acid (GA3) on the growth and flowering of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.). J. Food Agric Environ, 4: 201-203.

Olorunmaiye, K.S. (2010). Reproductive performance of two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) varieties, Ife Brown and TVx3236 as influenced by imidazolinone and Dinitroaniline herbicides. Australian Journal of Agricultural Engineering 1(3): 101- 105.

Othman, S.A., Singh, B.B. and Mukhtar, F.B. (2006). Studies on the inheritance pattern of joints, pods and flower pigmentation in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp).African Journal of Biotechnology 5 (23): 2371-2376.

Pasquet, R.S. (1998). Morphological study of cultivated cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Importance of ovule number and definition of cv gr Melanophthalmus. Agronomie, (18): 61-70.

Rawal, K.M. (1975). Natural Hybridization among wild, weedy and cultivated Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Euphytica. 24:699-707.

Singh, B.B. (1993). Cowpea breeding. Archival Report, Part 1 (1988-1992), IITA Publication, IITA Crop Improvement Division, Ibadan, Nigeria. pp 1-65.

Uarrota, V.G. (2010). Response of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) to water stressand phosphorus fertilization. J. Agron; 9: 87-91.

How to Cite
UkpeneA. O., & IsiborC. N. (2022). SEASONAL RESPONSES OF FLOWERING AND POD SETTING IN COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, 6(3), 56 - 61.

Most read articles by the same author(s)