DETERMINATION OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN SOME VEGETABLES AND FRUIT BY QuEChERS TECHNIQUES AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY /MASS SPECTROMETRY
The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues were analysed in some vegetables and fruit (spinach, lettuce, cabbage, tomatoes, carrots and onions) grown at Dagachi farming areas along River Galma of Zaria in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Sample collection and preparation were carried out using standard procedures. The concentrations of all the pesticides in the fruits and vegetables samples were analysed using quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) multi- residue extraction and clean up techniques, followed by gas chromatography â€“ mass spectrometry (GC â€“ MS). The most commonly detected organochlorine pesticide residues in the entire samples analysed are lindane, delta â€“ BHC, heptachlor epoxide (B), endosulfan I, dieldrin, and endosulfan II. Furthermore, the results of the study shows that the mean concentration of these organochlorines pesticide detected were higher in onion and spinach with heptachlor epoxide (B) having concentrations 2.303 mg/kg and 2.011 mg/kg respectively. Likewise, endosulfan II (1.433 mg/kg) in lettuce was observed. Heptachlor epoxide (B) detected were also very high in other samples such as carrot, cabbage, and tomatoes and with values 0.600 mg/kg, 0.716 mg/kg, and 0.524 mg/kg respectively. Indeed, these concentrations of all the organochlorine pesticides detected in the fruit and vegetables samples analysed were observed to be at alarming levels, much higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) by the Codex 2009 (WHO and FAO) except for lindane with values 0.007 mg/kg and 0.01 mg/kg in carrot and onions respectively
Afful, S., Anim, A.K. and Serfor- Armah.Y.(2010). Spectrum of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Fish samples from the Densu Basin. Research Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences 2(3):133-138. ISSN:2041-0492.
Akerblom, M. (1995). Guideline for environmental monitoring of pesticide residues for the SADC Region. SADC/ELMS, Monitoring Techniques Series.
Amoah, P., Diechel, P., Abaidoo, R.C. and Ntow, W.J. (2006).Pesticide and pathogen contamination of vegetables in Ghanaâ€™s urban market.Arch. Environ. Toxicology 50: 1-6.
Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) official method 2007.01.
Codex Alimentarius Commission, (2009). Pesticide residues in food: Maximum Residue Limits. Maximum Residue Limits.
Conacher, H.B.S and Mes, J. (1993).Assessment of human exposure to chemical contaminants in Foods.Food Additive Contamination. 10:5-15.
Damalas, A., Christos A. and IIias, G.E. (2011). Pesticide: exposure, safety issues, and risk Assessment Indicators: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2: 77-98
Essumang, D.K., Doboo, D.K., Adokoh, C.K., and Fumador, E.A.(2008). Analysis of some pesticide residues in tomatoes in Ghana. Hum. Ecol. Risk assessment, 14: 796-806.
Fan MA, and Alexeff GV (1999). Public Health Goal for Endrin in Drinking Water. Office of Environment Health and Hazard Assessment, Environmental Protection Agency, California, 5-6.
FAO/WHO (1986) Codex Maximum Limits For Pesticides residues. 2nd ed. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC Vol III).
Fernandez â€“ Alba, A,R. and Garcia-Reyes, J,F. (2008). Large-Scale mull-residue methods for pesticides and their degradation products in food by advanced LC â€“ MS. Trac-Trend. Anal.Chem. 27(11):973-990.
Garyd, C. (2008). Analytical Chemistry, Six Edition. Wiley-Indian Edition. ISBN: 978-81-265-1113-6
IARC (2001). International Agency for Research on Cancer. Organophosphate insecticide and herbicides: Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 112.
Jobling, S., Reynolds, T., White, R., Parker, M. and Sumpter, J. (1995). Chemical found to mimic human estrogens. Environmental health perseptives. 103:582-587.
Joseph, S. (2001). â€œRecentAdramen in Thin-Layer.Chromalograhy of pesticideâ€. Journal of AOAC international, Vol, 84, No. 4, Pp 993-100.
Lehotay, S.J., Hiemstra M., Van Bodegraven P. and DeKok A. (2007). Validation of a fast and easy method for the determination of more than 200 pesticide residues in Fruits and vegetables using gas and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric detection J. AOAC Int. 88 : 584-595.
Ogbonnaya, I.C., Abdullahi, M.,Yisa. ,J. and Bala, A. (2014) Assessement of organiichlorinepesticle Residue in soil and water from fadama farming communities in Minna, North Central Nigeria. (AASCIT Journal of Environment. 2(5):48-55.
Sesliing, D.H. and Jackson, R.J. (1994). The effects of pre-natal exposure to pesticides: Developmental consequence. Pp 233-248. The John Hopkins University press. Baltimore.
Stephen, W.C., Chung, B. and Benedict, L.S. (2011). Determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in fatty foods. A critical review on the analytical methods and their testing capabilities. Journal of chromatography A. 1218(33):5555-5567..
US. Enviromental Protection Agency.(2007). Pesticide regulation(PR) notice 2001- x Draft. Spray and dust drift label statements for pesticide products.
Walter, J.C. (2009). Chlorinated pesticides threats to health and importance of detectionâ€.Environmental Medicine. 14(4):347-59.
World Health Organisation (WHO) (1997). Guidelines for dietary intake of pesticide resides. programme of food safety and food aid
FUDMA Journal of Sciences