• A. F. Obajuluwa
  • James Chibueze Igwe Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kaduna State University, Kaduna
  • Moji T. Durowaiye Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
  • Samira Garba Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State
  • D. Z. Bamai
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, bacteria, naira notes


In our society today, exchange of goods and services usually involves exchange of currency notes by hand. This can serve as a means of transferring microorganisms and antibiotics resistant bacterial isolates. This study was aimed at assessing the contamination of Naira notes in Ungwan Rimi area of Kaduna State and to determine the antibiotics resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria. A total of 160 samples of naira notes, were collected randomly from staff and students, marketers, hospital and pharmacies, food vendors and transporters at strategic spots in Ungwan Rimi. Bacteria isolation and identification of samples were carried out using spread plate technique on medium and standard biochemical characterization, respectively. Antibiotics susceptibility testing were carried out using agar disc diffusion method. Isolates that were non-susceptible to at least one antimicrobial agent in three or more antimicrobial classes were classified as multidrug resistant (MDR), those that remain susceptible to agent(s) in only one or two classes as extended drug resistant (XDR) while pandrug resistant (PDR) isolates were classified as those isolates that were resistant to all antibiotics used. Highest bacterial load was observed with N100 notes with marketers (5.33 x 105) while the least bacterial load was 1.2 x 104 in N50 notes from hospitals and pharmacies. The following bacteria were isolated Staphylococcus aureus 70 (26.8%), Bacillus spp 60 (23.0%), Clostridium spp 31 (11.9%), Escherichia coli 30 (11.5%), Streptococcus species 25 (9.6%), Klebsiella spp 24 (9.2%), Salmonella 15 (5.8%), Shigella species 4 (1.5%) and Pseudomonas species 2 (0.8%)...


Ademokoya, A.A. (2018). Evaluation of Pathogenic Bacteria Associated with the Nigerian’s Currency. Clinical Immunology and Research. 2(2):1-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.33425/2639-8494.1018

Alemu, A. (2014). Microbial contamination of currency notes and coins in circulation: a potentialpublic health hazard.Biomedicine and Biotechnology2(3):46–53.

Baron, S. (1996). Medical Microbiology, 4th Edn. University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.

Barua, N, Sabuj, A.A., Haque, Z.F., Das, M., Hossain, M.T., Saha, S. (2019). Survey of bacterial contamination and antibiotic resistance pattern of Bangladeshi paper currency notes in Mymensingh city. African Journal of Microbiology Research,13(10): 206-213

Cheesbrough, M. (2006). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Part 2. Cambridge University Press: 135-142, 158-159. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511543470

CLSI. (2016). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 26th ed. CLSI supplement

Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN). (April, 2010). Federal Republic of Nigeria 2006 Population and Housing Census. Priority Table Vol. III. Abuja: National Population Commission.

Girma, G. (2016). Health Risk Associated with Handling of Contaminated Paper Currencies in. Int J Food Nutr Sci.; 2: 1–5. https://doi.org/10.15436/2377-0619.15.014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15436/2377-0619.15.014

Kawo, A.H., Adam, M.S., Abdullahi, B.A., Sani, N.M. (2009). Prevalence and public health implications of the microbial load of abused Naira notes. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 2(1): 52-57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/bajopas.v2i1.58458

Magiorakos, A.P., Srinivasan, A., Carey, R.B. et al. (2012). Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance. Clin Microbiol Infect; 18: 268–81. Google Scholar Crossref PubMed WorldCat DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03570.x

Majowicz SE, Musto J, Scallan E, Angulo FJ, Kirk M, O'Brien SJ, Jones TF, Fazil A, Hoekstra RM. (2010). The global burden of nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 50(6):882–889. doi: https://doi.org/10.1086/650733 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/650733

Makvana, S. and Knilov, L.R. (2015). Escherichia coli infections. Paediatrics in Review. 36 (4): 167-171. DOI: 10.15.1542/pir.36-4-167 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/pir.36-4-167

Mbata, C.A., Aleru, C.P., Azike, C.A., Adewoye, M.O. (2016). Burden of microbial contamination of Nigeria naira currency in Port Harcourt, Rivers state. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences. 2(6):76-84.

Morka, E. (2021). Bacteria contamination of Nigerian currency notes from traders in Delta State University campuses, Abraka. Nigerian. Nigerian Journal of Science and environment 19 (2).

Nwachi, A.C., Oguejiofor, B.J., Agar, M.V. and Egwu, I.H. (2021). Antibiogram of bacteria isolated from Nigerian currency notes obtained from meat vendors in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of microbiology; 32(2):5814-5821

Ogbu, O, Uneke CJ. (2007). Potential for parasite and bacteria transmission by paper currency in Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Health; 69(9):54-60

Okon, A.I., Akinloye, O., Okoh, O.M., Oladipo, A.A. (2003). The microbiological quality and heavy metal regimes of some dirty currency notes found in a typical Nigerian community. ScienceFocus 4:116–119.

Sahasranaman, A, Woolford, J.L. (2013). Ribosome Assembly, Editor(s): William J. Lennarz, M. Daniel Lane, Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry (Second Edition), Academic Press, 116-121,

ISBN 9780123786319, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-378630-2.00259-0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-378630-2.00259-0

Shariati, A., Arshadi, M., Khosrojerdi, M.A., Abedinzadeh, M., Ganjalishahi, M., Maleki, A., Heidary, M., Khoshnood, S. (2022). The resistance mechanisms of bacteria against ciprofloxacin and new approaches for enhancing the efficacy of this antibiotic. Front Public Health. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.1025633. PMID: 36620240; PMCID: PMC9815622. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.1025633

Talaro, K. P. and Chess B. (2008). Foundations in microbiology. 8th Ed. McGraw Hill, New York

Vriesekoop, F., Russell, C., Alvarez-mayorga, B., et al. Dirty Money: An Investigation into the Hygiene Status of Some of the World’s Currencies as Obtained. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010; 7: 1497–1503. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2010.0606

van Duin, D., Paterson, D.L. (2016). Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in the Community: Trends and Lessons Learned. Infect Dis Clin North Am.; 30(2):377-390. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2016.02.004. PMID: 27208764; PMCID: PMC5314345. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2016.02.004

Yazah, A., Yusuf, J., Agbo, A. (2012). Bacterial contaminants of Nigerian currency notes and associated risk factors.Research Journal of Medical Sciences. 6(1):1–6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/rjmsci.2012.1.6

How to Cite
Obajuluwa A. F., Igwe J. C., Durowaiye M. T., Garba S., & Bamai D. Z. (2024). MICROBIAL LOAD AND ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE PATTERNS OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES FROM NIGERIA NAIRA NOTES. FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES, 7(6), 261 - 265. https://doi.org/10.33003/fjs-2023-0706-2033