• M. M. Karaye
  • H. A. Ibrahim
Keywords: Limnology, wet season, dry season and water


Study of Seven heavy metals namely, Zinc, Lead, Copper, Cadmium, Manganese, Chromium and Nickel was conducted in Mai-Allo pond, Gwale, Kano State in order to assess the concentration of the heavy metals in the pond. The results of the heavy metals showed that Zn has a value of 0.34±0.17 mg-l in the wet season and 0.49±0.37 mg-l in the dry season, Cu has a value of 1.42±0.14 mg-l in the wet season and 0.64±0.09 mg-l in the dry season, and Ni also has 0.12±0.02 mg-l in the wet season and 0.23±0.13 mg-l in the dry season, all these were within acceptable limits, while Pb with a value of 0.05±0.02 mg-l was within the limits during the wet season but during the dry season, the value 0.14±0.09mg-l exceeds the limits. Cd has a value of 0.06±0.01 in the wet season and 0.17±0.12 in the dry season, Cr has 0.36±0.12 in the wet season and 0.04±0.07 in the dry season, and Mn also has values of 0.46±0.12 and 0.22±0.03 in the wet and dry seasons respectively. Hence there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the mean values of the sampling stations of the heavy metals during the wet and dry seasons. The study showed that the pond water was polluted with some heavy metals and hence measures must be taken to ensure the safety of the aquatic ecosystem, humans and the environment.


Abdulaziz, B.A. and Muhammad, H. (1997). Role of Epidemiological Studies in Determining Environmental Impact on Health in Saudi Arabia. Book of Abstract for the Development and Environmental Impact Conference, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. P. 196

Abubakar, A. J., Yusuf, S. and Shehu, K. (2015). Heavy metal pollution on surface water sources in Kaduna metropolis, Nigerian Science World Journal, 70(2):1-5.

Amadi, A,N., Okoye, N,O., Alabi A,D., Tukur, A. and Angwa, E.M. (2014). Quality Assessment of Soil and Groundwater near Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical, Northwest Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research & Reports, 3(6): 885-893.

Banat, I. M, E. S., Hassan, M. S., El-Shahawi and A. H. Abu-Hilal. (1998). Post-gulf-war assessment of nutrients, heavy metal ions, hydrocarbons, and bacterial pollution levels in the United Arab Emirates coastal waters. Environ. Inter., 24 (2): 109–116.

Banerjee, V. (1998): Influence of zinc and mercury on blood parameters of the fish Heteropneustes fossilis. Environ. Ecol., 16: 79-84.

Barałk, I.D. and Siepak, J. (1999). Chromium, nickel and cobalt in environmental samples and existing legal norms. Polish J. Environ. Studies, 8: 201.

Beliles, A. A. (1979). The lesser metals. In "Toxicity of Heavy Metals in the Environment". (Ed.F.W.Oehme) Part II. Marcel Dekker Inc.: New York, pp. 565-597.

Bhat, M. M., Narain, K., Andrabi, S.Z.A., Shukla, R.N, Yunus, M. (2012). Assessment of

Bordoloi, R.K., Kotoky, P., Baruah, J., Haque, L. and Borah, G.C. (2002): Heavy metals in thesediments of Tokial River, Assam. IJEP, 22:779-784.

Butu A.W and Iguisi E.O (2013). Concentration of heavy metals in sediment of river Kubanni, Zaria, Nigeria. Comprehensive Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences Vol. 2(1), pp. 10 - 17, Feb. 2013

Councell, T.B., Duckenfield, K.U., Landa, E.R.and Callender, E. (2004): Tire-wear particles as a source of zinc to the environment. Env. Sci Tech., 38: 4206-4214.

Egboka, B.C.E, Nwankor, G.I., Orajaka, I.P. and Ejiofor, A.O.(1989). Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case example from developing countries. Environmental Health Perspective, Nigeria. Pp 72-79.

Gregg, L.W. (1989). Water analysis Handbook. H.A.C.H Company, USA. pp. 33-39

Gupta, A.K. and Chakraborty, P. (1995). Effect of zinc on the testes of Notopterus notopterus and its subsequent recovery by EDTA. J. Inland Fish. Soc. India, 27: 57-59.

Hardman, D. J., S. Mceldowney and S. Watte. (1994). Pollution, ecology and biotreatment. Longman Scientific, Technical, England, pp. 322

http://www.dailytrust.com.ng/kano-now troubled-by-its-many-ponds.html

Javed M, and Usmani N: Haematological indices of Channa punctatus as an indicator of heavy metal pollution in waste water aquaculture pond, Panethi, India. African J Biotech 2013, 12: 520-525.

Kennish, L. (1992): Toxicity of heavy metals: effects of Cr and Se on humans health. Journal of Indian Public Health Education, India. 2:36 – 64.

Lentech (2006). The way fresh water Ecosystem deal with excess metals. Lentech Water Treatment and Air Purification Holding B.V. (1998-2006). www.Lentech.com/heavy- metal.htm

Lentech (2011). Heavy metals. Lentech water treatment and Air purification Holding B.V (1998-2011) www.Lentech/heavy-metal.htm.

Mc. Dowell, L.R. (1992). Minerals in animal and human nutrition, A. P. Inc. London, N. Y. 265-275.

Moore, J.W. and Ramamoorthy, S. (1984). Heavy Metals in Natural Waters. AppliedMonitoring andImpact Assessment, 28: 246.

Nriagu, O.J. (1992): Toxic metal pollution in Africa. The Science of the total environment. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam. 121:1 – 37.

Nwachukwu, R.E., Janefrances, N.I., Ikayi, S.E and Agbazne, V. E. (2014). Health risk assessment in relation to heavy metals in water sources in rural regions of South East Nigeria, International Journal of Physical Sciences, 9(6):109-116.

Olajire, A.A. and Imeokparia, F.E. (2000). A Survey of the water quality of the Osun river; metal monitoring and geochemistry. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 14(1):91–108. SHR

Roberto, G.L., Hector, R.A., Ray, O., Juan, A.O and Menda, G. (2008). Heavy metals in Water of the San Pedro River in Chihuahua, Mexico and its potential health risk. Internat. J. of Environ. Res., 5: 91-98.

Setia, K., Kawatra, B.L., Hira, C.K., Mann, S.K.,Bennink, M., Dhaliwal, G.S., Arora, R., Randhawa, N.S. and Dhawan, A.K. (1998): Consumption of heavy metals by adult women in sewage and tubewell irrigated areas. Ecological agriculture and sustainable development, 2: 677-683.

Science Daily (2012). Heavy metals. www.sciencedaily.com

Tanko, A.I. (2002). Spatio-temporal patterns of environmental pollution and control in metropolitan Kano. Paper presented at the 4thAnnual Nigerian Geographical Association Conference, University of Ilorin, June 03, 2002.

Zheljazkov, V.D.,Nielson, N.E., 1996. Effect of heavy metals on peppermint and cornmint. Plant soil 178, 59-66.

How to Cite
KarayeM. M., & IbrahimH. A. (2020). HEAVY METALS ANALYSIS OF MAI-ALLO POND IN GWALE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KANO STATE, NIGERIA. FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, 4(2), 16 - 21. https://doi.org/10.33003/fjs-2020-0402-205