• Solomon Oisasoje Ayo-Odifiri Federal University of Technology Owerri
Keywords: Benin City, Congestion, Market patronage, Traffic situation, Transit modes


This paper examines the influence of market patronage on the traffic situation in Benin City, Nigeria. Nine market routes were studied, and a well-structured questionnaire administered randomly and systematically was used to collect data from 407 respondents. Descriptive and correlation techniques were used to analyse the responses. Most of the markets were found to be situated along transit routes, and operated every day, resulting in street trading and parking which contributed 76.2 percent to the traffic situation in Benin metropolis. It is suggested that traffic laws prohibiting street trading and parking be enacted and enforced. The marketplaces should be restructured to accommodate motor parks, and alternative routes to bypass market areas for non-market trips should be considered as well as the provision of priority lanes for High Occupancy Vehicles (HOV).


Afrin, T., & Yodo, N. (2020). A survey of road traffic congestion measures towards a sustainable and resilient transportation system. Sustainability, 12(11), 4660. DOI:

Aihevba, P. O. (2019). The dramatic memorialisation of significant historical landmarks in African festivals. A close examination of the coronation of the 40th Oba of Benin. International Review of Humanities Studies, 4(1). DOI:

Ajala, A. R. T. (2019). Analysis of traffic congestion on major urban roads in Nigeria. Journal of Digital Innovations & Contemporary Research in Science, Engineering & Technology, 7(3), 1-10.

Ajibade, F. O., Olajire, O. O., Ajibade, T. F., Fadugba, O. G., Idowu, T. E., Adelodun, B., ... & Pham, Q. B. (2021). Groundwater potential assessment as a preliminary step to solving water scarcity challenges in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. Acta Geophysica, 69(4), 1367-1381. DOI:

Ata, A., Khan, M. A., Abbas, S., Ahmad, G., & Fatima, A. (2019). Modelling smart road traffic congestion control system using machine learning techniques. Neural Network World, 29(2), 99-110. DOI:

Auclair, C. (1999). Measures of travel time in Cities. Urban Age Spring 1999, World Bank.

Audu, M., & Oshewolo, R. (2021). Nigeria up to 1914: Some emerging political and economic issues. In Nigerian Politics (pp. 25-35). Springer, Cham. DOI:

Ayo-Odifiri, O. S., Alasa, O. A, Ogoh, N., Obajina, T. O., & Rosemary Chinonye Emeana, C. R. (2021). Traffic Management Concept of Sustainable City Development in Nigeria. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), 5(7), 83-89.

Ayo-Odifiri, O. S, Fasakin, J. O., & Henshaw, F. O. (2017). Road connectivity approach to eased traffic congestion on market roads in Benin Metropolis, Nigeria. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), 6 (6), 41-48.

Banerjee, A., Duflo, E., & Qian, N. (2020). On the road: Access to transportation infrastructure and economic growth in China. Journal of Development Economics, 145, 102442. DOI:

Bartle, C., & Chatterjee, K. (2019). Employer perceptions of the business benefits of sustainable transport: A case study of peri-urban employment areas in South West England. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 126, 297-313. DOI:

Carley, M., & Christie, I. (2017). Managing sustainable development. Routledge. DOI:

Fasakin, J. O. (1999). The operational characteristic of commercial motorcycles in urban Nigeria: a bilateral analysis of a mega city experience and a township situation. Journal of Urban and Environmental Research, Federal University of Technology, Akure, 1(1):1-18.

Godwin, O.A., Peter, A.O.O. and Alex, E. U. (2011). Changing rainfall and anthropogenic-induced flooding: impacts and adaptation strategies in Benin City, Nigeria. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, 4(1):42-52.

Hodder, B. W. (2018). Periodic and daily markets in West Africa. In The development of indigenous trade and markets in West Africa (pp. 347-358). Routledge. DOI:

Ikegbunam, F. I. (2014). Onitsha urban road transport ystem: implications for urban transport planning. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 4(4), 250-256.

Kadiyali, L. R. (2011). Traffic enginerring and transport planning. New Delhi: Khanna Publishers.

Kopp, A., Block, R. I. and Iimi, A. (2013). Turning the right corner: ensuring development through a low-carbon transport sector. Directions in development: environment and sustainable development. World Bank, Washington DC, USA. 181. Retrieved January 18, 2018 from DOI:

Litman, T. and Fitzroy, S. (2011). Safe travels: evaluating mobility management traffic safety impacts. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from

Moroke, T., Schoeman, C., & Schoeman, I. (2019). Developing a neighbourhood sustainability assessment model: An approach to sustainable urban development. Sustainable Cities and Society, 48, 101433. DOI:

Ndikom, O. B. (2008), Harnessing Nigerian cabotage law for grass root development of costal and Niger Delta region. Journal of applied education and vocational Research, 5(2).

Ndikom, O. B. C. (2010). Elements of Transport Management. Nigeria: Bunmico Publishers.

NPC (2006) National Population Commission, provisional census figure of Nigeria.

Nwaigwe, D. N., Amiara, C. A., Okwunze, C. F., & Egege, C. C. (2019). Analytical Study of Causes, Effects and Remedies of Traffic Congestion in Nigeria: Case Study of Lagos State.

Obe, O. J., Omole, F. K., Okosun, S. E., Ayo-Odifiri, O. S., & Omokhafe, C. O. (2017). Assessment of Urban Market Renewal Projects on the Development of Akure, Nigeria. Assessment, 9(4).

Odemerho, F. O. (1988). "Benin City: a case study of urban flood problems.," in Environmental issues and management in Nigerian development, Sada, P. O. and Odemerho, F. O., Eds., Ibadan: Evans brothres.

Oduwaye, L., Alade, W. and Adekunle, S. (2011). Landuse and traffic pattern along Lagos- Badagry corridor, Lagos, Nigeria (reviewed paper) proceedings of Real Cord 2011 Tagungsband. Edited by Marked Schrenk, Vasily Popovich, and Peter Zeile 525-530.

O'Flaherty, C. A. (Ed.). (2018). Transport planning and traffic engineering. CRC Press. DOI:

Ogunbodede, E. F. (2010). Assessment of traffic congestion in Akure, Nigeria using GIS approach: lesson and challenges for urban sustenance. Retrieved December 20, 2011 from

Okeke, F. O., Gyoh, L., & Echendu, F. I. (2021). Impact of land use morphology on urban transportation. Civil engineering journal, 7(10), 1753-1773. DOI:

Okoko, E. (2002). Some factors influencing on-street parking in Ikare-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Social Science and Policy Issues. 1(1):202-207.

Osawe, A. I., & Ojeifo, M. O. (2019). Unregulated Urbanization and challenge of environmental security in Africa. World Journal of Innovative Research (WJIR), 6(4), 1-10.

Osoba, S. B. (2012). Appraisal of parking problems and traffic management measures in central business district in Lagos Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development. 5(8):105-115. DOI:

Oyalowo, B. (2022). Implications of urban expansion: land, planning and housing in Lagos. Buildings and Cities, 3(1). DOI:

Parvathy, R., Sreelatha, T., & Koshy, R. Z. (2013). Development of new pcu values and effects of length of passenger cars on pcu. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2(1), 344-351.

Raj, P., Sivagnanasundaram, K., Asaithambi, G., & Ravi Shankar, A. U. (2019). Review of methods for estimation of passenger car unit values of vehicles. Journal of Transportation Engineering, Part A: Systems, 145(6), 04019019. DOI:

Sharma, M., & Biswas, S. (2021). Estimation of Passenger Car Unit on urban roads: A literature review. International journal of transportation science and technology, 10(3), 283-298. DOI:

Shen, T., Hong, Y., Thompson, M. M., Liu, J., Huo, X., & Wu, L. (2020). How does parking availability interplay with the land use and affect traffic congestion in urban areas? The case study of Xi’an, China. Sustainable Cities and Society, 57, 102126. DOI:

Wan, C., Yang, Z., Zhang, D., Yan, X., & Fan, S. (2018). Resilience in transportation systems: a systematic review and future directions. Transport reviews, 38(4), 479-498. DOI:

Yu, L., Xie, B., & Chan, E. H. (2019). Exploring impacts of the built environment on transit travel: Distance, time and mode choice, for urban villages in Shenzhen, China. Transportation research part E: logistics and transportation review, 132, 57-71. DOI:

How to Cite