Keywords: Breastfeeding, infant-formula, non-parametric tests, negative binomial model


Infant-formula is recommended by the World Health Organisation as the safest form of complementary food to human breast milk. Breastfeeding duration and other imperative input-factors that govern quantity of infant-formula demanded (a modulus variable) is difficult to model and predict with high precision. However, infants based on their conventional rights have to be given good nutrition. This study is necessitated by the challenging process of complex modulus prediction of quantity of infant-formula demanded to complement human breast milk, which may be attributed to differences in maternal characteristics at various maternal geographical settlement areas. Owning to complex nature of the differences, we propose a data-driven approach for handling larger-scale scenarios which may be limited in the conventional parametric modelling methods. This study aims at investigating the association of maternal characteristics with quantity of infant -formula demanded among breastfeeding mothers who have children aged 0 – 24 months in Ilorin-South Local Government Area, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 744 breastfeeding mothers. We adopted appropriate non-parametric tests to determine the impact of different independent groups of maternal covariate factors considered on quantity of infant -formula demanded. Multi-associations were assessed and negative binomial model was formulated to predict estimated quantity of infant-formula demanded for various breastfeeding durations. The results show that increase in breastfeeding duration leads to increase in quantity of infant-formula demanded. In future intervention studies, factors that have significant effect on demand for infant-formula might be considered for proper monitoring of infant feeding.

Author Biographies

Jumoke Popoola, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

Dr. Jumoke Popoola is a lecturer I in the Department of Statistics , University of Ilorin , Nigeria

Olusola Samuel Makinde, Federal University Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

Dr. Olusola Samuel Makinde is a Senior Lecturer in Federal University Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

Adagba Victor Ukerchia

Mr. Adagba Victor Ukerchia is a researcher at Department of Science Education, National Open University of Nigeria, Jalingo Study Centre, Taraba State, Nigeria.


Agho, K., Ezeh, O., Ghimire, P., Uchechukwu, O., Stevens, G., Tannous, W., Fleming C., Maternal, G. (2019). Exclusive breastfeeding rates and associated factors in 13 economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) countries. Nutrients, 11(12), 3007.

Austin, S., De Castro, C. A., Sprenger, N., Binia, A., Affolter, M., Garcia-Rodenas, C. L., Beauport, L., Tolsa, J-F., Fumeaux, C. J. (2019). Human milk oligosaccharides in the milk of mothers delivering term versus preterm infants. Nutrients, 11(6), 1282.

Azad, M. B., Robertson, B., Atakora, F., Becker, A. B., Subbarao, P. M., & Bode, L. (2018). Human milk oligosaccharide concentrations are associated with multiple fixed and modifiable maternal characteristics, environmental factors, and feeding practices. The Journal of nutrition, 148(11), 1733-1742.

Ballesta-Castillejos, A., Gómez-Salgado, J., Rodríguez-Almagro, J., Ortiz-Esquinas, I & Hernández-Martínez, A. (2020). Factors that influence mothers’ prenatal decision to breastfeed in Spain. International Breastfeeding Journal, 15(1).

Dunn, O. J. (1964). Multiple comparisons using rank sums. Technometrics, 6(3), 241-252.

Huang, P., Z. J., Yin, Y., Jing, W., Luo, B., & Wang, J. (2016). Effects of breast-feeding compared with formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Nutrition, 116(1), 132-141.

Kramer, M.S. & Kakuma, R. (2012) Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, (8):CD003517

Kruskal, W. H., & Wallis, W. A. (1952). Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis. Journal of the American statistical Association, 47(260), 583-621.

Laksono, A.D., Wulandari, R.D., Ibad, M. & Kusrini, I. (2021). The effects of mother’s education on achieving exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia. BMC Public Health, 21(1),1-6.

Lanigan, J., & Singhal, A. (2009). Early nutrition and long-term health: A practical approach. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 68(4), 422-429.

Liu, F., He, S., Yan, J., Yan, S., Chen, J., Lu, Z., Zhang, B., Lane, J. (2022.). Longitudinal changes of human milk oligosaccharides, breastmilk microbiome and infant gut microbiome are associated with maternal characteristics. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 57(5), 2793-2807.

Liu, Z., Neuringer, M., Erdman Jr, J., Kuchan, M., Renner, L., Johnson, E.E., Wang, X., Kroenke, C. (2019). The effects of breastfeeding versus formula-feeding on cerebral cortex maturation in infant rhesus macaques. Neuroimage, 184, 372-385.

Makinde, O. S., Adeola, A. M., Abiodun, G. J., Olusola-Makinde, O. O., & Alejandro, A. (2021). Comparison of Predictive Models and Impact Assessment of Lockdown for COVID-19 over the United States. Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, 11(2), 200.

Mann, H. B., & Whitney, D. R. (1947). On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other. The annals of mathematical statistics, 18(1), 50-60.

McGuire, M. K., Meehan, C. L., McGuire, M. A., Williams, J. E., Foster, J., Sellen, D. W., & Bode, L. (2017). What’s normal? Oligosaccharide concentrations and profiles in milk produced by healthy women vary geographically. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 105(5), 1086-1100.

Ogbo, F. A., Agho, K., & Page, A. (2008). Determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding practices in Nigeria: evidence from the 2008 demographic and health survey. BMC public health, 15(1), 1-12.

Oladoyinbo, C. A., Makanjuola, O., & Sobo, A. A. (2016). Breastfeeding pattern and nutritional status of children under two years in Oshogbo Local Government Area Osun State Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics, 43(3), 186-192.

Qualls, M., Pallin, D. J., & Schuur, J. D. (2010). Parametric versus nonparametric statistical tests: the length of stay example. Academic Emergency Medicine, 17(10), 1113 - 1121.

Rossen, L. M., Simon, A. E., & Herrick, K. A. (2016). Types of infant formulas consumed in the United States. Clinical pediatrics, 55(3), 278 - 285.

Saharuddin, K., Ariff, M., Bahiuddin, I., Ubaidillah, U., Saiful, A. M., Aziz, S., Nazmi, N., Abdul Fatah, A.Y., Shapiai, M.I., Shapiai, M. (2022). Non-parametric multiple inputs prediction model for magnetic field dependent complex modulus of magnetorheological elastomer. Scientific Reports, 12(1), 1-19.

Samuel, T., Binia, A., de Castro, C., Thakkar, S., Billeaud, C., Agosti, M., Al-Jashi, I., Costeira, M.J., Marchini, G., Martínez-Costa, C., Picaud, J-C., Stiris, T., Stoicescu, S-M., Vanpeé, M., Domellöf, M., Austin, S., Picaud, J. (2019). Impact of maternal characteristics on human milk oligosaccharide composition over the first 4 months of lactation in a cohort of healthy European mothers. Scientific reports, 9(1), 1-10.

Sharfstein, J. M., & Silver, D. L. (2017). Relationship between the American academy of pediatrics and infant formula companies. JAMA pediatrics, 171(7), 613-614.

Sharfstein, J., & Silver, D. (2017). Relationship between the American Academy of pediatrics and infant formula companies. JAMA pediatrics, 17(7), 613-614.

Syeda, B., Agho, K., Wilson, L., Maheshwari, G. K., & Raza, M. Q. (2021). Relationship between breastfeeding duration and undernutrition conditions among children aged 0–3 Years in Pakistan. International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 8(1), 10-17.

Wahi, G., Wilson, J., Burning, M., George, S., Hill, P., Homer, J., & Anand, S. S. (2022). Impact of Maternal Health Behaviours and Social Conditions on Infant Diet at Age 1-Year: Results from a Prospective Indigenous Birth Cohort in Ontario, Canada. Nutrients., 14(9), 1736.

Wahi, G., Wilson, J., Miller, R., Anglin, R., McDonald, S., Morrison, K. M., . . . Anand, S. S. (2013). Aboriginal birth cohort (ABC): a prospective cohort study of early life determinants of adiposity and associated risk factors among Aboriginal people in Canada. BMC public health, 13(1), 1-10.

Zakarija-Grković, I. C., Bettinelli, M., Pilato, C., Vassallo, C., Borg Buontempo, M., Gray, H., Rosin, S. (2020). Are our babies off to a healthy start? The state of implementation of the Global strategy for infant and young child feeding in Europe. International Breastfeeding Journal, 15(1), 1-12.
How to Cite