• A. J. Adeola
  • O. A. Akande
  • J. O. Onihunwa
  • A. Sulyman
  • O. A. Adeniji
  • P. O. Alaifa
Keywords: Borgu, Conflict, Human, Warthog


This study assessed the impacts of common Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) on farm crops around Borgu sector of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria. Data was obtained with the aid of structured questionnaire in six communities which were purposively selected (Woro, Kemenji, Worumakoto, Maji, Venira and Kanikoko) and questionnaire was randomly administered to the identified farmers.  The sample size was put at one hundred and twenty (120) respondents, of which eighty one (81) questionnaires were retrieved. The demographic characteristics of the respondents indicated that age group 31-40 years recorded the highest (39.5%). The finding further revealed that 64.2% of the respondents are Muslim and 65.4% are married. Also majority of the respondents (53.1%) had stay in the study area between 6-10 years. Majority of the respondents agrees that there is presence of Warthog around their farms. The types of crops cultivated by the respondents are Maize, Guinea corn, Rice etc. Majority of the respondents indicated that they have experience crop raiding by Warthog. Types of crops preferred by Common Warthogs showed that Maize is the most preferred. The season of intense crops raiding is the raining season. The various preventive method used by the respondents to prevent Warthogs crop raiding are watch guarding, scare crow and fire/smoke. The possible solution as suggested on how to prevent Warthog-farmers conflicts are compensation and employment. This study confirms that Warthog has an impact of farm lands in the study area by causing much damage on farmer’s crops.


Ayeni, (2007).Clinical Methods for the assessment of the effect of environmental stress on fish health United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Federal Government Series Technical Papers pp: 89.

Bayani A, Tiwade D, Dongre A, Dongre A. P., Phatak R, Watve M (2016). Assessment of Crop Damage by Protected Wild Mammalian Herbivores on the Western Boundary of Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve (TATR), Central India. PLoS ONE 11(4): e0153854. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153854

Berger, E.M., Leus, K., Vercammen, P. and Schwarzenberger, F. (2006). Faecal steroid metabolites for non-invasive assessment of reproduction in common warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus), red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus) and babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa). Animal Reproduction Science. 91, 155–171.

Bonham, R., Wield, R. and Turner, A. (2007). Human-wildlife conflict. E. Afr. Soc. Rev. 23:1–3.

d’Huart J.P, and Grubb, P. (2001). Distribution of the common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) and the desert warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) in the Horn of Africa. Afr. J. Ecol. 39:156-169.

d'Huart, J.P., Butynski, T.M. and De Jong, Y. (2011). Phacochoerus aethiopicus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. . Accessed 20th January 2021

Edward, D.W and Frank, S. A. (2012) .Victims Perspectives of Lowe’s Monkeys’ (Cercopithecus campbelli lowei) crop raiding events in Ghana: A case of Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES), ISSN: 2220-6663 (Print) 2222-3045 (Online) Vol. 2, No. 2, p. 1-8, http://www.innspub.net.

Eltringham, S. K. (1993). Review of priorities for conservation action and future research on hippopotamuses. In: Pigs, Peccaries and Hippos Status Survey Action Plan (1993) (Ed. by R. L.Oliver), Cambridge: IUCN. Pp. 127-148.

Eltringham, S. K. (1999). The Hippopotami: Natural History and Conservation. Poyser Natural History. Princeton University Press.
Eniang, E. A., Ijeomah, H. M., Okeyoyin, G. and Uwatt, A. E. (2011). Assessment Of Human – Wildlife Conflicts in Filinga Range of Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria. Production Agriculture and Technology, 7(2), 15-35.

Ertiban, S.M. (2016) Population status and human conflict of common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius, LINNAEUS, 1758) In Boye Wetland, Jimma, Ethiopia. Am. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 000, 32–40.

Forthan, F., Quick, J. and Demment, H. K. (2005). Perceptions and patterns of human-elephant conflict in old and new settlements in Sri Lanka: insights for mitigation and management. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 2465-2481.

Fuentes, A. (2006). "Human culture and monkey behavior: assessing the contexts of potential pathogen transmission between macaques and humans." American Journal of Primatology 68(9): 880-896.

Hoare, R.E. (1992). The present and future use of fencing in the management of larger African mammals. Enviro. Conser., 30: 175-181.

IUCN SSC HWCTF (2022a). Perspectives on human-wildlife coexistence. Briefing Paper by the IUCN SSC Human-Wildlife Conflict Task Force. Available at: www.hwctf.orgAccessed 18th March 18, 2022.

IUCN SSC HWCTF (2022b) Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework Information document on developing indicators for a target on human-wildlife conflict in the framework. Available at: www.hwctf.org18th March 18, 2022.

IUCN. (2020). IUCN SSC Position Statement on the Management of Human-Wildlife Conflict. IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC) Human-Wildlife Conflict Task Force. Available at www.hwctf.org. Accessed 18th March 18, 2022.

Joseline, M. (2010).The impact of crop raiding by wild animals from Bugoma forest reserve on farmers’ livelihoods .A research thesis submitted to Maker ere University Institute of Environment and Natural Resource (MUIENR) in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Science in Environment and Natural Resource of Maker ere university.

Kendall, C. (2011). The spatial and agricultural basis of crop raiding by the Vulnerable common hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius around Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Oryx. 45. 28 - 34. 10.1017/S0030605310000359.

Locke, H. and Dearden, P. (2005). Rethinking Protected Area Categories and The New Paradigm. Environmental Conservation. 32(1). Pp. 1-10

Mascia, M.B. (2003). The Human Dimension of Coral Reef Marine Protected Areas: Recent Social Science Research And Its Policy Implication. Conservation Biology. 17(2):630-632.

Mkanda, F. X. and Kumchedw, A, B. (1997). Relationship between crop damage by hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius L.) and farmer complaints in the elephant marsh. Journal of African Zoology, 111, 27–38.

Ogunjobi, J.A. and Adeola, A.J (2016). Wild Vertebrates Associated with Crop Raiding Around Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria. Applied Tropical Agriculture Volume 21, No. 3, 138-142.

Sitati, N.W., Walpole, M. J. and Leader-Williams, N. (2005). Factors affecting susceptibility of farms to crop raiding by African elephants: using a predictive model to mitigate conflict. Journal of Applied Ecology. 42, 1175–1182.

Thorton P.K., BurnSilver S.B., Boone R.B. and Galvin, K .A. (2006). Modelling the impacts of group ranch subdivision on agro-pastoral househo lds in Kajiado, Kenya. Agricultural Systems 87:331–356.
How to Cite
Adeola, A. J., Akande, O. A., Onihunwa, J. O., Sulyman, A., Adeniji, O. A., & Alaifa, P. O. (2022). WARTHOG-HUMAN CONFLICTS IN BORGU SECTOR OF KAINJI LAKE NATIONAL PARK, NIGERIA. FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, 6(2), 88 - 95. https://doi.org/10.33003/fjs-2022-0602-927