• H.O Umar
  • O.T Okareh
  • Adeniyi Adeleye
  • M.O Orifah
  • A. O Amoo
  • N Sabiu
  • S.A Gana,
Keywords: Kaduna state water board, Water supply, Respondents, Contaminated water


The study assessed consumers’ perception regarding the quality of municipal tap water distributed by the Kaduna State Water Board (KSWB) to the residents of Barnawa community of Kaduna state. Simple judgemental sampling was employed to select four hundred and twenty seven (427) households that were interviewed through questionnaire. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics, chi square, t-test and ANOVA. Majority of the respondents (60%) reportedly receive intermittent municipal water supply while a sizeable proportion of the respondents (40%) reportedly received a constant municipal water supply. Again, a little above half of the respondents (52.1%) had a negative perception of the water quality. Majority (64%) of the respondents were not satisfied with the colour of the water. The association between consumer’s perception and use of tap water for drinking is statistically significant (χ2 = 4.345, p=0.04). Customers’ perception of the water quality affected their choice of the water for drinking but this did not affect their usage of the water for cooking. It is therefore recommended that KSWB should implement a system that ensures constant water supply to Barnawa community as intermittent water supply increases the risk of the water getting contaminated in the distribution system before reaching the final consumers.


Adeleye, A. O., Orifah, M. O., Amoo, A. O., Ijanu, E. M., Shuaibu, S. J. and Hassan, A. (2018). Artisans’ Knowledge and Perception on Hand-Dug Well Waterborne Related Diseases in Dutse Mechanic Village North-West, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 22 (10): 1603–1607.

Aderibigbe, S. A., Awoyemi, A. O. and Osagbemi, A. O. (2008). Availability, Adequacy and Quality of Water Supply in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research. 23 (4): 528 – 536.

Alabi – Aganaba, D. and Osagbemi, G. K. (2005). Sources and Utilization of Water in two selected Communities in Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State. African Journal of Clinical Experimental Microbiology, 1 (7): 11-16.

Aluko, O. O., Adebayo, A. E., Adebisi, T. F., Ewegbemi, M. K., Abidoye, A. T. and Popoola, B. F. (2016). Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of occupational hazards and safety practices in Nigerian healthcare workers. BMC Res Notes, 2016; 9: 71.

Andrew, K. (1998). Safe water for Africa. Department for International Development (DFID) features. Save the children fund (SCF) UK. Burkina Faso. African Health, 9-14

Asian Development Bank (2002). Hand Book on Environmental Statistics. Development Indicators and Policy Research Division, Economics and Research Department. Available at Retrieved on November 29, 2018.

Doria, M. D., Pidgeon, N. and Hunter, P. (2009). Perceptions of drinking water quality and risk and its effect on behaviour: A cross-national study. Science of the Total Environment,407: 5455–5464. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.06.031

El Rez, M. (2004). Assessment of Minimum Household Water Requirements and Incidence of Waterborne Diseases Among Children Less than Five Years of Age. Thesis (Masters). American University of Beirut. Beirut.

Gbadebo, A. M. and Akinhanmi, T. F. (2010). Gender Issues in Management and Use of Groundwater Resources: A case of Abeokuta Metropolis. Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation, 5 (2): 191-199.

Gleick, P. H. (2002). Dirty Water: Estimated Deaths from Water-Related Diseases 2000- 2020. California: Pacific Institute for studies in Development, Environment and Security. Available at Retrieved on November 20, 2018.

Lou, J. C., Lee, W. L. and Han, J. Y. (2007). Influence of alkalinity, hardness and dissolved solids on drinking water taste: A case study of consumer satisfaction. Journal of Environmental Management, 82: 1–12

Lundqvist, J. and Gleick, P. H. (1997). Comprehensive Assessment of the Fresh Water resources of the World. Sustaining our Waters into the 21st Century. Available at Retrieved on November 27, 2018.

National Population Commission (1991). Analytical report of the 1991 Census gotten from the office of National Population Commission Kaduna.

Noi, H. (2008). For a Clean, Hygienic and Healthy Environment for All Vietnamese Children. A Summary of National Baseline Survey on Environmental Sanitation and Hygiene Situation in Vietnam. Available at Retrieved on September 12, 2018.

O’Reilly, C. E., Freeman, M. C., Ravani, M., Migere, J., Mwaki, A., Ayalo, M., Ombeki, S., Hoekstra, R. M. and Quick, R. (2008). The impact of a School-based Safe Water and Hygiene Programme on Knowledge and Practices of Students and their Parents: Nyanza Province, Western Kenya. Epidemiol. Infect.136: 80–91.

Odjegba E. E., Idowu, O. A., Ikenweiwe, N. B., Martins, O. and Sadeeq, A. Y. (2015). Public Perception of Potable Water Supply in Abeokuta South West, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci.Environ. Manage. 19 (1): 5-9.

Okonko, I. O., Adejoye, O. D., Ogunnusi, T. A., Fajobi, E. A., Shittu, O. B. (2008). Microbiological and Physicochemical Analysis of Different Water Samples used for Domestic Purposes in Abeokuta and Ojota, Lagos State, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7 (5): 617 – 621.

Oluwasanya, G. O. (2009). Better Safe than Sorry: Towards Appropriate Water Safety Plans for Urban Self Supply Systems in developing countries. PhD. Thesis, Cranfield University, UK, 459 pp.

Population Information Programme (2002). Population Reports: Meeting the Uban Challenge. Center for communication programmes, the Johns Hopkins University School of Public health, Baltimore USA. Series M, Number 16. Available at Retrieved on November 27, 2018.

Tya, T. S. K., Umaru, A. B. and Barmamu, B. R. (2012). Bacteriological Analysis of Hand-Dug Well Water in Demsa Local Government Area, Nigeria. International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science, 1 (4): 28-31.

Umar, M. (2012). Water quality deterioration in piped water and its effect on usage and customers‟ perception: case study of Adum- Kumasi, Ghana MSc. Thesis Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi-Ghana.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2002). Statement by UNDP Administrator Mr. Mark Malloch Brown. Retrieved from: on November 27, 2018.

United States Geological Survey (2009). Available at on November 27, 2018.

Vivas, A., Aboset, N., Kumie, A., Berhane, Y. and Williams, M. A. (2010). Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) of Hygiene among school children in Angolela, Ethiopia. J. Prev. Med. Hyg.51: 73–79.

WaterDome (2002). Johannesburg summit. Available at Retrieved on November 27, 2018.

World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund (2000). Global Water Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report. Available at Retrieved on November 28, 2018.
How to Cite