NON-FARM LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION AND SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA’S RURAL STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION: A REVIEW
In the past, rural households’ were generally regarded as farmers, foresters or fisher-folk that participate only marginally in non-farm activities, except when they migrate out of rural areas. Nevertheless, despite the common generalization of the rural populace, especially in the developing world, as subsistence farmers, in certain cases a substantial portion of the income that accrue to rural households’ emanates from the rural non-farm sector. Hence, while agriculture has traditionally played a key role in the economy of developing countries, of late an increasing participation of farm households in the non-farm sector has been reported. Accordingly, one phenomenon that is gaining traction in the rural development parlance is the promotion of, and support for, non-farm livelihood diversification. A pertinent question to ask is whether this rising interest in the rural non-farm sector suggests that structural transformation away from agriculture has been taking place in Sub-Saharan Africa?
Armanda, D. T., GuinÃ©e, J. B. and Tukker, A. (2019). The second green revolution: Innovative urban agriculture's contribution to food security and sustainability â€“ A review. Global Food Security. 22; 13â€“24.
Barrett, C. B., Bezuneh, M., and Aboud, A. (2001). Income Diversification, Poverty Traps and Policy Shocks in CÃ´te dâ€™Ivoire and Kenya. Food Policy. 26(4), 367-384.
Barrett, C. B., Christiaensen, L., Sheahan, M. and Shimeles, A. (2017). On the Structural Transformation of Rural Africa. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 7938, Washington D.C.
Bezu, S., Barrett, C. B. And Holden, S. T. (2012) Does the Non-farm Economy Offer Pathways for Upward Mobility? Evidence from a Panel Data Study in Ethiopia. World Development, 40 (8); 1634â€“1646.
Block, S. and Webb, P. (2001). The dynamics of livelihood diversification in post-famine Ethiopia. Food Policy, 26 (4); 333â€“350.
Chandrasekhar, S., and Mehrotra, N. (2016). Doubling farmersâ€™ incomes by 2022. Economic and Political Weekly, 51(18), 10â€“13.
Choudhury, S. and Headey, D. (2016). What Drives Diversification of National Food Supplies? A Cross-Country Analysis. IFPRI Discussion Paper 01581.
Christiaensen, L. (2017). Agriculture in Africa â€“ Telling myths from facts: A synthesis. Food Policy, 67; 1â€“11.
Davis, B., Di Giuseppe, S. and Zezza, A. (2014). Income Diversification Patterns in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa: Reassessing the Evidence. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 7108. Washington DC: World Bank.
Davis, B., Di Giuseppe, S. and Zezza, A. (2017). Are African Households (Not) leaving agriculture? Patterns of householdsâ€™ income sources in rural Sub-Saharan Africa. Food Policy, 67; 153â€“174.
de Janvry A. and E. Sadoulet, (2001) Income Strategies among Rural Households in Mexico. The Role of Off- Farm Activities. World Development. 29(3); 467-480.
Dedehouanou, S. F. A. and McPeak, J. (2020). Diversify More or Less? Household Income Generation Strategies and Food Security in Rural Nigeria. The Journal of Development Studies, 56 (3); 560-577.
DÃ©murger, S., Fournier, M. and Yang, W. (2010). Rural Households' Decisions towards Income Diversification: Evidence from a Township in Northern China. China Economic Review, 21; S32â€“S44.
Department for International Development (DFID, 1999). Sustainable Livelihoods Guidance Sheets. London: http://www.eldis.org/vfile/upload/1/document/0901/section2.pdf
Diao, X., Hazell, P., Resnick, D. and Thurlow, J. (2007). The Role of Agriculture in Development: Implications for Sub-Saharan Africaâ€™. Research Report 153, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC.
Dimova, R. D., and Sen, K. (2010). Is Household Income Diversification a Means of Survival or a Means of Accumulation? Panel Data Evidence from Tanzania.
Ellis F (1998). Household Strategies and Rural Livelihood Diversification. The Journal of Development Studies. 35 (1); 37-41.
Eshetu, F. and Mekonnen, E. (2O16). Determinants of off-farm Income Diversification and its Effect on Rural Household Poverty in Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 8 (10); 215-227.
Fan, S. (2019). Some lessons from a life in food policy. Global Food Security. 22; 33â€“36.
Fan, S., Brzeska, J., Keyzer, M. and Halsema, A. (2013). From Subsistence to Profit: Transforming Smallholder Farms. The International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC. 1-30.
Gautam, Y. and Andersen, P. (2016). Rural Livelihood Diversification and Household Well-being: Insights from Humla, Nepal. Journal of Rural Studies. 44; 239-249.
Gecho, Y., Ayele, G., Lemma, T. and Alemu, D. (2014). Livelihood Strategies and Food Security of Rural Households in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Developing Country Studies. 4(14); 123-135.
Gladwin, C. H., Thomson, A. M., Paterson, J. S. and Anderson, A. S. (2001). Addressing Food Security in Africa via Multiple Livelihood Strategies of Women Farmers. Food Policy, 26 (2001); 177-207.
Haggblade, S Hazell, P. and Reardon, T. (2010). The Rural Non-farm Economy: Prospects for Growth and Poverty Reduction. World Development 38(10) 1429â€“1441.
Hazell, P., Poulton, C., Wiggins, S. and Dorward, A. (2007). The future of small farms for poverty reduction and growth. 2020 Discussion Paper No. 42. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC. 1-2.
Imai, K. S., Gaiha, R. and Thapa, G. (2015). Does non-farm sector employment reduce rural poverty and vulnerability? Evidence from Vietnam and India. Journal of Asian Economics, 36, 47â€“61.
Johnston, B. F. and Mellor, J. W. (1961). The role of agriculture in economic development. American Economic Review, 51 (4); 566â€“593.
Johnston, B. F., and Kilby, P. (1975). Agriculture and structural transformation: Economic strategies in late-developing countries. London: Oxford University Press.
Jonasson, E. and Helfand, S. M. (2010). How important are Locational Characteristics for Rural Non-agricultural Employment? Lessons from Brazil. World Dev. 38 (5) 727â€“741.
Kassie, G. W., Kim, S. and Fellizar, F. P. (2017). Determinant Factors of Livelihood Diversification: Evidence from Ethiopia. Cogent Social Sciences, 3 (1369490); 1-16.
Kuwornu, J. K. M., Osei, E. Osei-Asare, Y. B. and Porgo, M. (2018). Off-farm work and food security status of farming households in Ghana. Dev. in Pract. 28 (6) 724-740.
McGranahan, G., Mitlin, D., Satterthwaite, D., Tacoli, C. and Turok, I. (2009) Africaâ€™s urban transition and the role of regional collabouration. Human Settlements Working Paper Series, Theme: Urban Change, No. 5. International Institute for Environment and Development, London. 1-59.
Michler, J. D. (2020). Agriculture in the process of development: A micro-perspective. World Development, 129; 104888.
Nagler, P. and NaudÃ©, W. (2017). Non-farm entrepreneurship in rural sub-Saharan Africa: New empirical evidence. Food Policy, 67; 175â€“191.
Osarfo, D., Senadza, B. and Nketiah-Amponsah, E. (2016). The Impact of Non-farm Activities on Rural Farm Household Income and Food Security in the Upper East and Upper West Regions of Ghana. Theoretical Economics Letters. 6; 388-400.
Owusu, V., Abdulai, A. and Abdul-Rahman, S. (2011). Non-Farm Work and Food Security among Farm Households in Northern Ghana. Food Policy. 36 (2011); 108â€“118.
Rahman, A. and Mishra, S. (2019). Does Non-farm Income Affect Food Security? Evidence from India. J. Dev. Stud. DOI:10.1080/00220388.2019.1640871.
Sani, M. J. B., Mansor, I. M., Nasir, S. M. and Mahir, A. A. (2014). The Impact of Non- Farm Income Generating Activities on the Food Security Status of Rural Households in Nigeria. Int. J. of Agric. Sci. and Vet. Med. 2(4); 121-131.
Seng, k. (2015). The Effects of Non-farm Activities on Farm Householdsâ€™ Food Consumption in Rural Cambodia. Development Studies Research, 2 (1); 77-89.
Shehu, A. and Sidique, S. F. (2014). A propensity score matching analysis of the impact of participation in non-farm enterprise activities on household wellbeing in rural Nigeria. UMK Procedia. 1; 26-32.
Stringer, L.C., Fraser, E. D. G., Harris, D., Lyon, C., Pereira, L., Ward, C. F. M. and Simelton, E. (2020). Adaptation and development pathways for different types of farmers. Environmental Science and Policy, 104; 174â€“189.
Timmer, C. P. (2009). A World without Agriculture: The Structural Transformation in Historical Perspective (Henry Wendt Lecture). Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.
Tomich, T. P., Kilby, P., Johnston, B. F. (1995). Transforming Agrarian Economies. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
Van den Broeck, G. and Kilic, T. (2019). Dynamics of off-farm employment in Sub- Saharan Africa: A gender perspective. World Development, 119; 81â€“99.
van Leeuwen, E. and Dekkers, J. (2013) Determinants of off-farm income and its local patterns: A spatial microsimulation of Dutch farmers. J. Rural Stud. 31; 55-66.
World Bank. (2008). World Development Report 2008. Agriculture for development. Washington, DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Yeboah, F. K. and Jayne, T. S. (2018). Africaâ€™s evolving employment trends. The Journal of Development Studies, 54 (5); 803â€“832.
Zereyesus, Y. A., Embaye, W. T., Tsiboe, F. and Amanor-Boadu, V. (2017). Implications of Non-Farm Work to Vulnerability to Food Poverty- Recent Evidence from Northern Ghana. World Development. 91; 113â€“124.
Copyright (c) 2022 FUDMA JOURNAL OF SCIENCES
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
FUDMA Journal of Sciences