PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND INVITRO FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF METHANOL EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS OF Ficus platyphylla LEAVES (MORACEAE)
The demand for plant-based antioxidants is expanding rapidly due to their effectiveness and accessibility. This study examined the phytochemical constituent and in vitro free radical scavenging activities of Methanol extract and fractions of Ficus platyphylla leaves. Standard known methods were used to determine the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical constituents and free radical scavenging activities of the extract and fractions of the plant dried leaves. Methanol extraction produced a yield of 12.64%. Qualitative phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of alkaloids in the extract and all but chloroform fraction. Flavonoids and steroids were present in all except n-Butanol fraction. Saponins were detected in only methanol extract and n-Butanol fraction while terpenoids were not present in n-Hexane, chloroform and n-Butanol fractions. Anthraquinones, coumarins, quinones and xanthoproteins were not confirmed in all fractions and extract. Quantitative analyses revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the contents of the total phenolics and total flavonoids in the fractions when compared to the methanol extract. The leaf extract and fraction's ability to scavenge free radicals against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) demonstrated a concentration-dependent percentage inhibition. However, the methanol extract, n-Butanol and ethyl acetate fractions were most effective of all the fractions. This study has demonstrated the different fractions and methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla leaves can explored in the management of oxidative stress related complications in mammals.
Ahmad, M. K., Khan, A. A., Ali, S. N. and Mahmood, R. (2015). Chemoprotective Effect of Taurine on Potassium Bromate-Induced DNA Damage, DNA-Protein Cross- Linking and Oxidative Stress in Rat Intestine. Journal of Public Library of Science One, 10:e0119137. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119137
Audu, J.A. (1989). Medicinal plants and their use in Bauchi State. Nigeria Field. 54, 157-168.
Ayoola, G. A., Folawewo, A. D., Adesegun, S. A., Abioro, O. O., Adepoju-Bello, A. A. and Coker, H. A. B. (2008). Phytochemical and antioxidant screening of some plants of apocynaceae from South West, Nigeria. Afr. J. Plant Sci., 2(9): 124-128.
Brand-Williams, W, Cuvelier, M.E. and Berset, C. (1995). Use of free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensm Wiss Technology, 28, 25-30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5
Chindo, B.A., Anuka, J.A., Lees, G., Yaro, A.H., Adamu, S.S., Amos, S., Wambebe, C. and Gamaniel,. KS.(2008) Psychopharmacological properties of the saponins fraction of Ficus platyphylla stem bark. Inter J of Biol and Chem Sci. 2 (3), 239-248. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v2i3.39745
Chindo, B.A., Schroder, H., Koeberle, A., Werz, O. and Becker A. (2016) Analgesic potential of standardized methanol stem bark extract of Ficus platyphylla in mice; Mechanisms of actions. J Ethnopharmacol. 184: 101-106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.03.003
Chindo, B.A., Yau, J., Danjuma, N.M., Okhale, E.S., Gamaniel, S.K. and Becker, K. (2014) Behavioural and Anticonvulsant effects of the standardized extract of Ficus platyphylla stem bark. J Ethnopharmacol. 154: 351-360 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.03.061
Cicco, N., Lanorte M.T., Paraggio M., Viggiano M. and Lattanzio V. (2009). A reproducible, rapid and inexpensive Folin–Ciocalteu micro-method in determining phenolics of plant methanol extracts, Microchemical Journa, 91, 107-110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2008.08.011
Dai, J., and Mumper, R. J. (2010). Plant phenolics: extraction, analysis and their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 15(10), 7313–7352. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15107313. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules15107313
Dubale, S., Kebebe, D., Zeynudin, A., Abdissa, N., and Suleman, S. (2023). Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity Evaluation of Selected Medicinal Plants in Ethiopia. Journal of experimental pharmacology, 15, 51–62. https://doi.org/10.2147/JEP.S379805 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/JEP.S379805
Flora, S.J.S. (2009). Structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants for strategies against metal and metalloid exposure. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longevity, 2(4): 191–206. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4161/oxim.2.4.9112
Ghosh S, Derle A, Ahire M, More P, Jagtap S, Phadatare SD, et al. (2013) Phytochemical Analysis and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Medicinal Plants Gnidia glauca and Dioscorea bulbifera. PLoS ONE 8(12): e82529. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082529. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082529
Herrling, T., Jung, K., and Fuchs, J. (2008). The role of melanin as protector against free radicals in skin and its role as free radical indicator in hair. Spectrochimica Acta A 69(5), 1429–1435. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2007.09.030
Mfotie Njoya, E., Munvera, A. M., Mkounga, P., Nkengfack, A. E., and McGaw, L. J. (2017). Phytochemical analysis with free radical scavenging, nitric oxide inhibition and antiproliferative activity of Sarcocephalus pobeguinii extracts. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 17(1), 199. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1712-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1712-5
Miliauskas, G, Venskutonis, P.R. and Van Beek, T. A (2004). Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts. Food Chemistry, 85, 231- 237. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.05.007
Mohammed N, Yaro AH, Nazifi AB. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of methanol stem bark extract of Haematostaphis barteri Hook. F. against paracetamol and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats. Afr J Pharmacol Ther. 2017; 6(2):88-95.
Oikeh, E.I., Oriakhi, K. and Omoregie, E.S. (2013). Proximate analysis and phytochemical screening of Citrus sinensis fruit wastes. The Bioscientist, 1(2):164-170.
Omoregie, E.S. and Oikeh, E.I. (2015). Comparative studies on the phytochemical composition, phenolic content and antioxidant activities of methanol leaf extracts of Spondias mombin and Polyathia longifolia. Jordan Journal of Biological Science, 8(2): 145-149. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12816/0027561
Omoregie, E.S., Oriakhi, K., Oikeh, E.I., Okugbo, O.T. and Akpobire, D. (2014). Comparative study of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts of Alstonia boonei and Eupatorium odoratum. Nigerian. Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 22(3-4): 91-97.
Oseni, O. A. and Okoye, V. I. (2013).Studies of phytochemical and antioxidant properties of the fruit of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) (Thunb). J. Pharm. Biomedical Sci. 27(27): 508-514.
Sharida, F., Syazana, A.S. and Palanisamy, A (2012). Moringa oleifera Hydroethanolic Extracts Effectively Alleviate Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Experimental Rats through their Antioxidant Nature. Molecules. 17:8334-8350. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules17078334
Sheidu, A.R., Umar, Z.A., Abubakar, A., Ahmed, C.B., Garba, M.M., Ogere, A.I., Murtala, S.O (2020). Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potentials of Methanol Extract of Ficus platyphylla Stem Bark Delile (Moraceae) in Wistar Rats. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research. 4(3):91-97. doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i3.6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i3.6
Shemishere, U. B., Anyebe, D. A., Bashir, A. Y., Emmanuel, J., Ifie, J. and Yahaya, T (2020). Phytochemical Screening and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Methanol Leaf and Flower Extract of Securidaca longipedunculata. FUDMA Journal of Sciences (FJS) 4(1): 37 – 42.
Shemishere, U. B., Taiwo, J., Turaki, A. A., Bello, A., Anyebe, D. A. and E. S. Omoregie (2019). Phytochemical constituents and In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Methanol leaf extracts of Musanga cercropioides and Maesobotrya barteri Savanna Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 1(1): 145-153
Singh, B., and Sharma, R. A. (2015). Plant terpenes: defense responses, phylogenetic analysis, regulation and clinical applications. 3 Biotech, 5(2), 129–151. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-014-0220-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-014-0220-2
Taiwo, J.E. U.B. Shemishere, U. B. and E.S. Omoregie (2017) Phytochemical Constituents And In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Melastomastrum Capitatum and Solanum Macrocarpon Leaf Extracts Nigerian Journal of Life Sciences. 7 (2): 128-149.
Ukwuani-Kwaja, A.N., Sani, I., and Kindzeka, L.S. (2021). Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Studies of Methanol Leaves Extract of Ficus Platyphylla on Albino Rats. Drug Discovery, 15(35), 115-121.
World Health Organization (1993). Guidelines on conservation of medicinal plants. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources4 retrieved on August 30, 2018 from www.apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s7150e.pdf
Yan, F.F., Zhang, Q.Y., Jiao, L., Han, T., Zhang, H., Qin, L.P. and Khalid R (2009). “Synergistic hepatoprotective effect of Scisandrae lignans with Astragulus polysaccharides on chronic liver injury in rats,” Phytomedicine; (16)9:805- 813. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2009.02.004
Zhang, Y. J., Gan, R. Y., Li, S., Zhou, Y., Li, A. N., Xu, D. P., and Li, H. B. (2015). Antioxidant Phytochemicals for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 20(12), 21138–21156. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201219753 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules201219753
Copyright (c) 2023 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
FUDMA Journal of Sciences