ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE CHANGE AND PATTERNS OF FARMERS’/PASTORALISTS’ CONFLICTS IN ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA

Authors

  • Olasunkanmi Gabriel Jeje Federal University Dutsin-Ma, Katsina State
  • B. A. Sawa
  • Y. A. Arigbede

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33003/fjs-2020-0404-436

Keywords:

Analysis, Climate change, Conflict, Farmers, Herders, Pattern

Abstract

Struggle over land and scarce resources have resulted in perennial and growing violent conflicts amongst arable crop farmers and cattle herdsmen in various parts of Nigeria. This study analyses the relationship between climate change and patterns of herders-crop farmers’ conflict in Zamfara state, Nigeria. Data for this study were acquired via semi structured questionnaire and Key Informant Interview. Purposeful sampling method was used to select six communities, while 260 farmers and 67 pastoralists were chosen as sample size for the survey based on Krejcie and Morgan’s formula. Descriptive statistics such as percentages, arithmetic mean and Likert rating scale were adopted to analyze the data for the study. Results from the findings indicated that farmers and herders in Zamfara state were within active years of economic and productive age (24 to 44 years). Nearly,75% of both farmers and pastoralists in the study communities professed there is high variability in rainfall pattern  and increase in temperature. Three-quarter of the respondents confirmed that the nature of the conflicts was assault involving the use of arms; whereas two-fifth of the respondents affirmed that the conflict occurs during harvest and the planting seasons.  The study concluded that climate change is the bane of incessant resource use conflicts in the study area. Thus a clearly formulated government policies and implementation framework that would boost climate change information forecasting and dissemination, adaptive capacity and ranch management will salvage the conflictual relationship subsisting between farmers and herders in the study area.

References

Adedokun, M.O. and Oluwagbohunmi, M.F. (2014) An Overview of the Challenges Facing Youths in Nigerian Society. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4 (6); 154 – 161.

Adelakun, O. E., Adurogbangba, B. and Akinbile, L. (2015). Socioeconomic Effects of Farmer-Pastoralist Conflict on Agricultural Extension Service Delivery in Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Extension, 19 (2):59-70

Adigun, O. W. (2019). A Critical Analysis of the Relationship Between Climate Change, Land Disputes, and the Patterns of Farmers/Herdsmen’s Conflicts in Nigeria. Canadian Social Science, 76-89.

Abubakar. (2010). Adaptive Strategies developed by local farmers to cope with Climate Change:A case study of Jibia Local Government,Katsina State. Ahmadu Bello University,Zaria.: Unpublished Undergraduate Project.

Abubakar, M. B. ( 2012). Sociological Assessment of Nomadic Pastoralist and Sedentary Farmers Conflicts in Katsina State. . Zaria: An unpublished M.Sc. Thesis submitted to Sociology Department, Ahmadu Bello University,.

Ayantunde, A.A., Asse, R., Said, M.Y. and Fall, A. (2014). Transhumant pastoralism, sustainable management of natural resources and endemic ruminant livestock in the sub-humid zone of West Africa. Environment Development and Sustainability. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10668-014-9515-z

Barfield, J.T. (2011). Nomadic pastoralism. The Oxford Handbook of World History. DOI:

1093/oxfordhb/9780199235810.013.0010

Federal Ministry of Environment (FME). (2003.). Nigeria’s First National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Abuja, Nigeria.

Fosu-Mensah, B. Y., Vlek, P. L., & Manschadi, A. M. (2010). Farmers’ perception and adaptation to climate change: a case study of Sekyedumase district in Ghana. Tropentag, September 14-16, Zurich.

Global Terrorism Index (GTI). (2016, September 20). Measuring and Understanding the Impact of Terrorism. Institute for Economics and Peace. Retrieved from http://visionofhumanity.org/sites/default/files/Globaland20Terrorismand20Indexand202016_

Global Terrorist Index (GTI). ( 2018, September 20). Measuring the Impact of Terrorism. Institute for Economics and Peace. Retrieved from https://www.gcsp.ch/News-Knowledge/.../Launch-of-the-2018-Global

Hassan, B. (2017) The Impact of Cattle Rustling and Banditry on Livelihoods of Pastoral communities in Katsina State, Nigeria.

Idoma, K., Abdurashid, A. and Abdullahi, J. (2018) Climate Variability: Driving Force of Crop Farmers-Pastoralists’ Conflicts and a Threat to the Sustainability of Pastoralism in Benue State, Nigeria. Journal of Disaster and Risk Reduction: Centre for Disaster Risk Management and Development Studies (CDRMDS) 1(1): 1-9.

International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2007). Summary for policy-makers. In M. L. Parry, Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: Contribution of workinggroup II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (SAR) (pp. 7–22). Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Luke , A. A., Good , H. I., and Uche, U. (2019). Understanding Rural Violence in North-Central Nigeria:Experience from NomadicHerdsmen and Rural Farmers’ Conflict. Journals of International Politics, 1 (1), 53-74.

Madu , I. A., and Nwankwo, C. F. (2020). Spatial pattern of climate change and farmer–herder conflict vulnerabilities in Nigeria. GeoJournal, Springer BV 1-17.

Merriam-Webster. (2018). https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pastoralism

Mertz, O., Mbow, C., & Reenberg, A. ( 2009). Farmers’ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel. . Environmental Management. , 43: 804-816. .

Mikailu, N. (2016, September 20). Making sense of Nigeria's Fulani-farmer conflict . Retrieved from BBC News: ht tps :/ / www .bbc.com/news/world-africa-36139388

Mobjörk, M., Gustafsson, M.-T., Sonnsjö, H., Van Balen, S., Dellmuth, L., and Bremberg, N. ( 2016). Climate-Related Security Risks: Towards an Integrated Approach. . International Peace Research Institute. Stockholm.

Odjugo, P.A.O (2010) General overview of climate change Impacts in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology 29 (1): 47-55.

Okunlola, O. O. (2016). Fulani herdsmen's pastoral activities, conflict and conflict management strategies in Ibarapa East Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science, 18 (1);190 - 197.

Olaleye, R., Odutola, J., Ojo, M., Umar, I., & Ndanitsa, M. ( 2010). Perceived effectiveness of conflict resolution methods for improved Farmer-Pastoralist relationship in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. . The Nigerian Journal of Rural Extension and Development , 3:54-58. . pastoralists who settled in a place to farm and move within the community

Patrick, S. (2012). An Assessment of Forest Resource Utilization and Management. A Study of Katsina Fuelwood Plantation Number 2 forest reserve in Katsina Local Government Area of Katsina State.

Rosenzweig, C., Tubiello, F. and Goldberg, R. M. (2002). Increased Crop Damage in the U.S. from Excess Precipitation under Climate Change–Global Environ. Change: . Human Dimensions and Policy , 12 (3): 197-202.

Tsegaye, D., & Moe, S. R. (2013). Pastoralists and livelihoods: A case study from northern Afar, Ethiopia. Journal of Arid Environments, 138-146.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change , 2011. Fact sheet: Climate change science - the status of climate change science today. [Online]

Available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg3/en/spmsspmd.html

[Accessed 15 August 2020].

Downloads

Published

2020-12-31

How to Cite

Jeje, O. G., Sawa, B. A., & Arigbede, Y. A. (2020). ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE CHANGE AND PATTERNS OF FARMERS’/PASTORALISTS’ CONFLICTS IN ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA. FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, 4(4), 56 - 66. https://doi.org/10.33003/fjs-2020-0404-436