EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DRYING METHODS ON THE NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY ATTRIBUTES OF ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS (OKRA)
This work was carried out to study the effect of different drying methods (shade, oven and sun drying) on the nutritional and sensory properties of Abelmoschus esculentus (okra vegetable). Results from this study showed that the carbohydrate content ranged from 11.64% in sample A to 54.20% in sample D, an increase due to the removal of moisture. The crude fat ranged from 0.52% to 3.40%. The ash content was markedly enhanced by drying too and it ranged from 1.30% in fresh sample to 8.91% in shade-dried sample, the fibre content ranged from 1.12% in fresh sample to 16.43 % in sun-dried sample. A slight decrease in mineral content was observed upon drying except sodium and magnesium which was found to be significantly higher in the fresh sample. There were increase in phosphorous and potassium upon drying. The vitamin content showed significant difference (p<0.05) in the level of vitamin C, it ranged from 3.68 mg/kg to 1.41mg/kg, the fresh sample ranked higher followed by shade, oven and sun-dried samples. The result for sensory quality attributes showed significance difference (p<0.05) in all the attributes of the okra soup made from the samples and shade dried sample gave the best result in terms of colour and taste which maybe low temperature processing that retained its sensory qualities. The result of this study suggests that drying improved the concentration of nutrients and could be useful in preserving Abelmoschus esculentus in a good way and ensure its availability all year round
A.O.A.C (2012) Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemist, Washington D.C pp. 223-225
Adeyeye EI, Okotiti MKO. (1999) Proximate Composition and Some Nutritionally Valuable Mineral of Two Varieties of Capsicum annum L. (Bell and Cherry Peppers). Discovery Innov; (11): 75-85.
Agbo AC, Gnaki D, Beugre GM, Fondio L, Kougme C (2008) Maturity degree of four okra fruit Agric. Nat res. PMB., 3311: 15-20.
Akintoye HA, Adebayo AG, Aina OO (2011) Growth and yield response of okra inter cropped and microbial composition of (abelmoschus esculentus. Journal of Agricultural science.
Akintoye HA, Adebayo AG, Aina OO (2011) Growth and yield response of okra intercropped with live mulches. Asian J Agric Res. 5: 146-153.
Akubugwo A. N. B., Obasi and S. C., Ginika. (2007) Nutritive Value of S. Nigram Seed and Leaves Journal of Nutrition, 6(4), 2007, 323-326.
Anieke U.J., Nwankwo O.G., Adinde J.O., Ukwuani C.M., Uche O.J., Agu C.J., Ugwuanyi, P.O and Ozougwu S.C. (2016) Comparative Evaluation of Some Nutrient Contents of Moringa Oleifera Leaves Processed under Three Different Drying Methods; Sun-drying, Air-drying and Oven-drying. International journal of science and Nature, 7(2):429-432.
Artfield, A.D (2005), Vegetable Gardening in Western Nigeria. Macmillian , pg 63. Asparagus eggplant turnips green beans carrots and cauliflower. Food chem 103:676-680.
Bakre LG, Jaiyeola KT (2009). Effects of drying methods on the physiochemical and compressional characteristics of Okra powder and the release properties of its metronidazole tablet formulation. Archives of Pharmacal Research 32:259-265
Butt, M.S and Batool, R., (2010) â€œNutritional and Functional Properties of Some Promising Legumes Protein Isolatesâ€, Pak, J. Nutr 9(4): 373-379.
Chidan, M., Kumar, C.S., Mythily, R. and Chandraju, S. (2012) Extraction and Mass Characterization of Sugars from Ash Gourd Peels (Bennicasa Hispida). Rasayan Journal of Chemistry 5(3): 280-285. Composition of 13 wild plant foods of Niger.J food comp 13: 83-92.
Danso-Boating, E. (2013) Effect of Drying Methods on Nutrient Quality of Basil (ocimum viride) Leaves Cultivated in Ghana. International Food Research Journal 20(4): 1569-1573.
Doymaz & Pala, I., and Pala, M. (2002) Hot-air drying characteristics of red pepper. Journal of Food Engineering, 55, 331â€“335. doi:10.1016/S02608774(02)00110-3.
Farinde A, Owolarafe O, Ogungbemi I (2007) An overview of production, processing, marketing and utilisation of okra in egbedore local government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Agricultural Engineering 4: 1â€“17.
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), (2003) Handling and preservation of fruits and vegetables by combined methods for Rural Areas. Bullentin 149. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome 2003.
George, P.M (2003). Encylopedia of Foods. Washington D.C.I: P. 526.
Hossain, M.E., Alam, M.J., Hakim, M.A., Amanullah, A.S.M and Ahsanullah, A.S.M. (2010) An Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Some Tomato Genotypes and Varieties Grown at Rangpur, Bangladesh Research Publication Journal 4(3): 135-243. Induced peel browning in banana. Post-harvest biologyand technology, 31: 312-313.
Igbal A., Khali, I.A., Ateeq N. and Khan M.S. (2006) Nutritional Qualities of Important Food Legumes. Food Chemistry 97(2): 331-335.
Isack, M.E., Lyimo, M. (2013) Post-Harvest Handling Practices on Physico-Chemical Composition of Tomato. International Journal of Vegetable 22(54).
Islam M. M., (2010). In: Jute (In Bengali version), Pub. By Dynamic Publisher. Bangladesh.
Iwe, M.O. (2010) Handbook of sensory methods and analysis. Rejoint communication services Ltd, Uwani-Enugu Nigeria
Kasim MU, Kazim R (2015). Colour quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Sixth International Scientific Agricultural Symposium. Pp 1007-1014
Kitson RE, Mellon MG (2004). Colorimetric determination of Phosporous as Molybdivanadophosphoric Acid. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Analytical Edition. 16: 379-383.
Kola A., (1999) Analysis of the Nutritive Element of Some Nigerian Fruit Vegetables. Proceedings of 3rd Annual Conference of Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology held in Abuja p. 158.
Kolawole OM, Kayode RMO, Aina J, Bukola (2010) Effect of solar drying on the proximate and microbial composition of Abelmoschus esculentus. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2010; 2:214-224
Kolawole, O.M., Ayiboye, A.E., Aturah, E.E. and Anibijuwon, I.I. (2011) Effect of Oven Drying on the Proximate and Microbial Composition of Abelmoschus esculentus. Journal Biotechnology 1: 71-81.
Mongi BS, Arya AB (2004). Effect of different modes of drying on moisture content and drying time of the selected vegetables. The Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietitics. 41:293
National Research Council (2006) Okra: Lost crops of Africa: Volume II: vegetables. Lost crops of Africa Vol. 2. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-10333-6.
Nwaogu LA, Ujowundu CO, Mgbemena AL, (2000) Studies on the Nutritional and Phytochemical Composition of Amaranthus hybridus Leaves. J Bio-Res; (4): 28-31.
Oguche, H.E. (2011) Effect of Drying Methods on Chemical Composition of Spinach â€œAleifoâ€ (Amaranthus acquatica) and Pumpkin Leaf (Telfairia accidentalis) and their Soup Meals. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10 (11): 1061-1065.
Okafor J.C., (1983) Edible Indigenous Woody Plants in the Rural Economy of the Nigerian Forest Zone. In: The Nigerian Rainforest Ecosystem (D.U.U Okali, Ed). Proceeding of M.A.B. Workshop on the Nigerian Rainforest Ecosystem University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Olsen N. (2019). Benefits and Uses of Okro. Medical News Today. Accessed on the 20th February 2022
Owolarafe OK, Shotonde HO (2004) Some physical properties of fresh okra fruit. J Food Engineering 63: 299-302.
Oyelade OJ, Ade-Omowaye BIO, Adeomi VF (2003) Influence of variety on protein, fat contents and some physical characteristics of okra seeds. J Food Engineering 57: 111-114.
Perera S, (2005) A study on some physiochemical properties of turkey okra (Hibiscus esculenta) seeds. (Journal of Food Engineering) 68: 73-78
Robert C. (2010). Vegan body building and fitness. Healthy living publications. ISBN: 978-0-9843916-0-8.
Satwase G. R., Pandhre P.G., Sirsat and YR., Wade, (2013) Studies on Drying Characteristic and Nutritional Composition of Drumstick Leaves by Using Sun, Shadow, Cabinet and Oven Drying Methods, Open Access Scientific Reports, 2(1), 1-4.
Shivharea US, Gupta A, Bawa AS, Gupta P (2010) Drying characteristics and product quality of Okra. Drying Technology 18 (1-2); 409-419.
Udofia US and Obizoba IC. (2005) Effect of Traditional Processing Techniques on Leafy Vegetables and Starchy Staple and their Uses in Traditional Soups and Dishes as Consumed in Akwa Ibom State. J Biochem Investment. (32): 1-11.
Ukegbu, P.O. and Okereke, C.J. (2013) Effect of Solar and Sun drying Methods of the Nutrient Composition and Microbial Load in Selected Vegetables, African Spinach (Amaranthus hybridus), Fluted Pumpkin (Teleria accidentalis), Okra (Hibiscus esculentus), Jute Leaves (Chorchorus olitorius), Sky Journal of Food Science Vol. 2 (5):35-40.
United State Department of Agriculture (2014). National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 28. Nutrient Data Laboratory. http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndi. Accessed 14th February 2014
Wachap E. (2005) Effect of Sun and Shade on Nutrient Qualities of Six Seasonal Green Leafy Vegetables used in Soups and Dishes in Taraba State, Nigeria (Thesis in Nutrition Presented to Department of Nutrition), Nsuka: University of Nigeria. Washington D.C. PP: 223-225.
White, P.J. and Broadley, M.R. (2005) Bio-fortifying Crops with Essential Mineral Elements, Trends Plant Science 10:586-593.
Wikipedia (2019). Coultate, T.P (200) Food: The Chemistry of its Components. 5th Edition, Royal Society of Chemistry. Pp 99
Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
FUDMA Journal of Sciences