• Shafiu Nafiu Abdullahi Kano State Polytechnic
  • M. Zakariyya
  • Z. Y. Hassan
  • M. K. Ahmad



sub-lethal effect, Clarias gariepinus, haematology, biochemical responses, pharmaceutical effluent


Pharmaceutical effluents collected from Bompai industrial area, Kano State were assessed for their physiochemical parameters, heavy metals and effect on haematology and biochemical changes in Clarias gariepinus. Laboratory analyses were performed using standard methods in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Five test solutions of the effluents (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% v/v) were prepared for LC50 96hr acute toxicity test. The LC50 for 96hr was 48.7% concentration of effluents by volume. Experimental fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of 0.00% 2.43% (5/100 LC50), 12.17% (25/100 LC50), 24.35% (50/100 LC50) and 36.52% (75/100 LC50) for 28days.  Physicochemical parameters recorded were higher than WHO recommended Standard with the exception of water temperature. Heavy metals concentrations decreased in the order of Cr > Cu > Pd > Cd. Red blood Cells count, haemoglobin concentrations, packed cell volume, lymphocytes and monocytes of the experimental fish decline significantly (p<0.05) when exposed with 2.43, 12.17, 24.35, 36.52% effluents  compared to the control. White blood cell count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentrations, neutrophils and eosinophils were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the control. However, a significant increase (P<0.05) in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were recorded as the exposure period continued when compared with control. It is concluded that the effluents induces haematological and biochemical alterations. It is therefore recommended that regulatory bodies should adopt holistic approach on the aquatic pollution abatement, bearing in mind the negative impact to non-target organisms


Ado, A., Gumel, S. M and Jamil, G. (2014). Industrial Effluents as Major Source of Water Pollution in) Nigeria: An Overview. American Journal of Chemistry and Applications, 1(5): 45-50.

Adeboyejo, O. A., Clarke, E.O. and Olarinmoye, M.O. (2011). Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in water, sediments, Fin and Shell-fish samples from Lagos Lagoon Complex, Nigeria. Researcher, 3(3):38-45.

Adekunle, D. M. (2015) Toxicity of the Herbicide Glyphosate (Round-up) on Fingerlings of Heteroclarias (hybrid). Thesis submitted to Ahmadu Bello University, zaria, pp 29-30.

Ademola, O. S., Adeoye, A. O., Odebiyi, O. S. (2017). Assessment of the Impact of Pharmaceutical Industry Effluents on Quality of Nearby River. International Journal of Ecological Science and Environmental Engineering, 4(6):114-118.

Adeogun, A.O. and Chukwuka, A.V. (2012). Altered reproduction in Clarias gariepinus exposed to industrial effluentss. Am. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 7(1): 61-70.

Adewoye, S.O., Fawole, O. O and Owolabi, O. D. (2005). Toxicity of cassava a waste water effluentss to African catfish: Clarias gariepinus. Ethiop. J. Sci., 28(1): 189-194.

Adewumi, B., Michael, O. A., Damilohun, S. M. (2018). Histological and Behavioural Changes of Clarias gariepinus Juveniles Exposed to Chlorpyrifos and DDforce. International Journal of Biological Sciences and Applications, 5(1): 1-12.

Agunbiace, F and Moodley, B. (2016). occurrence and distribution parttern of acidic pharmaceuticals in surface water, waste water and sediment if the Msunduzri River, kwazulu-Natal, south Africa ,Environ Toxicol chem., 35(1):36-46.

Ajaz, A. R. (2015). Biochemical Responses Induced by Sub lethal Concentrations of Carbaryl and Parathion on Certain Enzymes of Fresh Water Catfish (Clarias batrachus) (Linn.). International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(10): 52-56.

Akan, J. C; Ogugbuaj V. V., abdulrahman and Ayodele J. T (2009). Pollutant level in effluent samples from tanneries and textile of Kano industrial areas, Nigeria. Global Journal of pure and applied sciences, 15(3): 343 – 352.

Akinrotimi, O.A., Gabriel, U. U and Ariweriokuma, S. V. (2012). Haematotoxicity of Cypermethrin to African Catfish Clarias gariepinus under Laboratory Conditions. J. Environ. Eng. Tech., 1(2):20-25.

Akinrotimi, O.A., Orlu, E.E., Gabriel, U.U. (2013) Haematological Responses of Tilapia guineensis treated with industrial effluents. Applied Ecol Environment Sci., 1:10-13.

Akinrotimi, O.A., Amachree, D. (2016). Changes in haematological parameters of Tilapia guineensis exposed to different concentrations of detergent under laboratory conditions. J Aquatic Sci, 31: 95-103.

Akinwande, A. A., Abdulkadiri, J. O. and Adesina, B.T. (2016). Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Response in the Giant African Catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1809) under Chronic Paraquat Exposure. Nigerian Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 4(2): 30 – 37.

Akhila. I.S., Deepa, S and Alwar, M.C. (2007). Acute toxicity studies and determination of median lethal dose curr. Sci., 93:917-20.

Al-Asgah, N.A., Abdel-Warith, A.W.A., Younis, E.S.M. and Allam, H.Y. (2015). Haematological and biochemical parameters and tissue accumulations of cadmium in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to various concentrations of cadmium chloride. Saudi journal of biological sciences, 22(5): 543-550.

Alimba, C. G., Ajayi, E. O., Hassan, T., Sowunmi, A. A and Bakare, A.A. (2015). Cytogenotoxicity of abattoir effluent in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) using micronucleus test. Chinese J Biol. 97:221-234.

Alimba, C. G, and Bakare, A. A. (2016). In vivo micronucleus test in the assessment of cytogenotoxicity of landfill leachates in three animal models from various ecological habitats. Ecotoxicology, 25(1):310–9.

Alimba, C. G, Ajiboye, R. D and Fagbenro, O. S. (2017). Dietary ascorbic acid reduced micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) exposed to hospital effluents. Fish Physiol Biochem., 43: 1325-35.

Alimba, C. G, Khalid, O., Adekoya, O., Olufemi, and Soyinka, O. (2019). Exposure to Effluents from Pharmaceutical Industry Induced Cytogenotoxicity, Hematological And Histopathological Alterations in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). EXCLI Journal, 18(1):63-78.

APHA (2005). American Public Health Authority. Manual of Standard Methods for Examination For Water And Waste 14th Edition. Washington Dc. pp. 121-132.

Bamidele, A., Germaine, A., Ogunwole, E. A., Oluwatosin, C. F and Abiodun, E. (2018) Effects of sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos and DDforce pesticides on haematological parameters of Clarias gariepinus. International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health, 5(5): 62-71.

Barboza, L.G.A., Vieira, L.R. and Guilhermino, L. (2018). Single and combined effects of microplastics and mercury on juveniles of the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Changes in behavioural responses and reduction of swimming velocity and resistance time. Environmental Pollution, 236(1): 1014-1019.

Dahunsi, O.S., and Oranusi, U.S. (2013). Haematological Response of Clarias gariepinus to Rubber Processing Effluent. Annual Review & Research in Biology, 3(4):624-635.

Doherty, V.F., Ogunkuade, O.O and Kanife, U.C. (2010). Biomarkers of oxidative stress as indicators of Environmental pollution in some selected fishes in Lagos, Nigeria. American-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci., 7(3): 359-365.

Elias, N.S; Abouelghar G.E; Sobhy, H.M; El Miniawy, H.M; Elsaiedy E.G.(2020). Sublethal effects of the herbicide thiobencarb on fecundity, histopathological and biochemical changes in the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 19(3): 1589-1614.

Ezenwaji, N. E; Yenagoa, B and Nwaigwe, C. (2013). Changes in liver and plasma enzymes of Clarias gariepinus exposed to sublethal concentration of diesel. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12(4): 414-418.

Federal Environmental Protection Agency, FEPA. (1991). National Environmental Protection (Effluent Limitation) Regulations of 1991. Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Lagos, Nigeria.Ref.S.1-8.

FME (Federal Ministry of Environment). (2001). Guidelines and Standard for Quality in Nigeria. Published Federal. Ministry of Environment, p.114.

Gabriel, U.U., Deekae, S.N., Akinrotimi, O.A., Orokotan, O.O. (2011) Haematological responses of Clarias gariepinus exposed to anaesthetics metomidate. Continent J Toxicol Res., 4: 18-29.

George, A. D., Akinrotimi, O. A and Nwokoma, U.K. (2017) Haematological Changes in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Exposed to Mixture of Atrazine and Metolachlor in the Laboratory. Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 11(3): 048-054.

Galadima, A and Garba, Z. N. (2012). Heavy metals pollution in Nigeria: causes and consequences. Elixir Pollution, 45(1): 7917-7922.

Ibrahim, S. (2009). A Survey of Zooplankton Diversity of Challawa River, Kano and Evaluation of some of its Physico-chemical Conditions. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2(1): 19-26.

Ibrahim, S. and Nafi’u, S. A. (2017). Invitro effect of tannery effluents on seed germination and growth performance of maize (Zea mays), spinach (Spinacia caudatus) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). International Journal of Applied Biological Research, 8(1): 160 – 173.

Ishaq, S.E; Rufus, S. A and Annune, P.A. (2011) Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Fish (Tilapia zilli and Clarias gariepinus) Organs from River Benue, North-Central Nigeria. Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem., 12(1&2): 25-31.

John, N.K., Babu, M., Racheal, A. and James, G.N. (2014). Haematological and Histopathological Effects of Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) from lake Victoria Shores of Uganda in Swiss Mice. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 2(4): 4-16.

Kanu, I and Achi, O.K (2011). Industial effluents and their impact on water quality of receiving rives in Nigeria. Journal of applied technology in environmental sanitation 1(1): 75 – 86.

Kavy, G. K. S.,Jadesh, M and Kulkarni, R. S. (2016). Heamatology and serum biochemical changes in response to change in sauna Kawaji and Tokarawa Concentration in fresh water fish, Notopterus Notopterus, World Scientific News, 32: 49-59.

Nafiu, S. A and Ibrahim, S. (2019). “Toxicological study of Cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) on Haematological and Biochemical Response in O. niloticus (L) of Thomas Reservoir, Kano, Nigeria”, International Journal of Development Research, 09(11): 31343-31350.

Nte, M. E and Akinrotimi, O. A. (2011) Biochemical changes in black jaw tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron) treated with sub lethal levels of industrial effluents. Advances Agri Sci Engineering Res, 1: 25-33.

Nwani, C. D., Udu, I. A., Florence, O., Uche, Obasi, O., Rebecca, C. O., Arua, A., I and Onyinyechi, U. (2013) Acute toxicity of the chloroacetanilide herbicide butachlor and its effects on the behavior of the freshwater fish Tilapia zillii. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12(5): 499-503.

OECD (2011). Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development. Guidance Document on Acute Oral Toxicity. OECD Publishing; pp. 1–27.

Ohioma, A. I., Luke, N.O and Amraibure, O. (2009). Studies on the pollution potential of wastewater from textile processing factories in Kaduna, Nigeria. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 1(2):34 – 37.

Olarinmoye, O., Bakare, A., Ugwumba, O and Hein, A. (2016). Quantification of pharmaceutical residues in wastewater impacted surface waters and sewage sludge from Lagos, Nigeria. J Environ Chem Ecotoxicol., 8(3):14–24.

Osibanjo, O. Daso, A. P. and Gbadebo, A. M. (2011). The impact of industries on surface water quality of River Ona and River Alaro in Oluyole Industrial Estate, Ibadan, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10 (4): 696-702.

Reddy, P.B. (2013). Assessment of Water Quality Using Haematological indices as Biomarkers. International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archive, 4(2): 1-6.

Reddy, P.B. (2018). Study on the Toxic Effects of Waste Water in Cat Fish (Heteropneutus Fossilis). Life Sciences International Research Journal, 5(2): 165-174.

Rakesh, S. and Kumar, S.V (2019). Acute toxicity and behavioural responses in Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus) exposed to herbicide pretilachlor. Heliyon, 5: 2405-8440.

Roopadevi, H and Somashekar, R.K. (2012). Assessment of the toxicity of waste water from a textile industry to Cyprinus carpio. Journal of Environmental Biology, 33(1): 167-171.

Safahieh, A., Jaddi, Y., Yavari, V and Zadeh, R. S. (2012). Sub-lethal effects of herbicide paraquat on haematological parameters of benny fish Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi In. 2nd Int Conf Biotechnol. Environ. Manag., 1(1): 141-145.

Samson, E. A., 2015. Heavy metals Bioaccumulation and Histopathological Changes in Auchenoglanis occidentalis fish from Tiga Dam, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering, 13(67): 2-8.

Scott, G.R. and Sloman, K.A., (2004). The effects of environmental pollutants on complex fish behaviour: integrating behavioural and physiological indicators of toxicity. Aquatic toxicology, 68(4): 369-392.

Shaheen, T and Akhtar, T. (2012). Assessment of chromium toxicity in Cyprinus carpio through hematological and biochemical blood markers. Turk J Zool., 36: 682–690.

Sreelekshmy, S.G., Miranda, M.T.P. and Rajesh, B.R. (2016). Acute toxicity of industrial effluents on the marine catfish Arius nenga (Hamilton, 1822). Inter. J. of Fish. and Aqua. Stu, 4(3): 215-219.

Srivastava, B. and Reddy, P.B. (2017). Lipid peroxidation and DNA damage as biomarkers of pollution induced oxidative stress (OS). Life Sciences International Research Journal, 4 (I):194-198.

WHO (2002). Water pollutants: Biological agents, dissolved chemicals, Non – dissolved chemicals sediments, heat, WHO CEHA, Amman Jordan.

WHO, (2011). Guidelines for Drinkingwater Quality Fourth Edition, pp 12

Yusuff, R. O and Sonibare, J. A. (2004). Characterization of Textile Industries Effluents in Kaduna Nigeria and Pollution Implications. Global Nest: the International J ournal, 6(3): 212 – 221.




How to Cite