• Hosea Kato Mande
Keywords: Agriculture, Deforestation, Drivers, Forest, Plantation


The growing population is often associated with various environmental disturbances which have been altering the natural earth ecosystem and numerous land development activities have made the existing forests suffer deforestations. The aim of the research is to ascertain the key drivers of deforestation. The techniques employed are landsat TM, SPOT-5and land use map. Deforestation rates between 1990 and 2010 indicated total deforestation occurred between 1995 and 2000 of 7.59% at a rate of 0.04 ha/year, follow by the year 2005 to 2010 with 6.74% at a rate of 0,032ha/year. The lowest deforestation was recorded between 1990 and 1995 with 0.38% at a rate of 0.002 ha/yr while the total deforestation for the entire 30 years was 16.98% at an average rate of 0.020 ha/yr. The deforestation rates in Pahang have been  estimated to occurred between years 1990 and 2010  ranging from 0.002 - 0.04 million ha/yr. These results demonstrated that Pahang is still characterized by high forest cover and slow deforestation rates. However, commercial agriculture was estimated to be the first single driver of deforestation, which accounted for about 80% of deforestation compared to other drivers. The finding concluded that commercial agricultural such as palm oil plantation and rubber plantation was the main proximate drivers for the deforestation in Pahang. It was demonstrated that the integration of multi temporal datasets from Landsat-TM andSPOT-5 satellite images with landuse maps was capable in identifying direct drivers of deforestation. However, extensive use of ground thruting will compliment the landsat, SPOT-5and the landuse map.


Achard, F., R. Beuchle, P. Mayaux, H. J. Stibig, C. Bodart, A., and Brink, S. (2014). Determination of Tropical Deforestation Rates and Related Carbon Losses from 1990 to 2010.†Global Change Biology 20 :2540–2554

Alexandratos, N. (1999) World food and agriculture: Outlook for the medium and longer term. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:5908–5914

Angelsen, A., Brown, S., Loisel, C., Peskett, C., Streck, C., and Zarin, D. (2009). Reducing emission from deforestation and degradation (REDD): An options assessment report. Meridian Institute 100.

Appanah, S. (2000). Trends and Issues in Tropical Forest Management: Setting the Agenda for Malaysia. Pp 1–21. In Proceedings of the Conference on Tropical Forest Harvesting: NewTechnologies Examined, 22-24 Nov. 1999. Conference on Forestry and Forest ProductsResearch 1999 Series. Forest Research Institute Malaysia

Brookfield, H., and Byron, Y. (1990). Deforestation and Timber extraction in borneo and the Malaysia Peninsular. Global Environmental Change: human & policy dimension.

David, B. Y., Rowlings, W., and Resources, S. (2010). Influence of historic land use change on the biosphere †atmosphere †exchange of C and N trace gases in the humid , subtropical region of, (April).

FAO. (2011). (Food and Agricultural Organization). (2011).

Fire management Working Paper, at the 5.

Gibbs, H., Brown, K., Niles, S. J. O., and Foley, J. A. (2007). Monitoring and Estimating Tropical Forest Carbon Stocks: Making REDD a Reality. Environmental Research Letters 2 (4):, 2, 045023. doi:10.1088/1748–9326/2/4/045023. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/2/4/045023.

Gibbs, H.K., Ruesch, A.S., and Achard, F. (2010). Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 16732-16737.

Gibbs, H.K., Ruesch, A.S., Achard, F., Clayton, M.K., Holmgren, P., Ramankutty, N., and Foley, J.A., (2010) Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s PNAS September 21, 2010 107 (38) 16732 16737

Gillis, M., and Repetto, R. (1988). Public Policies, the misuse of Forest Resource, World Resource Institute, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge .

Grecchi, R. C., Beuchle, R., Shimabukuro, Y.E., Aragão, L.E.O., Arai,E., Simonetti, D., and Achard. F.(2017). “An Integrated Remote Sensing and Gis Approach for Monitoring Areas Affected by Selective Logging: A Case Study in Northern Mato Grosso, Brazilian Amazon.†International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 61 (Sep): 70–80.

Hansen, M.C., Stephen, V.S, and Peter, V. P. (2010). Quantification of global gross forest cover loss. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (27), 105, 9439–9444.

Herold, M., and M. Skutsch. (2011). “Monitoring, Reporting and Verification for National REDD+ Programmes: Two Proposals.†Environmental Research Letters 6: 014002

Houghton, R. (2005). Tropical deforestation as a source of greenhouse gas emissions. Eds Mutinho and Schwartzman, Tropical deforestation and climate change Belém, Brazil.

Houghton, R.A., Skole, D.L., Nobre, C.A., Hackler, J.L., Lawrence,K.T., and Chomentowski, W.H., (2000): Annual fluxes or carbon from deforestation and regrowth in the Brazilian Amazon. Nature, 403, pp. 301-304.

Langner, A., Miettinen, J., and Siegert, F. (2007). Land cover change 2002–2005 in Borneo and the role of fire derived from MODIS imagery. Global Change Biology 13:, 2329–2340.

Lillesand, T. M., and Kiefer, R. W. (1994). Remote sensing and Image Interpretation. 3rd Ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Margono, B.A., Turubanova, S, . Zhuravleva, I., Potapov, P., Tyukavina, A., Baccini, A. Goetz, S,. and Hansen, M. C. (2012). Environ Res Lett 7 034010.

Noriko, H., Mrtin, H., De Sy, V., De Fries, R., Brockhaus, M., Verchot, L., Angelsen, A., and Romijn, E. (2012). Environ Res Lett 7 (4):7.

Pontius, R.G., Cornell, J., and Hall, C. H. (2001). Modeling the spatial pattern of land-use change with GEOMOD2: application and validation for Costa Rica. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 85(1-3), 85, 191–203.

Saw L.G. (2010) Vegetation of Peninsular Malaysia SEED PLANTS VOL. 1 pp 21-43

Tjia, H.D. (1988). The physical setting. Pp. 1–19. In Earl of Cranbrook (ed.). Key Environments: Malaysia. Pergamon Press. Oxford.

Watson, J. E. M., T. Evans, O. Venter, B. Williams, A. Tulloch, C. and Stewart, I. (2018). “The Exceptional Value of Intact Forest Ecosystems.†Nature Ecology and Evolution 2 (4): 599–610. Springer US.

Yosio, E. S., Egidio, A., Valdete, D, Anderson, J., Erone, G. S., Kaio, A G., and Andeise, C. D. (2019). Monitoring deforestation and forest degradation using multi-temporal fraction images derived from Landsat sensor data in the Brazilian Amazon. International Journal of Remote Sensing. Vol.40,5475-5496

How to Cite