• Chinonye Ezenwaka Department of Biology, Federal University Otuoke, Bayelsa State
  • Umor Living-Jamala
Keywords: Bayelsa, Fish parasites, River, Survey, Synodontis


Fishes are a source of protein to human and also provide a means of occupation for the people. Fish parasites are of public health importance, reducing fish population and thereby, resulting in loss of protein source and jobs. This study aimed to reveal the presence of various endo-parasites and blood parasites in fish samples collected from Otuogori River using standard techniques. A total of 40 live fish, purchased weekly from a fisherwoman during early morning hours, from December 2022 to January 2023, contingent on availability, were transported immediately to the laboratory for parasitological examination with the sex noted and the standard length measured. Aliquot from teased internal organs and blood sample collected from caudal circulation of each fish were respectively smeared on clean slides and viewed under the microscope. The parasites detected were identified using an identification key. The study revealed that out of 40 Synodontis schall examined, 4 were infected with an overall prevalence of 10%. Females 3(14.29%) were more infected than males 1(5.26%) (p>0.05). Parasites recorded include Trypanosoma spp, Camallanus spp and Anisakid spp; with Trypanosoma spp. (50%) being the most prevalent.  The study result also showed that those with body length range of 9.2cm-14.2cm were infected the most (25%) (p>0.05). Fish samples weighing 55g-105g and those with body length range of 9.2cm-14.2cm had the highest mean intensity. Weight did not significantly affect the prevalence of infestation of the fishes (p>0.05). Fish samples collected from Otuogori River should be properly cooked before eaten to avoid zoonotic infections.


Absalom, K.V., Makpo, J.K. and Mustapha, A.J. (2018). Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Helminth Parasites of Clarias gariepinus at River Gudi, Akwanga L.G.A. of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, 4(1): 9-15.

Afolabi, O.J. and Abass, K.O. (2022). Intestinal parasites associated with common marine fishes in Nigeria. Veterinary Research Notes, 2(7): 54-59. doi:10.5455/vrn.2022.b14 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5455/vrn.2022.b14

Agatha Eleojo Onoja-Abutu, Martin Abdubala Okpanachi, Luay Alkazmi, Clement Ameh Yaro, and Gaber El-Saber Batiha (2021). Branchial chamber and gastrointestinal tracts parasites of fish species in Benue and Niger Rivers, North Central Nigeria. International Journal of Zoology, 1: 1-10. doi:10.1155/2021/6625332. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6625332

Ali, M.D. and Reza, F. (2018). Fish parasites: infectious disease associated with fish parasites, Seafood Safety and Quality, 154-176.

Amaechi, C.E. (2015). Prevalence, intensity and abundance of endoparasites in Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zilli (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Asa Dam, Ilorin, Nigeria. Research Journal of the Costa Rican Distance Education University, 7(1): 67-70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22458/urj.v7i1.863

Amos, S.O., Eyiseh, T.E. and Michael, E.T. (2018). Parasitic infection and prevalence in Clarias gariepinus in Lake Gerio, Yola, Adamawa state. MOJ Anatomy & Physiology, 5(6): 376-381. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15406/mojap.2018.05.00229

Awatef, H.H. (2019). Parasitic Infections and Histopathological Changes in the Squeaker Fishes, Synodontis serratus and Synodontis schall from Lake Nasser, Egypt. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 65(161): 208-224. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21608/avmj.2019.168905

Bamidele, A. (2015). A two fish species study of the parasitic helminth fauna of Synodontis filamentosus (Boulenger, 1901) and Calamoichthy calabaricus (Smith, 1805) from Lekki, lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria. Ife Journal of Science, 17: 97-108.

Belhabib, D.; Sumaila, U.R. and Pauly, D. (2015). Feeding the poor: Contribution of West African fisheries to employment and food security. Ocean and Coast Management, 111: 72-81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.04.010

Béné, C.; Arthur, R.; Norbury, H.; Allison, E.H.; Beveridge, M.; Bush, S.; Campling, L.; Leschen, W.; Little, D. and Squires, D. (2016). Contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to food security and poverty reduction: Assessing the current evidence. World Development, 79: 177-196. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.11.007

Chan, C.Y.; Tran, N.; Pethiyagoda, S.; Crissman, C.C.; Sulser, T.B. and Phillips, M.J. (2019). Prospects and challenges of fish for food security in Africa. Global Food Security, 20: 17-25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2018.12.002

Effang, E.O. and Eyo, V.O. (2018). Endoparasitic infeststion of the Nile squeaker, Synodontis schall (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) from the Cross River Estuary, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, 6(3): 1-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/AJAAR/2018/39404

Enyidi, U. and Uwanna, P. (2019). Parasites of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus Polycultured in Earthen Ponds. Aquaculture Studies, 19(2): 81-89.

Ezenwaka, C.O. and Nweke. O.S. (2021). “Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Helminthes Associated with Synodontis schall from Otuogori River, Ogbia Local Government, Bayelsa State.” IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science (IOSR-JAVS), 14(3): 06-10.

Fischer, W., Blanchi, G. and Scott, W.B. (1981). FAQ species identification sheets for fishery area. Canada found in trust Ottawa, Canada by arrangement with FAQ, 7: 34-47.

Florence, O.I. and Clement, A.Y. (2016). Endo-parasitic helminths of Synodontis schall (Bloch and schneider, 1801, siluriformes, mochokidae) at the confluence of Niger and Benue Rivers, Lokoja, Nigeria. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 4(5): 30-35.

Grzegorz, L. and Jerzy, S. (2018). What’s new in chicken egg research and technology for human health promotion: A review. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 71: 46-51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2017.10.022

Hailu, M. and Mitiku, M.A. (2021). The effects of fish parasites in freshwater culture and capture fisheries and their treatment mechanisms. International Journal of Zoology and Animal Biology, 4(2): 000289. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23880/IZAB-16000289

Iboh, C.I. and Ajang, R.O. (2016). Helminths Parasitic Infection of Clarias gariepinus from Great Kwa River, Cross River State, Nigeria. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research, 3(12): 101-105.

Idowu, T.A., James, M., Sajo, Z.M., Adedeji, H.A. and Sogbesan, O.A. (2023). Occurrence of parasites in live Clarias gariepinus sold at Jimeta Modern Market, Yola, Adamawa State. FUDMA Journal of Sciences, 7(2): 206-209. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33003/fjs-2023-0702-1397

Iyaji, F.O. and Yaro, C.A. (2016). “Endoparasitic helminths of Synodontis schall (Bloch and Schneider, 1801, Siluriformes, Mochokidae) at the Confluence of Niger and Benue Rivers, Lokoja, Nigeria.” International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 4(5): 30-35.

Kawe, S.M., God'spower, R.O., Balarabe, M.R. and Akaniru, R.I. (2016). Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of Clarias gariepinus in Abuja, Nigeria. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Science, 14(2): 26-33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/sokjvs.v14i2.4

Khanum, H., Zaman, R.F., Barua, P., Asha, M.B. and Nazmunnaher (2022). Prevalence and Intensity of Helminth Parasites in Macrognathus Aculeatus (Lecepede, 1803). Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research, 46(1): 37117- 37124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26717/BJSTR.2022.46.007301

Kori-Siakpere, O., Ake, J.E.G. and Idoge, E. (2005). Haematological characteristics of the African snakehead. Parachanna obscura. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4: 527-530.

Marcogliese, D.J. (2002). Food webs and the transmission of Parasites to marine fish. Parasitology, 124(7): 83-99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S003118200200149X

Okita, F.O., Obadiah, H.I., Umele, U.F. and Orhembega, I.T. (2020). A Survey of Gastrointestinal Helminth Parasites of Some Fresh Water Fish Species Sold in Makurdi - Benue State, Nigeria. Nigerian Annals of Pure and Applied Sciences, 3: 90-96. DOI: https://doi.org/10.46912/napas.178

Okoye, U.O., Ndupuh, E.E. and Adeleye, S.A. (2016). A survey on endo-parasites of Clarias gariepinus in some selected fish farms in Owerri west Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 4(5): 624-631.

Omeji, S., Obande, R.A. and Member, S.T. (2015). Prevalence of Endoparasites of Synodontis schall and Synodontis ocellifer (Upside-Down Cat Fish) from Lower River Benue, Nigeria. International Journal of Animal Biology, 1(5): 176-181 http://www.aiscience.org/journal/ijab.

Onyishi, G.C. and Aguzie, I.O.N. (2018). Survey of helminthe parasites of fish in Ebonyi River at Eha-amufu, Enugu state, Nigeria. Animal Research International, 15(3): 3112-3119.

Pouder, D.B., Curtis, E.W. and Yanong, R.P.E. (2005). Common freshwater fish parasites pictorial guide, Extension edis. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32473/edis-fa115-2005

Sadauki, M.A, Bawa, S.B. and Umar, J. (2022). Studies on parasitic infestation and prevalence in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) from Zobe reservoir, Katsina State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science, 24(1): 100-110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33003/jaat.2022.0801.080

Smith, J. (2010). Geography of Bayelsa State. Lagos publishers; 76.

Uneke, B.I., Uhuo, C. and Obi, C. (2015). Protozoan Parasites of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede: 1803) in the Mid-Cross River Flood System, South Eastern Nigeria. American Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2(4): 51-56.

Uneke, B.I. and Jonah, L.I. (2017). Prevalence of helminth parasites of Tilapia zilli in Ebonyi River, Southeastern Nigeria: Implication for health management and policy. AASCIT Journal of Bioscience, 3(5): 47-51.

Uruku, M. N. and Adikwu, I. A. (2017). Seasonal Prevalence of Parasites of Clariids Fishes from the Lower Benue River, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture 5(2):11-19.

Ziarati, M., Zorriehzahra, M.J., Hassantabar, F., Mehrabi, Z., Dhawan, M., Sharun, K., Emran, T.B., Dhama, K., , W. and Shamsi, S. (2022). Zoonotic diseases of fish and their prevention and control. Veterinary Quarterly, 42(1): 95-118 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2022.2080298

How to Cite