EVALUATION OF RISK ASSESSMENT FACTORS AMONG SELECTED METALS IN ROADSIDE GROWN CEREALS OF THE SUDAN SAVANNA ECOLOGY OF NIGERIA

  • M'ember Catherine Anongo
  • Onovosa Edwards Uyovbisere
Keywords: Phytoaccumulation, metals, Pavon-76, Siettecerros, Zea mays L, Zea mays everta

Abstract

Phytoaccumulation of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn) in roadside grown wheat and maize varieties (  Pavon-76, Siettecerros, Zea mays L. and Zea mays everta L.) and the toxicity and phytoremediation capability of the plants was investigated. Four sampling sites, roadside (SU 1, SU 3) and distant sites (SU 2 and SU 4) were selected by principle to represent the level of pollution near major traffic routes and were the reference sampling points. Whole plant metal levels of the four crops were determined using the multi-elemental technique- Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent (EDXRF) and double beam AAS at A.B.U Zaria. Plant uptake factor (PUF), soil-plant transfer coefficient (TC) and translocation factor (TF) was computed for each metal. Pearson correlation analyses between the risk assessment factors of the metals were evaluated. Results revealed a positive significant (P<0.05) relationship between PUF/TC and PUT/TF for Cr and Zn in Pavon-76, PUF/TC for Cr and Zn in the two species of Zea mays L. and Cu in Siettecerros indicates atmospheric inputs and special ability or strong selective ability of each of the crops to accumulate certain metals. The inverse correlation between PUF/TC, PUF/TF and TC/TF among the metals indicates the proximity of SU 1 to the major highway, influence of traffic density, atmospheric inputs and geological material and a combination of other factors. This study reveals the potentialities of these varieties of Wheat and Maize which are terrestrial higher plants as accumulators of metallic elements and phytoremediators of roadside soil pollution

References

Abba A. (1991) Wheat Production in Kano State. In Wheat in Nigeria: Production, Processing and Utilization A.L Rayar, B.K. Kaigama, J.O Olukosi and A.B Anaso (eds). LCPI, IAR and UNIMA1D.

Abubakar, S. M., Yaro, S. A. and Galadanci, E.C. M. (2004) A study of Cu and Zn pollutants in
surface soils and components of Balanites aegyptiaca in semi-arid urban area of Nigeria
Nigerian Journal of Scientific Research 4(2): 92 - 96.

Aina, M., Matejka, G., Mama, D., Yao, B. and Moudachirou, M. (2009). Characterization of
stabilized waste: evaluation of pollution risk. International Journal of Environmental
Science and Technology 6(1): 159-165.

Amoo, A., Ogbonnaya, C. I. and Ojediran, J. (2004). Movement of some heavy metals in
poorly drained Fadama soils in the Southern Guinea savannah zone of Nigeria.
Food, Agriculture and Environment Vol 2(2) : 378-380.

Anongo, M.C., Bako, S.P., Iortsuun D.N., Japhet, W. S. (2015). Trace Metal Contents at
Selected Growth Stages of Wheat And Maize Grown On Roadside Soil at Kadawa
Kano State, Nigeria. Ph.D Thesis. Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello
University, Zaria, Nigeria. 258pp.

Baker, A.J.M. Reeves, R.D. and Hajar, A.S.M.(1994). Heavy metal accumulation and tolerance
in British populations of the metallophyte Thlaspi caerulescens. J. & C. Presl
(Brassicaceae). New Phytologist, 127: 61-68.

Baker, A. J. M. and Brooks, R. R. (1989). Terrestrial Higher Plants which Hyperaccumulate
Metallic Elements – A review of their Distribution, Ecology and Phytochemistry.
Biorecovery 1: 81 – 126.

Barman SC, Sahu RK, Bhargava SK, Chatterjee C (2000). Distribution of heavy metals in
wheat, mustard, and weed grown in fields irrigated with industrial effluents. Bull
Environ Contam Toxicol 64:489–496. doi:10.1007/s001280000030

Bauddh, K., Korstad, J. and Sharma, P. (2021). Phytomining: A Sustainable Approach for
Recovery and Extraction of valuable metals: In Phytorestoration of Abandoned mining
and Oil drilling sites. Amsterdam, Netherlands; Oxford, United Kingdom; Cambridg, Ma:
Elsevier pp 689 - 695

Brown, S.L., Chaney, J.S. and Baker, A.J.M.(1994).Phytoremediation potential of Thlaspi
caerulescens and bladder campion for zinc and cadmium contaminated soil, Journal of
Environmental Qualilty, 23: 1151-1157.

Chaudhary, K. Jan, S. and Khan S. (2016) Heavy Metal ATphase (HMA2, HMA3, and HMA4)
Genes in Hyperaccumulation Mechanism of Heavy Metals: In Plant Metal Interaction
Emerging Remediation Techniques 545 - 556

Cui, Y. L., Zhu, R. H., Zhi, R. H., Chen, D.Y. Huang, Y.Z. and Qiu, Y. (2004). Transfer
of metals from soils to vegetables in an area near a smelter in Nanning, China,
Environmental International 30: 785-791.

Eisa, S. A. (2009). Tolerance of some plants to Heavy Metal. American-Eurasian Journal of
Agriculture and Environmental Sciences 5(5): 689 – 695.

Ernst, W.H.O. (1996). Bioavailability of Heavy Metals and Decontamination of Soils by
Plants. Applied Geochemistry., 11: 163–167.

Gimmler, H., Carandang, J., Boot, A., Reisberg, E. and Woitke, M. (2002) Heavy Metal
Content and Distribution within a Woody Plant during and after Seven Years Continuous
Growth on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Bottom slag Rich in Heavy Metals. Journal of
Applied Botany 76: 203–217.

Henning, B.J., Snyman, H.G. and Aveling, T.A.S. (2001) Plant-Soil Interactions Of Sludge-
Borne Heavy Metals and the Effect on Maize (Zea Mays L.) Seedling Growth Water SA
(27) No71 – 78.

Kalisova-Spirochova, I., Puncoharova, J., Kafka, Z., Kubal, M., Soudek, P.and Vanek, T.(2003)
Accumulation of Heavy Metals by in vitro cultures of Plants. Water, Air and Soil Pollution.
Focus 3: 269 – 276.

Keller, C., Hammer, D., Kayser, A., Richner, W., Brodbeck, M. and Senngauser, M. (2003).
Root Development and Heavy Metal Phytoextraction efficiency; comparison of different
plant species in the field. Plant and Soil 249: 67 – 81.

Khan, S., Cao, Q.Y.Z., Huang, Y.Z. and Zhu, Y.G. (2008) Health risks of heavy metals in
contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China.
Environmental Pollution 125(3): 686-692.

Khan, S., Farooq, R., Shagufta , S., Khan, M. A. and Sadique, M. (2009). Health Risk
Assessment of Heavy Metals for Population via Consumption of Vegetables. World
Applied Sciences Journal 6 (12): 1602-1606.

Kochhar, S.L. (1986). Tropical Crops-A Text Book of Economic Botany. University of Delhi.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd. London and Basinstoke. Printed in Hong Kong p.1

Kumar, R., Mishra, R.K., Mishra, V., Qidwai, A., Pandey, A., Shukla, S.K.,….Dikshit, A.
(2016) Detoxification and Tolerance of Heavy Metals in Plants: In Plant Metal Interaction.
DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-803158-2.00013-8

Kumi, M., Quainoo, A. and Antwi-Charles, K.(2013). The role of Maize Tassels in Amelioration
of Heavy Metals for Contaminated Soils and its Effects on Vegetables. Journal of
Environment and Earth Science 3(1): 192 – 199.

Lacatusu, R. (1998). Appraising Levels of Soil Contamination and Pollution with Heavy
metals. In: Land Information System for Planning the Sustainable Use of Land
Resources. Heinike H.J. Eckelman W., Thomasson, A., Jones, R.J.A.., Montanarella,
L.,Buckley, B. (Eds). Eur. Communities, Luxembourg, pp. 393-402.

Li, M.S., Luo, Y.P, Su, Z.Y.(2007). Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils and Plant
Accumulation in a restored manganese mineland in Guangxi, South China. Environmental
Pollution 147:168 - 175

Lou, Y., Luo, H., Hu, T., Li, H. and Fu, J. (2012). Toxic Effects, Uptake and Translocation of Cd
and Pb in perennial ryegrass. Ecotoxicity 22: 207 – 214.

Maclean, K.S., Robinson, A.R. and Macconnell, H.M. (1987). The Effect Of Sewage
Sludge On The Heavy Metal Content Of Soils And Plant Tissue. Commun. In Soil
Science and Plant Analysis. 18 (11): 1303-1316.

Misurovic, A. (1998). Monitoring Programs in Montenegro: P.I.Center for Ecotoxicological
Research of Montenegro(CETI).

Mohiuddin, K.M., Zakir, H.M., Otomo, K., Sharmin, S., Shikazono, N.(2010). Geochemical
Distribution of Trace Metal Pollutants in Water and Sediments of Downstream of an Urban
River. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 7(1): 17-28.

Mutsch, F. (1996).The Use of Heavy Metals Detected in the Soil as Air-Pollution
Indicators on a Stemming Slope of the Achenkirch Area. Phyton( Horn, Austria)
Special Issue Achenkirch II’’Vol 36, Fasc. 4; 145-154.

Nazir, A., Malik, R. N., Ajaib, M., Khan, N. and Siddiqui, M. F. (2011) Hyper-accumulators Of
Heavy Metals Of Industrial Areas Of Islamabad and Rawalpindi Pakistan Journal of Botany,
43(4):1925-1933

Nwuche, C.O., Ugoji, E.O. (2008). Effects of Heavy Metal Pollution on the Soil Microbial
Activity. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technique, 5(3):409-414.

Sasmaz, A., Obek, E. and Hasar, H. (2008). The Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Typha
latifolia L. grown in a stream carrying secondary effluent. Ecological Engineering 33: 278
- 284.

Shukla, A. and Srivastava, S. (2019). A Review of Phytoremediation Prospects for Arsenic
Contaminated water and soil: In Phytomanagement of Polluted Sites,
URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128139127000089

Sponza, D. and Karaoglu, N. (2002). Environmental geochemistry and pollution studies of
Aliaga metal industry district. Environment International 27: 541-553.

Tam, N.F.Y.and Wong, Y.S. (2000).Spatial Variation of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of
Hong Kong’s Mangrove Swamps. Environmental Pollution 100(2):195-205.

Wei, T. B., Chen and Z.C. Huang. 2002. Cretan bake (Pteris cretica): an Arsenic accumulating
Plant. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 22: 777-782.

Yuan, C.J., Shi, B., He, J., Liu, L., Jiang, G. (2004) Speciation of Heavy Metals in Marine
Sediments from the East China Sea by ICP-MS with Sequential Extraction. Environment
International, 30(6): 769-783.

Zayed, A., Lytle, C.M., Qian, J.H., Terry, N. (1998). Chromium Accumulation, Translocation
and Chemical Speciation in Vegetable Crops. Planta, 206: 293-299.
Published
2021-11-03
How to Cite
Anongo, M. C., & Uyovbisere, O. E. (2021). EVALUATION OF RISK ASSESSMENT FACTORS AMONG SELECTED METALS IN ROADSIDE GROWN CEREALS OF THE SUDAN SAVANNA ECOLOGY OF NIGERIA. FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, 5(3), 315 - 323. https://doi.org/10.33003/fjs-2021-0503-756