• Kamaluddeen Suleiman Kabo
  • Tijjani Ali
  • Abiodun B. Ogbesejana
Keywords: Balanite aegyptiaca, oil extraction, Physico-chemical analysis, percent yield, Dutsin-Ma


Desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca) is perennial plant with a variety of application in vegetable oil, food preparation, condiment and medicine. This work covers extraction and physico-chemical parameters analysis: acid value, iodine value and saponification value of Balanite aegyptiaca seed oil samples obtainable at Dutsin-Ma Area, Katsina State. Soxhlet extraction method was used in order to extract oil from the samples followed by its analysis according to standard protocols. The result shows that the seeds have high oil content, percent yield of 39.58% with the density of 0.91 g/cm3, acid value 2.66, iodine value 98.74 g/100g, saponification value of 186.5 mgKOH/g and low moisture content of 2.6% was obtained. This shows that the seeds of Balanite aegyptiaca oil of Dutsin-Ma local area have high oil yield and good qualities making it suitable for use in a variety of applications to improve its value chain


Abdel-Rahim, E.A., El-Saadany, S.S. and Wasif, M.M. (1986). Chemical and physical studies on Balanites aegyptiaca oil. Fasc 37: 81 – 85.

Abu-Al-Futuh, (1983), M. Balanites aegyptiaca: an unutilized raw material potential ready for agro-industrial exploitation. United Nations Industrial Development Organization,Vienna, 100.

AOAC. (1998). Official Methods of analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 16th Edition, Gaithersburg, USA.

Aremu, M. O., Olonisakin, A., Bako, D. A. and Madu, P. C. (2006). Compositional studies and physicochemical characteristics of Cashew nut flour. Pak. J. Nutr. 5, 328-333

Babagana Gutti, Shittu S. Bamidele and Idris M. Bugaje (2011) characterization and Composition of Balanites aegyptiacaseed oil and its potential as biodiesel feed stock in Nigeria. Journal of Applied Phytotechnology in environmental sanitation1 (1): 29-35.

Babeker,M.A. (2013). Physicochemical Properties of Laloub Seed Oil. M.Sc. Thesis. 29-45. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum.

Booth, F.E.M., Wickens, G.E. (1988). Non-timber uses of selected Arid zone trees and shrubs in Africa FAO Conservation Guide 19:18-2.

Capreda, S. (2013): Introduction to Biomass Energy Conversions CRC Press. p 119 – 201. Tailor and Francis Group. Florida, USA.

Chapagain, B. P., Wiesman, Z. (2005). Variation in diosgenin level in seed kernels among different provenances of Balanites aegyptiaca, Del. (Zygophyll aceae) and its correlation with oil content. Afric. J. Biotechnol. Sparg , S.G vol.(4),1209-1213.

Cook, A.J., Vanderjagt, D.J., Pastuszyn, A., Mounkaila, G., Glew, R.S. and Glew, R.H. (1998). Nutrient content of two indigenous plant foods of Western Sahel:
Balanites aegyptiaca and maerua crassifolia. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis vol. 11: 221-230.

Elfeel A.A (2010) Variability in Balanites aegyptiaca seed Kernel oil, protein and minerals contents between and within locations Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 1(2): 170-174

FAO/WHO, (1994). Fats and oils in human nutrition: FAO Food and WHO, Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition. Appendix 1: Recommended nutrient intakes.

Fokou, E., Achu, M. B. and Tchouanguep, M. F. (2004). Preliminary nutritional evaluation of five species of egusi seeds in Cameroun. Afr. J. Food Agric. Nur. Dev. 4, 1-11

Frezzotte, G.; M. Manni and A. Aten. (1956). Olive oil processing in rural mills. Rome

Grosskinsky B and Gullick C., (2001). Potential of indigenous food plants to support and strengthen livelihoods in Southern Sudan. In Kenyatta C and Henderson A. (2001). The potential of indigenous wild foods. Workshop proceedings. USAID/OFDA, Mombassa, Kenya.

Hall, J.B. and Walker, H.D. (1991). Balanites aegyptiaca: A monograph. School of agriculture and forest sciences Publication Number 3. University of Wales, Bangor.

Hussain, S.A., Dollear, F.G. and O’Connor, R.T. (1949). Oil from the kernels of fruit, Balanites aegyptiaca. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 26 (12) 730 732.

John K. (2008), Analytical chemistry for technicians. 3rd Edn., Kalyan Publishers, New Delhi, India Pp 432-433.

Kirschenbauer, H. G. (1995). Fats and Oils: An outline of their chemistry and Technology. Reinhold Publishing and Co., New York

Ladipo, D.O. (1989). Balanites aegyptiaca: Native tree with potential for agroforestry and arid zone afforestation in Nigeria. IFS- ICRAF-IUFRO seminar "Trees and Development" Nairobi February

Locket C.T, Calvert C.C and Grivetti L.E., (2000). Energy and micronutrient composition of dietary and medicinal wild plants consumed during drought. Study of rural Fulani, northeastern Nigeria. Int J Food Sci. 51(3):195-208.

Manji A. J., Sarah E. E. and Modibbo U. U (2013). Studies on the potentials of Balanites aegyptiacaseed oil as raw material for the production of liquid cleansing agents. Department of Industrial Chemistry, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, P. M. B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

Mohammed, M.I., and Hamza, Z.U (2008) physicochemical properties of oil extracts from Sesamum Indicum L-Seeds grown in Jigawa State Nigeria. Jour. of App. Scien and Env. Mgt,; 12: 99-104.

Mohamed, A.M., Wolf, W. and Speiss WEL. (2002). Physical, morphological and chemical characteristics, oil recovery and fatty acid composition of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. Kernels. Plant Foods Human Nutrition 57:179-189.

Nardo, S.M., Obida, W., and Tiyato, G.O., Worochekke, A.U. (2009). Toxicity of crude Balanites Aegyptiaca seed oil in Rates. Jour. of Amer. Sci. 5(6): 13-16.

NRC (2008), Lost Crops of Africa; Fruits, The National Academic Press. National Research. Council, Washington, D, C, USA, Vol (3) p 23 – 40

WHO, (2004). Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition. Appendix 1: Recommended nutrient intakes. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland
How to Cite
KaboK. S., AliT., & OgbesejanaA. B. (2020). EXTRACTION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETER ANALYSIS OF DESERT DATE (Balanite aegyptiaca) OIL FROM DUTSIN-MA. FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, 4(2), 409 - 413. https://doi.org/10.33003/fjs-2020-0402-225