The SEDIMENTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS, DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHIC STUDY OF IDA 4, 5, 6 WELLS NIGER DELTA BASIN, NIGERIA
Sequence stratigraphic study divides sedimentary successions into unconformity or maximum flooding surface bounded units (sequence) that form during a single, major cycle of sea-level change. Detailed sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic studies of the strata penetrated by Ida-4, 5, and 6 wells were carried out to deduce the depositional environment and correlate the stratigraphic units. The wells are located in the coastal swamp depobelt of the Eastern Niger Delta. Studied samples were dry-sieved for sedimentological analyses. Each fraction was studied under reflected light microscope. The lithology consists of an alternation of shale and sandstone units. The grain size of the sandstone units consists of fine to medium grains, occasionally coarse to granule-sized grains. Dominant accessories minerals are ferruginous materials, shell fragments, carbonaceous detritus, and few records, of mica flakes, glauconite, and pyrite. Regular sand and shale intercalation pattern on the Gamma Ray log permitted easy recognition of sub-cycles (autocycles) of sedimentation in an extensively developed paralic sequence. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction using accessories minerals recognizes shallow water settings with intermittent deeper water conditions. Rapid sedimentation rates are inferred in the studied area based on the observed alternation of thick sandstone, shale, and mudstone units. The MFS and SB were dated 9.5 Ma and 10.35 Ma respectively. Lithologic and system tracts correlations show lateral continuity of sandstone units (potential reservoirs) depicted in the lithofacies subcycles correlation. This is useful in the determination of reservoir geometry, areal coverage, and calculation of the volume of accumulated hydrocarbon, and directing well trajectory during the drilling operation.
Adegoke O.S., 2002. High resolution biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and 3-D modeling. Indispensable tools for E & P activities in the New Millenium, Nigerian Association of Petroleum Exploration, 16, 46 – 65.
Adeniran A.O., 2014. Lithostratigraphy, Palynostratigraphy and Palynofacies Indications of the Depositional Environments of Upper Cretaceous to Paleogene Sediments, Offshore Eastern Dahomey Basin, SW Nigeria Journal of Earth Science Research, 2, 118 – 128; DOI: 10.18005/JESR0204001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18005/JESR0204001
Adojoh, O., Lucas F. A., & Dada, S., 2015. Palynocycles, Palaeoecology and Systems Tracts Concepts: A Case Study from the Miocene Okan-1 Well, Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 3, 66-74. doi: 10.12691/aees-3-3-1
Armentrout, J. M., 1991. Paleontological constraints on depositional modeling; examples of integration of biostratigraphy and seismic stratigraphy, Gulf of Mexico. In P. Weimer & M. H. Link (Eds.), Seismic facies and sedimentary processes of submarine fans and turbidite systems (pp. 100 – 170). Mexico: Springer-Verlag. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-8276-8_7
Bankole S.I., Schrank E. & Osterloff P.L., 2014. Palynostratigraphy, palaeoclimates and palaeodepositional environments of the Miocene aged Agbada Formation in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 95, 41 – 62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2014.01.015
Batten, D. J. & Stead, D. T., 2005. Palynofacies analysis and its stratigraphic application. In: E. A. M. Koutsoukos (Ed.), Applied stratigraphy (pp. 203-226). Netherland, Springer DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-2763-X_10
Beka F.T. & Oti M.N., 1995. The Distal Offshore Niger Delta: Frontier Prospects of a Mature Petroleum Province. In: Oti M.N. & Postma G. (eds.), Geology of Deltas, Rotterdam A.A., Balkema press, 237 – 241.
Boggs S.Jr., 2006. Principles of stratigraphy and sedimentology. United States of America: Pearson Education Inc. p. 585.
Chukwuma-Orji, J. N., Okosun, E. A., Goro, I. A. & Waziri, S. H. 2017. Palynofacies, sedimentology and palaeoenvironment evidenced by studies on IDA-6 well, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Paleoecology of Africa, 34, 87-105. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315161808-6
Chukwuma-Orji, J.N., Okosun E. A., Alkali, Y. B., Fadiya L. S. & Taiwo O.M. 2017. Palynofacies Analysis of Ida 5-well, Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria, Nigeria Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 4 (2), pp. 95 – 112.
Chukwuma-Orji J.N., Okosun E.A. & Gana F.D., 2019. Palynofacies analysis of Ida-4 well, Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria. Geology, Geophysics & Environment, 45, 219 – 230. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7494/geol.2019.45.3.219
Doust H. & Omatsola E., 1990. Niger Delta divergent/passive margin basins, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir, 48, 201 – 238. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1306/M48508C4
Durugbo E.U. & Uzodimma E., 2013. Effects of lithology on palynomorph abundance in wells X1 and X2 from the Western Niger Delta, Nigeria. International Journal of Geology, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 3, 170 – 179.
Galloway W. E., 1989. Genetic stratigraphic sequences in basin analysis 1: Architecture and genesis of flooding-surface bounded depositional units. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 73, 125 – 142. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1306/703C9AF5-1707-11D7-8645000102C1865D
Hallsworth C. R. & Knox R. W. O’B., 1999. British Geological Survey rock classification scheme. Volume 3 classification of sediments and sedimentary rocks. British Geological Survey Research Report, 99-03.
Haq, B.U., Hardenbol, J. & P.R. Vail, P. R. (1988). Mesozoic and Cenozoic chronostratigraphy and cycles of sea level changes, The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, 42, 71-108. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2110/pec.88.01.0071
Obaje, N. G., 2009. Geology and mineral resources of Nigeria. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York. Doi:10.1007/978-3-540-92685-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-92685-6
Olayiwola, M. A. & Bamford, M. K., 2016. Petroleum of the Deep: Palynological proxies for palaeoenvironment of deep offshore upper Miocene-Pliocene sediments from Niger Delta, Nigeria Palaeontologia Africana, 50, 31–47.
Onyekuru S.O., Ibelegbu E.C., Iwuagwu J.C., Essien A.G. & Akaolisa C.Z., 2012. Sequence stratigraphic analysis of “XB Field”, Central Swamp Depobelt, Niger Delta Basin, Southern Nigeria. International Journal of Geosciences, 3, 237 – 257. doi: org/10.4236/ijg.2012.31027. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/ijg.2012.31027
Poumot, C., 1989. Palynological evidence for eustatic events in the tropical Neogene. Bulletin Centres Recherche Exploration-Production d’Elf-Aquitaine 13, 437- 453.
Reijers T.J.A., 2011. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Niger Delta, Geologos, 17, 133 – 162, doi:10.2478/v10118-011-0008.3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10118-011-0008-3
Reijers, T. J. A., Petters, S. W. & Nwajide, C. S., 1996. The Niger Delta basin, sedimentary geology and sequence stratigraphy. In T. J. A. Reijers (Ed.), Selected chapters on geology (pp. 100 - 117). Warri: SPDC Corporate Reprographic Services.
Selley R.C., 1978. Concept and methods of subsurface facies analysis, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin Education course notes, series no 9, 1 – 86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1306/CE9397
Selley R.C., 1976. Subsurface environmental analysis of North Sea sediments, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 60, 184 – 195. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1306/83D9229E-16C7-11D7-8645000102C1865D
Short K.C. & Stauble A.J., 1967. Outline of the geology of Niger Delta, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 51, 761 – 779. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1306/5D25C0CF-16C1-11D7-8645000102C1865D
Sneider R.M., Tinker C.N. & Merkel L.D., 1978. Deltaic environment, reservoir types and their characteristics. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 1, 1538 – 1546. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/6701-PA
Thomas, M. L., Pocknall, D. T., Warney, S., Bentley, S. J. Sr., Droxler, A. W. & Nittrouer, C. A., 2015. Assessing palaeobathymetry and sedimentation rates using palynomarceral analysis: a study of modern sediments from the Gulf of Papua, offshore Papua New Guinea. Palynology, 0, 1 – 24. doi: org/10.1080/01916122.2015.1014526 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01916122.2015.1014526
Tyson, R. V., 1993. Palynofacies analysis. In D. J. Jenkins (ed.). Applied Micropalaeontology (pp. 153-191). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-0763-3_5
Tyson, R. V. (1995). Sedimentary Organic Matter: organic facies and palynofacies (pp. 600 - 615). London: Chapman & Hall. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-0739-6
Vail P.R., 1987. Seismic stratigraphy interpretation, using sequence stratigraphy. Part I: Seismic stratigraphic procedure. In: Balley A.W. (ed.), Atlas of seismic stratigraphy 1, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, 1 – 10.
Vail, P. R. & Wornardt, W.W., 1991. An integrated approach to exploration and development in the 90s, well log-seismic sequence stratigraphic analysis. Transactions - Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, 41, 630 – 650.
Weber K.J., 1971. Sedimentological aspects of oil fields in the Niger Delta, Geologie en Mijnbouw, 50, 559-576.
Whiteman A.J., 1982. Nigeria its petroleum geology, resources, and potential vols. 1 and 2. Graham and Trotman, ltd., London, 176 – 238 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-7361-9_1
Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
FUDMA Journal of Sciences