• Badamasi Jamda Saidu Department of Geograhy, Federal University Of Kashere, Gombe State
  • Christopher N Beka National Environmental Standards Regulations and Enforcement Agency Abuja, Nigeria
  • Muhammad Abdullahi Labiru Department of Geography and Planning, University of Jos
  • Mahmud Mohammed Bose Department of Gography Federal University of Kashere
  • Ali Abdu Department of Geography Federal University of Kashere
  • Makaranta M. B Togor Department of Geography Fedreal University of Kashere
Keywords: Water Sources; Water Quality Variation; Water Safety.


A preliminary analysis of the chemical quality of domestic water sources in Langtang area was undertaken to determine variation in quality of water sources and how it meets the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ). Using stratified random sampling technique, 50 water samples were taken from five different sources: rain, dams, streams, boreholes and hand dug-wells. Samples were tested in the laboratory for 20 parameters using standard methods described by USEPA (2012) and results subjected to ANOVA and independent sample t-tests. Temperature (28), turbidity (15), Ca (85), Mg (30), Cl (275), Fe (1.2), Pb (0.1) and Cd (0.002) had average mean above limits. ANOVA result shows significant variation in water quality with p-value of 0.001. Post-Hoc test revealed significant variation in 80% of the parameters tested: temperature, turbidity, EC, CaCO3, F, TDS, Ca, Mg, NO3, Fe, Cu, Al, Pb, As and Cd. Only pH, Cl, Mn, Cr and Zn do not show significant variation. Independent sample t-test also show significant variation in water quality to the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ), which implies the water is unsuitable for human consumption. This study has demonstrated that despite differences in the protection levels of water sources, some parameters may still be the same across sources. It is therefore recommended that detail analysis of each water source be carried out to identify parameters responsible for pollution, as well as remediation the of water before consumption.


Arimieari, L.W., Sangodoyin, A. Y., & Ereoforiokuma, N. S. (2014). Assessment of Surface Water Quality in Some Selected Locations in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology (IJERT), 3(7), 1146-1151. DOI: IJERTV31S07092

Ayers, J. C., George, G., Fry, D., Benneyworth, L., Wilson, C., Auerbach, L . . . Goodbred, S. (2017). Salinization and arsenic contamination of surface water in southwest Bangladesh.Geochemical Transacton, 8(4), 2-23. DOI 10.1186/s12932-017-0042-3

Degbey, C., Makoutode, M., hand Agueh, V. (2011). Health-factors associated with well water quality and prevalence of waterborne diseases in the Municipality of Abomey-Calavi, Benin. Health, 21(1):47-55.

Dibal, H. U & Lar, U. A. (2014). The major lithological structural units in selected areas of northern Nigeria: Some statistics on the distribution of Ca and Mg are appended. Selected papers on hydrogeology: Calcium and Magnesium in groundwater, occurrence and significance for human health. International Association of Hydrogeologists selected papers. Ohio: CRC Press. 106-125.

Dibal, H.U., Schoeneich, K., Lar, U.A., Garba, I., Lekmang, I.C., & Daspan, R.I. (2017). Hydrochemical appraisal of fluoride in groundwater of Langtang area, Plateau State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Geological Sciences 14, 23-39. /gjgs.v14i1.3.

Gagnon, C., Pilote, M., Turcotte,P., & Andre, C. (2017). Metal contamination of the St. Lawrence River following a major release of untreated wastewater. Journal of Xenobiotics, 7(1), 11-18.

Gongden, J. J., & Lohdip, Y. N. (2015). Seasonal variation of the surface water quality of two dams in Plateau State, north central Nigeria. Water Resources Management, 8 (196), 291-305. Doi:10.2495/WRM150251

Heston, D. (2015). Total carbonate hardness in Cumberland valley groundwater, M. Sc. Thesis, A Shippensburg University, USA, 1–22.

Illinois State Water Survey (2018). The sources, distribution, and trends of chloride in the waters of Illinois. Walton, R. K., Samuel,V. P., & Keith, H. (eds). Prairie Research Institute: Illinois. Bulletin B-74.

Jidauna, G. G., Dabi, D. D., Saidu, B. J., Ndabula, C., & Abaje, I. B. (2014b). Chemical water quality assessment in selected location in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences 6 (5), 284-291.

Kabunga , N., Hideo, I., Tetsuji, O., & Wataru, N. (2013). Assessment of dissolved heavy metal pollution in five provinces of Zambia. Journal of Environmental Protection, 4(4), 80-85. DOI:10.4236/jep.2013.41b015

Khan, M.M., Umar, R., & Lateh, H. (2010). Study of trace elements in groundwater of Western Uttar Paradesh, India. Scientific Research and Essays, 5(20). 3175-3182.

Kothari,V.,Vij, S., Sharma, S.,& Gupta, N. (2020). Correlation of various water quality parameters and water quality index of districts of Uttarakhand. Environmental and Sustainability Indicators 9(13), 1-8. 2020.100093

Lar, U., Yenne, E., Ozoji, T., & Jibo, J. (2014). Assessment of some heavy metals distribution and their possible human health risks: A case study of parts of Langtang south area, middle Benue trough, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 3(6-2): 54-65. DOI: 10.11648/j.ajep.s.2014030602.18

Lawal, R. A., Lohdip, Y. N., & Egila, J. N. (2014). Water quality assessment of Kampani River, Plateau State, Nigeria. Asian Review of Environmental and Earth Sciences, 1(2), 30-34.

Maseke, S. A & Vegi, M. A. (2019). A Comparative Study of Water Quality of Spring, Borehole and Stream Waters of Mara, Shinyanga and Manyara Regions of Tanzania. Science Journal of Chemistry, 7(4), 82-89. Doi: 10.11648/j.sjc.20190704.13

Nawab, J., Khan, S., Xiaopinga, W., Rahman, A., Alid, H., Qamar, Z., Ali, Z. K … Ali, I. S. (2017). Spatial distribution of toxic metals in drinking water sources and their associated health risk in buner district, Northern Pakistan. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment

Raju, N. J., Dey, S., & Das, K. (2019). Fluoride contamination in groundwaters of Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Current Science, 96, 7-10. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv .2019.06.038

Ram, A., Tiwari, S. K., Pandey, H. K., Chaurasia, A. K., Singh, S., & Singh, Y. V. (2021) Groundwater quality assessment using water quality index (WQI) under GIS framework. Applied Water Science 11 (46). 1-20.

Saidu, B. J., Dabi, D. D., Eziashi, A. C., Abubakar, A. A. Beka, C. N., & Oche, C. Y. (2020). Pollution load and health risk indices of domestic water sources in selected communities of Langtang Area, Plateau state, North-Central Nigeria. African Journal of Geographical Sciences, 1(2), 38 - 49.

Shah, M. T., Ara, J., Muhammad, S., Khan, S., & Tariq, S. (2012). Health risk assessment via surface water and sub-surface water consumption in the maï¬c and ultramaï¬c terrain, Mohmand agency, northern Pakistan. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 118, 60-70. doi:10.1016/j.gexplo.2012.04.008.

Sharma, M. K., & Kumar, M. (2020). Sulphate contamination in groundwater and its remediation: an overview. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192(2), 74-82. Doi:10.1007/10661-019-8051-6

SON (2015). Nigerian standard for drinking water quality. Nigerian industrial standard NIS: 556-2015. SON, Abuja.

Sorlini, S., Palazzini, D., & Sieliechi, J. M. (2013). Assessment of physical-chemical drinking water quality in the Logone Valley (Chad-Cameroon). Sustainability, 5(7):3060-76

Toure, A., Wenbiao, D., & Keita, Z. (2017). Comparative study of the physico-chemical quality of water from wells, boreholes and rivers consumed in the commune of pelengana region of Segou in Mali. Environmental Science, 13 (6), 1-13.

USEPA (2012). An introduction to water quality monitoring. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.EPA/630/P-03/001F. Retrieved June 12th 2019 from: watersheds/monitoring/monintr.cfm

Wator, K., & Zdechlik, R. (2021). Application of water quality indices to the assessment of the effect of geothermal water discharge on river water quality – case study from the Podhale region (Southern Poland). Ecological Indicators, 121 (2021), 1- 14. https://doi. org /10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.107098

WHO (2011) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 4th ed. vol. 1, Recommendations. Geneva; Author.

Zhang, J. D., and Li, X. L. (1997). Chromium pollution of soil and water in Jinzhou. Environmental Toxicology, 21, 262–264.

Zhitkovich, A. (2018). Chromium in Drinking Water: Sources, Metabolism, and Cancer Risks. Chemical Research Toxicology, 24, 1617–1629.

Gongden, J. J., & Lohdip, Y. N. (2009). Climate change and dams drying: A case study of three communities in Langtang South of Plateau State, Nigeria. African Journal of Natural Science, 8(12), 37-43. Doi: 10.2495/WRM150251

How to Cite