• Bala Wunubo
  • Jafun Adamu
  • Mohammed Usman Audu
  • Yina Paul Idah
Keywords: Gombe State University, Green spaces, Perception, Student use


Green spaces are essential areas in the university campuses. Attractive green space areas are considered as features which contribute positively not only to the student experience but the image of the university. The study generated data from undergraduate students at Gombe State University, it reveals understandings about students’ perceptions and use of campus green spaces (CGS). The quantitative data collected via the questionnaires were digitalized and analyzed using MS Excel statistic package. Descriptive statistics, including measures of percentage and frequency to analyze the associations between perceptions and use of CGS and students’ well-being on campus. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data generated.  The study results indicate that majority of respondents (94%) both use and aware of campus green spaces, and CGS are important for the image of the university and also an integral component of the campus environment. The campus aesthetic quality and its design and management style have impact on the perception and use of its green spaces.  The students (73%) preferred areas with manicured gardens, seats, and lawns over those areas without these facilities. The study recommends that a university campus needs manifold forms of green spaces to satisfy the needs of increasing number of student users


Abercrombie, N., Gatrell, T., & Thomas, C., (1998). Universities and health in the twenty-first century. In: Tsouros, G., Dowding, J., Thompson, Dooris (Eds.), Health Promoting Universities. Concept, Experience and Framework for Action. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, pp. 33–40.

Alvey, A.A. (2006). ‘Promoting and preserving biodiversity in the urban forest’, Urban Forestry and Greening, 5(4): 195-201.

Bonnes, M, Passafaro, P. & Carrus, G. (2011). ‘The ambivalence of attitudes toward urban green areas: between pro-environmental worldviews and daily residential experience’ Environment and Behavior, 43(2): 207-232.

Bratman, G.N.; Hamilton, J.P. & Daily, G.C. (2012). The impacts of nature experience on human cognitive function and mental health. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1249, 118–136.

Chawla, L. (2015). Benefits of Nature Contact for Children. J. Plan. Liter. 30, 433–452. doi: 10.1177/0885412215595441

Chawla, L., & Derr, V. (2012). “The development of conservation behaviors in childhood and youth,” in The Oxford handbook of environmental and conservation psychology, ed. S. D. Clayton (New York, NY: Oxford University Press), 527–555. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199733026.013.0028

Díaz S. et al., (2018). Assessing nature’s contributions to people. Science 359, 270–272.

Dyment, J.E & Bell, A.C (2008). ‘Our garden is colour blind, inclusive and warm: reflections on green school grounds and social inclusion’, International Journal of Inclusive Education, 12, 169-183.

Ewulo, T.A., Balogun, I.A., Okunlola A.I. & Agele, S.O., (2015). Perception study of tree and greens in open spaces for environmental quality; a case study of Federal University of Technology, Akure. ICUC9-9th international conference on urban climate jointly with 12th symposium on the urban environment.

Felsten, G., (2009). Where to take a study break on a college campus: an at- tention restoration perspective. J. Environ. Psychol. 29 (1): 160–167. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2008.11.006.

Foellmer J. Kistemann T. & Anthonj C., (2021). Academic Greenspace and Well-Being —Can Campus Landscape be Therapeutic? Evidence from a German University. Wellbeing, Space and Society 2 (2021) 100003.

Frumkin, H., (2001). ‘Beyond toxicity: Human health and the natural environment’, American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 20: 234–240.

Gearin, E & Kahle, C, (2006). ‘Teen and adult perceptions of urban green space in Los Angeles’, Children, Youth and Environments, 16: 25-48.

Giles-Corti, B, Broomhall, MH, Knuiman, M, Collins, C, Douglas, KNgK, Lange, A & Donovan, RJ (2005). ‘Increasing walking: How important is distance to, attractiveness, and size of public open space’, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28: 169-176.

Gill, S.E, Handley, J.F, Ennos, A.R & Pauleit, S. (2007). ‘Adapting Cities for Climate Change: The role of the green infrastructure’, Built Environment, 33(1): 115-133.

Gobster, P.H, Nassauer, J.I, Daniel, T.C & Fry, G. (2007). ‘The shared landscape: what does aesthetics have to do with ecology’, Landscape Ecology, 22: 959-972.

Groen, J.A & White, M.J. (2003). ‘In-state versus out-of-state students: the divergence of interest between public universities and state governments’, Journal of Public Economics, 88: 1793-1814.

Gumprecht, B (2007). ‘The campus as a public space in the American college town’, Journal of Historical Geography, 33: 72-103.

Habib M.A. & Ismail A. (2008). An integrated approach to achieving campus sustainability. Assessment of the current campus environmental management practices. J cleaner prod., 3(1):1-9

Hartig, T., Evans, G.W., Jamner, L.D., Davis, D.S., & Gärling, T., (2003). Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings. J. Environ. Psychol., Restorat. Environ. 23: 109–123.

Hartig, T., Mitchell, R., de Vries, S., & Frumkin, H. (2014). Nature and health. Ann. Rev. Public Health 35: 207–228. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182443

Honold, J., Lakes, T., Beyer, R., & van der Meer, E., (2015). Restoration in urban spaces: nature views from home, greenways, and public parks. Environ. Behav. 48. doi: 10.1177/0013916514568556

Hipp, J.A.; Gulwadi, G.B.; Alves, S.; & Sequeira, S. (2016). The Relationship Between Perceived Greenness and Perceived Restorativeness of University Campuses and Student-Reported Quality of Life. Environ. Behav. 48, 1292–1308.

Jim, C.Y. & Chen, W.Y., (2006). ‘Recreation, amenity use and contingent valuation of urban green spaces in Guangzhou, China’, Landscape and Urban Planning, 75: 81-96.

Kahn, P.H, Friedman, B, Hagman, J, Feldman, E, Carrere, S, Severson, R, Gill, B & Stolyar, A (2008). ‘A plasma display window? The shifting baseline problem in a technologically mediated natural world’, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28: 192-199.

Kellert, S. R. (2012). Building for life: Designing and understanding the human nature connection. Washington, DC: Island press.

Kuo, M. (2015). How might contact with nature promote human health? Promising mechanisms and a possible central pathway. Front. Psychol. 6:1–8. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01093

Kuo, M., Barnes, M., & Jordan, C. (2019). Do experiences with naturepromote learning? Converging evidence of a cause-and-effect relationship. Front. Psychol. 10:305. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00305

Maas, J, van Dillen, S M, Verheij, R A, & Groenewegen, P P., (2009). ‘Social contact as a possible mechanism behind the relation between green space and health’, Health and Place, 15: 586-595.

McFarland, A.L.; Waliczek, T.M.; & Zajicek, J.M. (2008). The Relationship Between Student Use of Campus Green Spaces and Perceptions of Quality of Life. HortTechnology 18, 232.

Misra, R & McKean, M (2000). ‘College students’ academic stress and its relation to their anxiety, time management and leisure satisfaction’, American Journal of Health Studies, 16: 41-51.

Salazar G, Monroe MC, Jordan C, Ardoin NM & Beery TH (2021). Improving Assessments of Connection to Nature: A Participatory Approach. Front. Ecol. E 8: 609104. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2020.609104.

Sanesi, G & Chiarello, F (2006). ‘Residents and urban green spaces: the case of Bari’, Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 4: 125-134.

Schiffman, L & Kanuk, L (1987). Consumer Behavior, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall.

Schipperijn, J, Stigsdotter, UK, Randrup, TB & Troelsen, J (2010). ‘Influences on the use of urban green space- A case study in Odense, Denmark’, Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 9: 25-32.

Speake, J.; Edmondson, S.; & Nawaz, H. (2013). Everyday encounters with nature: Students perceptions of and use of university campus green spaces. Hum. Geogr. 7, 21–31.

Tudorie C.A., Vallés-Planells M., Gielen E., Arroyo R. & Galiana F., (2020). Towards a Greener University: Perceptions of Landscape Services in Campus Open Space. Sustainability 12, 6047.

Uduma-olugu, Olasupo & Adesina, (2019). Users’ perception and evaluation of campus eco-open spaces at the university of Lagos, Akoka campus, Nigeria. Eco-Architecture vii: 49-59

Van den Berg, AE & van Winsum-Westra, M (2010). ‘Manicured, romantic or wild? The relation between the need for structure and preferences for garden styles’, Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 9: 179-186.

Völker, S., Heiler, A., Pollmann, T., Claßen, T., Hornberg, C., & Kistemann, T., (2018). Do perceived walking distance to and use of urban blue spaces affect self- reported physical and mental health? Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 29: 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2017.10.014.

Zheng, B, Zhang, Y & Chen, J (2011). Preference to home landscape: wilderness or neatness? Landscape and Urban Planning, 99: 1-8.

How to Cite